by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page 1
by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
U.S. SalesContact Wiley at(800) 762-2974 orfax (317) 572-4002.LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THEPUBLISHER AND ...
“I have to praise you and your company on thefine products you turn out. I have twelve Visualbooks in my house. They were ...
CREDITSABOUT THE AUTHORProject EditorSarah HellertAcquisitions EditorJody LefevereCopy EditorKim HeuselTechnical EditorSuz...
HOW TO USE THIS BOOKExcel 2007: Top 100 Simplified®Tips & Tricks includes 100 tasks that reveal cool secrets, teach timesa...
Table of ContentsWork with Formulas and Functions#10 Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods 24#11 Name Cells and Ranges...
Manipulate Records#36 Enter Data with a Form 82#37 Filter Duplicate Records 84#38 Perform Simple Sorts and Filters 86#39 P...
Table of ContentsviiiExplore the Patterns in Your Data#49 Create a PivotTable 110#50 Modify PivotTable Data and Layout 114...
ixPresent Worksheets#68 Format Numbers, Dates, and Times 154#69 Apply Formats to Cells 158#70 Fill with a Gradient 162#71 ...
xTable of ContentsxExtend Excel#83 Paste Link into Word or PowerPoint 192#84 Embed a Worksheet 194#85 Create a Link from a...
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Boost Your EfficiencyYou can use Microsoft Excel 2007 to workwith numbers. In fact, wherever you usenumbers — doing taxes,...
Validate with a Validation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Validate with Data Entry Rules . . . . . . ...
1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a validation list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataT...
PASTE YOUR VALIDATION LIST1 Click in the cell thatcontains your validationlist.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy butto...
1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a data entry rule.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataT...
! Click the Error Alert tab.@ Click here and select astyle.Choose Stop if you wantto stop the entry ofinvalid data.Choose ...
1 Type the initial value for theseries you want to create.2 Select the cell or cells.3 Click the Fill handle.Extend a seri...
l Excel changes the seriesto a copy of the originalcell.7 Type a pattern ofentries.8 Repeat Steps 2 to 4.779l Excel fills ...
ADD A SYMBOL1 Click in the cell in which youwant to insert a symbol.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Symbol in the Text grou...
ADD A SPECIAL CHARACTER1 Click in the cell in whichyou want to insert aspecial character.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Sy...
ADD A GROUP1 Click and drag to select the rowsor columns to hide.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Group in the Outline group.Y...
l Excel creates a new leftor top margin with aminus sign.6 To hide the rows, clickthe minus sign.The rows disappear, anda ...
1 Click the Home tab.2 Click Find & Select in the Editinggroup.A menu appears.3 Click Replace.Alternatively, you can press...
The Find and Replacedialog box disappears.6 Click in a cell that hasthe format you want toreplace.This example selectsgree...
ADD A COMMENT1 Click in the cell to which youwant to add a comment.2 Click the Review tab.3 Click New Comment in theCommen...
6 Click Edit Comment inthe Comments groupto edit a comment.7 Click Delete in theComments group todelete a comment.77886699...
READ CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want Excel to read.2 Click either the Speak byColumns or the Speak by Ro...
SPEAK CELLS ON ENTER4 Click the Speak onEnter button.Excel says, “Cells willnow be spoken onEnter.”5 Enter data into yourw...
1 Click and drag to select the cellswith which you want to createyour custom list.2 Click the Office button.A menu appears...
l The Custom Lists dialogbox appears.l The range you selected inStep 1 appears here.You can click and drag ortype the rang...
Work with Formulasand FunctionsExcel provides you with tools for storingnumbers and other kinds of information.However, th...
Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 24Name Cells and Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
CALCULATE WITH AN OPERATOR1 Type =.2 Click in the cell with the numberyou want to use in yourcalculation, or type the firs...
l The result appears inthe cell.CALCULATE BY USING AUTOSUM1 In adjacent cells, typenumbers.2 Click the cell in whichyou wa...
NAME A RANGE OF CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to name.Alternatively, click in a cell with avalue to cr...
CREATE NAMED RANGES FROMA SELECTION1 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toinclude in the namedrange.Include the he...
DEFINE A CONSTANT1 Click the Formulas tab.2 Click Define Name.Define aCONSTANTUse a constant whenever you want to use the ...
DISPLAY A CONSTANT1 Click in a cell.2 Type an equal signfollowed by the firstletter or letters of theconstant’s name.A men...
USE A CONSTANT OR RANGE NAME IN AFORMULA1 Place your cursor in the cell inwhich you want to create yourformula.2 Type the ...
USE A CONSTANT OR RANGENAME IN A FORMULANote: Use this technique ifyou forget the name of aconstant or range.1 Begin typin...
1 Type your data into theworksheet.Note: This example shows theROUND function, which takes twoarguments, one indicating th...
l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Click in the cell(s) ortype the valuesrequested in each field.l For this exam...
1 Type the principal (the presentvalue), interest rate, and numberof periods.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the resu...
l The PMT FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.6 Click in the cell withthe interest rate.7 Divide the interest rateby the n...
1 Type the series of projected cashflows into a worksheet.2 Click in the cell in which theresult appears.3 Click the Inser...
l The IRR FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.7 Click and drag thecash-flow valuesentered in Step 1 ortype the range.l Opt...
1 Type the values from which youwant to identify the highestnumber, or second highest, orother value.2 Click in the cell i...
l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears forthe LARGE function.6 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toevaluate, ...
1 Type the data into theworksheet.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function b...
l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Type If(.7 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.8 T...
1 Create a list of values to sumconditionally.Note: Each value in the list istested to see whether it meets acondition. If...
l The Function Argumentsdialog box for SUMIFappears.6 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.7 Typ...
ADD THE CALCULATOR1 Click here and then click MoreCommands.Add aCALCULATOROften you may want to do quick calculations with...
6 Click the Calculatorbutton.l The calculator appears.22661133USE THE SCIENTIFIC MODE1 Click the Calculator button.2 Click...
CALCULATE A PRODUCT1 Type the values you want tomultiply.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.3 Type ...
CALCULATE A SQUARE ROOT1 Click in the cell inwhich you want theresult to appear.2 Type =SQRT( in theformula bar or in thec...
FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEENTWO TIMES1 Type the first time in a cell.Note: If you do not include AM orPM, Excel defaults to...
l The result may appearas a serial value.113366442255CONVERT A SERIAL VALUE TO A TIME1 Click the Home tab.2 Click the Numb...
FIND NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEENTWO DATES1 Type the start date.2 Type the end date.l If you want the calculation toconsider hol...
l The FunctionArguments dialogbox appears.7 Click in the cellcontaining the startdate or type the celladdress.8 Click in t...
Copy, Format, and MoreIf you have used Word, you know that copyingtext for use in another document or applicationenables y...
Check Your Formulas for Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Trace Precedents and Dependents . . . . . . . ....
1 Click in the cell that contains theformula you want to check.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Evaluate Formulas in theFo...
5 Continue clickingEvaluate to revieweach expression.l Click Step In to reviewthe results of anexpression.l Click Step Out...
TRACE PRECEDENTS1 Click in the cell containing theformula for which you want totrace precedents.l If the cell has an error...
TRACE DEPENDENTS1 Click in the cell forwhich you want totrace dependants.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Trace Dependents...
Note: The left-aligned numbersin this task are really text. In Excel,the default position for numbers isthe right side of ...
4 Click and drag toselect the cells youwant to convert.5 Right-click the selectedcells.A contextual menuappears.6 Click Pa...
1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to transpose.Note: Make sure a series of blankcells is available to accommoda...
l The Paste Special dialogbox appears.8 Click Transpose( changes to ).9 Click OK.8899l The data appears in its new positio...
1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.Excel places a copy of t...
5 Click the destinationcell.6 Click the item youwant to paste.5566l The content is pasted into the newlocation.l In the Pa...
1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.4 Place the cursor in th...
l Excel copies thecolumn widthsfrom the source tothe destination.9 Click Paste.99l Excel pastes the contents of the cell.Y...
1 Click in a cell with the format,formula, or value you want tocopy.2 Click the Copy button.3 Place the cursor in the cell...
8 Click in a cell with thenumber by which youwant to add, subtract,multiply, or divide.9 Repeat Steps 2 to 5.l The Paste S...
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Microsoftofficeexcel2007top100simplifiedtipsandtricks 100127223522-phpapp01 (1)

  1. 1. by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
  2. 2. 02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page 1
  3. 3. by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
  4. 4. U.S. SalesContact Wiley at(800) 762-2974 orfax (317) 572-4002.LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THEPUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONSOR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY ORCOMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK ANDSPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDINGWITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATEDOR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THEADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BESUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITHTHE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOTENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHERPROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE ISREQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONALPERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NORTHE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISINGHEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION ORWEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATIONAND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATIONDOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHERENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION ORWEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAYMAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THATINTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVECHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORKWAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.FOR PURPOSES OF ILLUSTRATING THE CONCEPTS ANDTECHNIQUES DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK, THE AUTHOR HASCREATED VARIOUS NAMES, COMPANY NAMES, MAILING,E-MAIL AND INTERNET ADDRESSES, PHONE AND FAXNUMBERS AND SIMILAR INFORMATION, ALL OF WHICHARE FICTITIOUS. ANY RESEMBLANCE OF THESE FICTITIOUSNAMES, ADDRESSES, PHONE AND FAX NUMBERS ANDSIMILAR INFORMATION TO ANY ACTUAL PERSON, COMPANYAND/OR ORGANIZATION IS UNINTENTIONAL AND PURELYCOINCIDENTAL.Excel®2007: Top 100Simplified®Tips & TricksPublished byWiley Publishing, Inc.111 River StreetHoboken, NJ 07030-5774Published simultaneously in CanadaCopyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis,IndianaLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2007926010ISBN: 978-0-470-12674-5Manufactured in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning orotherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 ofthe 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the priorwritten permission of the Publisher, or authorization throughpayment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the CopyrightClearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600. Requests to the Publisherfor permission should be addressed to the Legal Department,Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis,IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, online:www.wiley.com/go/permissions.Trademark AcknowledgmentsWiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, Visual, the Visual logo,Simplified, Read Less - Learn More, and related trade dress aretrademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.and/or its affiliates. Microsoft and Excel are registered trademarksof Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Allother trademarks are the property of their respective owners.Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product orvendor mentioned in this book.Contact UsFor general information on our other products and servicescontact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax317-572-4002.For technical support please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport.01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page ii
  5. 5. “I have to praise you and your company on thefine products you turn out. I have twelve Visualbooks in my house. They were instrumental inhelping me pass a difficult computer course.Thank you for creating books that are easy tofollow. Keep turning out those quality books.”Gordon Justin (Brielle, NJ)“What fantastic teaching books you haveproduced! Congratulations to you and your staff.You deserve the Nobel prize in Education. Thanksfor helping me understand computers.”Bruno Tonon (Melbourne, Australia)“A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words! If yourlearning method is by observing or hands-ontraining, this is the book for you!”Lorri Pegan-Durastante (Wickliffe, OH)“Over time, I have bought a number of your‘Read Less - Learn More’ books. For me, they areTHE way to learn anything easily. I learn easiestusing your method of teaching.”José A. Mazón (Cuba, NY)“You’ve got a fan for life!! Thanks so much!!”Kevin P. Quinn (Oakland, CA)“I have several books from the Visual series andhave always found them to be valuableresources.”Stephen P. Miller (Ballston Spa, NY)“I have several of your Visual books and they arethe best I have ever used.”Stanley Clark (Crawfordville, FL)“Like a lot of other people, I understand thingsbest when I see them visually. Your books reallymake learning easy and life more fun.”John T. Frey (Cadillac, MI)“I have quite a few of your Visual books and havebeen very pleased with all of them. I love the waythe lessons are presented!”Mary Jane Newman (Yorba Linda, CA)“Thank you, thank you, thank you...for making itso easy for me to break into this high-tech world.”Gay O’Donnell (Calgary, Alberta,Canada)“I write to extend my thanks and appreciation foryour books. They are clear, easy to follow, andstraight to the point. Keep up the good work! Ibought several of your books and they are justright! No regrets! I will always buy your booksbecause they are the best.”Seward Kollie (Dakar, Senegal)“I would like to take this time to thank you andyour company for producing great and easy-to-learn products. I bought two of your books from alocal bookstore, and it was the best investmentI’ve ever made! Thank you for thinking of usordinary people.”Jeff Eastman (West Des Moines, IA)“Compliments to the chef!! Your books areextraordinary! Or, simply put, extra-ordinary,meaning way above the rest! THANKYOUTHANKYOU THANKYOU! I buy them for friends,family, and colleagues.”Christine J. Manfrin (Castle Rock, CO)PRAISE FOR VISUAL BOOKS01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page iii
  6. 6. CREDITSABOUT THE AUTHORProject EditorSarah HellertAcquisitions EditorJody LefevereCopy EditorKim HeuselTechnical EditorSuzanne Borys, PhDJames Floyd KellyEditorial ManagerRobyn SieskyBusiness ManagerAmy KniesEditorial AssistantLaura SiniseManufacturingAllan ConleyLinda CookPaul GilchristJennifer GuynnBook DesignKathie RickardProduction CoordinatorErin SmithLayoutCarrie A. FosterJennifer MayberryHeather PopeAmanda SpagnuoloScreen ArtistJill A. ProllProofreaderBroccoli Information ManagementQuality ControlCynthia FieldsJessica KramerCharles SpencerIndexerInfodex Indexing Services, Inc.Wiley Bicentennial LogoRichard J. PacificoSpecial HelpMalinda McCainBarbara MooreChristine WilliamsVice President and ExecutiveGroup PublisherRichard SwadleyVice President and PublisherBarry PruettComposition DirectorDebbie StaileyDenise Etheridge is a certified public accountant as well asthe president and founder of Baycon Group, Inc. She publishesWeb sites, provides consulting services on accounting-relatedsoftware, and authors computer-related books. You can visitwww.baycongroup.com to view her online tutorials.This book is dedicated to my mother, Catherine Austin Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page iv
  7. 7. HOW TO USE THIS BOOKExcel 2007: Top 100 Simplified®Tips & Tricks includes 100 tasks that reveal cool secrets, teach timesaving tricks, andexplain great tips guaranteed to make you more productive with Excel. The easy-to-use layout lets you workthrough all the tasks from beginning to end or jump in at random.Who is this book for?You already know Excel basics. Now you’d like to go beyond, with shortcuts, tricks, and tips that let you worksmarter and faster. And because you learn more easily when someone shows you how, this is the book for you.Conventions Used In This Book1 StepsThis book uses step-by-stepinstructions to guide you easilythrough each task. Numberedcallouts on every screen shot showyou exactly how to perform eachtask, step by step.2 TipsPractical tips provide insights tosave you time and trouble, cautionyou about hazards to avoid, andreveal how to do things in Excel2007 that you never thoughtpossible!3 Task NumbersTask numbers from 1 to 100indicate which lesson you areworking on.4 Difficulty LevelsFor quick reference, the symbolsbelow mark the difficulty level ofeach task.33442211Demonstrates a new spin on acommon taskIntroduces a new skill or a newtaskCombines multiple skills requiringin-depth knowledgeRequires extensive skill and mayinvolve other technologies01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page v
  8. 8. Table of ContentsWork with Formulas and Functions#10 Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods 24#11 Name Cells and Ranges 26#12 Define a Constant 28#13 Create Formulas That Include Names 30#14 Calculate with the Function Wizard 32#15 Figure Out Loan Terms 34#16 Determine the Internal Rate of Return 36#17 Determine the Nth Largest Value 38#18 Create a Conditional Formula 40#19 Calculate a Conditional Sum 42#20 Add a Calculator 44#21 Find Products and Square Roots 46#22 Perform Time Calculations 48#23 Perform Date Calculations 502viBoost Your Efficiency#1 Validate with a Validation List 4#2 Validate with Data Entry Rules 6#3 Extend a Series with AutoFill 8#4 Insert Symbols or Special Characters 10#5 Hide Rows by Grouping and Outlining 12#6 Find and Replace Formats 14#7 Add Comments to Your Worksheet 16#8 Let Excel Read Back Your Data 18#9 Create Your Own Sort or AutoFill 20102_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page vi
  9. 9. Manipulate Records#36 Enter Data with a Form 82#37 Filter Duplicate Records 84#38 Perform Simple Sorts and Filters 86#39 Perform Complex Sorts 88#40 Sort by Cell Color, Font Color, or Icon 90#41 Perform Complex Filters 92#42 Filter by Multiple Criteria 94#43 Subtotal Sorted Data 96#44 Chart Filtered Data Easily 98#45 Count Filtered Records 100#46 Look Up Information in Your Worksheet 102#47 Define Data as a Table 104#48 Modify a Table Style 106Copy, Format, and More#24 Check Your Formulas for Errors 54#25 Trace Precedents and Dependents 56#26 Change Text to Numbers 58#27 Convert a Row to a Column 60#28 Copy with the Office Clipboard 62#29 Adjust Column Widths with Paste Special 64#30 Specify How to Paste with Paste Special 66#31 Create Your Own Style 68#32 Copy Styles to Another Workbook 70#33 Conditionally Format Your Worksheet 72#34 Track Changes While Editing 76#35 Consolidate Worksheets 7834vii02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page vii
  10. 10. Table of ContentsviiiExplore the Patterns in Your Data#49 Create a PivotTable 110#50 Modify PivotTable Data and Layout 114#51 Compute PivotTable Sub and Grand Totals 116#52 Create a PivotTable Calculated Field 118#53 Hide Rows or Columns in a PivotTable 120#54 Sort a PivotTable 121#55 Create a PivotChart 122#56 Describe Data with Statistics 124#57 Find the Correlation between Variables 126#58 Explore Outcomes with What-If Analysis 128#59 Optimize a Result with Goal Seek 130Create Charts#60 Create a Chart That Has Visual Appeal 134#61 Add Chart Details 136#62 Change the Chart Type 140#63 Add a Trendline 142#64 Add and Remove Chart Data 144#65 Add Error Bars 146#66 Create a Histogram 148#67 Create a Combination Chart 1506502_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page viii
  11. 11. ixPresent Worksheets#68 Format Numbers, Dates, and Times 154#69 Apply Formats to Cells 158#70 Fill with a Gradient 162#71 Format Quickly with Format Painter 164#72 Insert Shapes into Your Worksheet 166#73 Insert Text Boxes into Your Worksheet 168#74 Insert Photographs into Your Worksheet 170#75 Arrange the Graphics in Your Worksheet 172#76 Insert a Background Image 174#77 Take a Picture of Your Worksheet 1767Protect, Save, and Print#78 Protect Your Worksheet 180#79 Save a Workbook as a Template 182#80 Choose a Format When Saving a Workbook 184#81 Print Multiple Areas of a Workbook 186#82 Print Multiple Worksheets from a Workbook 188802_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page ix
  12. 12. xTable of ContentsxExtend Excel#83 Paste Link into Word or PowerPoint 192#84 Embed a Worksheet 194#85 Create a Link from an Excel Workbook 196#86 Query a Web Site 198#87 Copy a Word Table into Excel 200#88 Import a Text File into Excel 202#89 Import an Access Database into Excel 206#90 Query an Access Database 208#91 Reuse a Saved Query 212#92 Import an Excel Worksheet into Access 214#93 Using Excel with Mail Merge 2189Customize Excel#94 Add Features by Installing Add-Ins 222#95 Customize the Quick Access Toolbar 224#96 Work with Multiple Windows 226#97 Save Time by Creating a Custom View 227#98 Create a Custom Number Format 228#99 Automate Your Worksheet with Macros 230#100 Add a Button to Run a Macro 2321002_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page x
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  14. 14. Boost Your EfficiencyYou can use Microsoft Excel 2007 to workwith numbers. In fact, wherever you usenumbers — doing taxes, running a smallbusiness, maintaining a budget, or anythingelse — Excel can help make your work easier,quicker, and more accurate.Excel 2007 provides you with many ways toenter, present, explore, and analyze data. Thischapter focuses on ways in which you canboost your efficiency when using Excel. Youlearn how to use the Excel AutoFill feature, togroup and outline, to check the accuracy ofyour data and more.The AutoFill feature enables you to fill a row orcolumn quickly with a series of values,numbers, dates, or times generated from oneor more values you have entered. This chapterwill show you how to use the AutoFills thatcome standard with Excel and how to createyour own AutoFills.You can use grouping and outlining to hideparts of your worksheet, enabling you to focusin on the data in which you are interested,thereby making data analysis easier. Thischapter steps you through the process ofgrouping and outlining.Sometimes you may want to double-check theaccuracy of your data. One of the final tasks inthis chapter teaches you how you can increasethe accuracy of your data entry by lettingExcel read back your data to you.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 2
  15. 15. Validate with a Validation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Validate with Data Entry Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Extend a Series with AutoFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Insert Symbols or Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Hide Rows by Grouping and Outlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Find and Replace Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Add Comments to Your Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Let Excel Read Back Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Create Your Own Sort or AutoFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 3
  16. 16. 1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a validation list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataTools group.l The Data Validation dialog boxappears.4 Click the Settings tab.5 Click here and then select List.6 Click and drag to select the validentries, or type = followed bythe range name.7 Click OK.Validate with aVALIDATION LISTExcel enables you to restrict the values a user canenter in a cell. By restricting values, you ensure thatyour worksheet entries are valid and that calculationsbased on them thereby are valid as well. Duringdata entry, a validation list forces anyone using yourworksheet to select a value from a drop-down menurather than typing it and potentially typing the wronginformation. In this way, validation lists save timeand reduce errors.To create a validation list, type the values you wantto include into adjacent cells in a column or row. Youmay want to name the range. See Task #11 to learnhow to name ranges. After you type your values, usethe Data Validation dialog box to assign values to yourvalidation list. Then copy and paste your validation listinto the appropriate cells by using the Paste SpecialValidation option.You may want to place your validation list in an out-of-the-way place on your worksheet or on a separateworksheet.2233556666 447711l Excel creates a validation list inthe cell you selected.403_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 4
  17. 17. PASTE YOUR VALIDATION LIST1 Click in the cell thatcontains your validationlist.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button inthe Clipboard group.4 Select the cells in whichyou want to place thevalidation list.5 Click Paste in theClipboard group.A menu appears.6 Click Paste Special.33441155227788665l The Paste Special dialog box appears.7 Click Validation ( changes to ).8 Click OK.Excel places the validation list in the cellsyou selected.l When users make an entry into the cell,they must pick from the list.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?Validation lists can consist of numbers,names of regions, employees, products,and so on.Remove It!To remove a validation list, click in any cell that contains thevalidation list you want to remove, click the Home tab, andthen click Find and Select in the Editing group. A menu appears.Click Go To Special. The Go To Special dialog box appears. ClickData validation, click Same, and then click OK. The Go ToSpecial dialog box closes. Click the Data tab and then clickData Validation in the Data Tools group. A menu appears. ClickData Validation. The Data Validation dialog box appears. ClickClear All and then click OK.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 5
  18. 18. 1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a data entry rule.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataTools group.l The Data Validation Dialog boxappears.4 Click the Settings tab.5 Click here and select a validationcriterion.6 Click here and select a validationcriterion.7 Type the criteria or click anddrag to select the cells with thecriteria you want to use.Validate withDATA ENTRY RULESYou can use data entry rules to ensure that dataentered has the correct format, and you can restrictthe data entered to whole numbers, decimals, dates,times, or a specific text length. You can also specifywhether the values need to be between, notbetween, equal to, not equal to, greater than, lessthan, greater than or equal to, or less than or equalto the values you specify.As with all data validation, you can create an inputmessage that appears when the user enters the cell,as well as an error alert that displays if the usermakes an incorrect entry. Error alerts can stop theuser, provide a warning, or just provide information.After you create your data entry rule, copy and pasteit into the appropriate cells by using the Paste SpecialValidation option. See Task #1 under Paste YourValidation List to learn how to copy and pasteyour data entry rule.335566772211990044888 Click the Input Message tab.9 Type a title for your message.0 Type an input message.603_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 6
  19. 19. ! Click the Error Alert tab.@ Click here and select astyle.Choose Stop if you wantto stop the entry ofinvalid data.Choose Warning if youwant to display awarning to the user, butnot prevent entry.Choose Informationto provide informationto the user.# Type a title.$ Type an error message.% Click OK.!!##$$@@%%7Excel creates the data entry rule.l When you click in the cell, Excel displaysyour input message.l When you enter invalid data, Exceldisplays your error alert.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!After you create your data entryrules, use the steps outlined inTask #1 under Paste YourValidation List to place your dataentry rules in the cells in whichyou want them.Did You Know?If you use cells to specify yourvalidation criteria in Step 7,you can change the criteria asneeded without changing thevalidation rule.Did You Know?When you make an incorrect entry,the Stop Error Alert style displaysthe error message you enteredand prevents you from making anentry that does not meet yourcriteria. The Warning Alert styleand the Information Alert styleallow you to enter data that doesnot meet your criteria.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 7
  20. 20. 1 Type the initial value for theseries you want to create.2 Select the cell or cells.3 Click the Fill handle.Extend a series withAUTOFILLAutoFill gives you a way to ensure accurate dataentry when a particular data series has an intrinsicorder: days of the week, months of the year, numericincrements of two, and so on.To use AutoFill, start by typing one or more valuesfrom which you will generate other values. Select thecell or cells you want to extend. Selecting two ormore cells determines the step size, or increment, bywhich you want to jump in each cell. With the cellsselected, click the Fill handle in the lower-right cornerand drag. When you release the mouse button, Excelfills the cells with values.After filling the cells, Excel provides a menu button.Click the button to open a menu that enables you tochange the fill. You can copy the initial value; fill theseries one day at a time; or extend it by weekdays,months, or years, depending on the type of fill youcreate.5511446622 334 Drag the desired number of cellsand release the mouse.l Excel fills the cells with a series.l The AutoFill Options buttonappears.5 Click the button.A menu appears.6 Click Copy Cells ( changesto ).803_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 8
  21. 21. l Excel changes the seriesto a copy of the originalcell.7 Type a pattern ofentries.8 Repeat Steps 2 to 4.779l Excel fills the cell with the pattern.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?When you release the mouse button after creating a series, the AutoFill Optionsbutton ( ) appears. Click the button to view a menu of options. If you want tofill with the days of the week, you can click Fill Days or Fill Weekdays to fill withMonday through Friday ( changes to ). You can also click the Fill FormattingOnly option ( changes to ) to change the formatting of the cell withoutchanging the contents. Click the Fill Without Formatting option ( changes to )to change the contents of the filled cells without changing the formatting. You canextend a series in any direction: up, down, left, or right.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 9
  22. 22. ADD A SYMBOL1 Click in the cell in which youwant to insert a symbol.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Symbol in the Text group.InsertSYMBOLS OR SPECIALCHARACTERSIn Excel, you are not restricted to the standardnumerals, letters, and punctuation marks on yourkeyboard. You can also select from hundreds of specialcharacters, such as foreign letters and currencycharacters such as the Euro (€). Each font has adifferent set of special characters. A smaller set ofstandard characters, called symbols, is alwaysavailable as well; they include dashes, hyphens, andquotation marks.Symbols and special characters serve many uses inExcel. Many financial applications, for example, callfor currency symbols. Symbols and special charactersare useful in column and row heads as part of thetext describing column and row content, for example,Net sales in €.Using symbols and special characters in the same cellwith a value such as a number, date, or time usuallyprevents the value from being used in a formula. Ifyou need to use a symbol in a cell used in a formula,use a number format. If you need to create a customnumber format, see Task #98.11556622334477l The Symbol dialog box appears.4 Click here and then select a font.5 Click the Symbol you want.6 Click Insert.l The character appears in the cell.7 Click Close.The Symbol dialog box closes.1003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 10
  23. 23. ADD A SPECIAL CHARACTER1 Click in the cell in whichyou want to insert aspecial character.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Symbol in the Textgroup.1155662233447711l The Symbol dialog box appears.4 Click the Special Characters tab.5 Locate the character you want and click it.6 Click Insert.l The character appears in the cell.7 Click Close.The Symbol dialog box closes.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?In Excel, entries are numbers, dates, times, letters,or special characters. You can only use numbers,dates, and times in numeric calculations. Exceltreats letters and special characters as blanks orzeroes in calculations. To have a currency symbolappear with a value, as in $400, and use the cellvalue in a calculation, you must apply a currency,accounting, or custom format.Did You Know?Excel fonts are based on Unicode, a set of 40,000characters enabling the display of characters fromapproximately 80 languages, including right-to-leftalphabets such as Hebrew. To use a language otherthan English, attach an appropriate keyboard anduse the Control Panel to set the Regional andLanguage options.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 11
  24. 24. ADD A GROUP1 Click and drag to select the rowsor columns to hide.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Group in the Outline group.You can also select the rows orcolumns and then pressShift+Alt+Right Arrow.Hide rows byGROUPING AND OUTLININGYou can use the Excel grouping and outlining featureto hide sets of columns and/or rows. For example,you can hide the details relating to weekly salesso you can compare monthly sales. Your outlinescan include up to eight levels of detail.Outlining a set of rows or columns creates a clickablebutton on the far left or top of your worksheet. Thebutton displays either a minus sign or a plus sign,depending on what is displayed in the worksheet.Click the minus sign to hide rows or columns, andthe plus sign to display them again. Adjacent to thebutton is a solid line that indicates, by its length, theapproximate number of rows or columns Excel hashidden.Outlining was designed for use with structuredinformation such as lists but can be used withany worksheet. When you outline a PivotTable,outlining has the same effect as it does in any otherworksheet.3355442211l The Group dialog box appears.4 Click to select either the Rows orthe Columns option ( changesto ).Click Rows if you want to grouprows.Click Columns if you want togroup columns.5 Click OK.1203_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 12
  25. 25. l Excel creates a new leftor top margin with aminus sign.6 To hide the rows, clickthe minus sign.The rows disappear, anda plus sign replaces theminus sign.114422336613l To display the rows again, click the plussign.REMOVE A GROUP1 Click the Data tab.2 Click Ungroup.l The Ungroup dialog box appears.3 Click to select either the Rows or theColumns option ( changes to ).Click Rows if you want to ungroup rows.Click Columns if you want to ungroupcolumns.4 Click OK.Excel removes the group.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?You can nest outlines; that is, you can place onegroup of outlined rows or columns inside another.For example, within each year, you can group eachmonth, and within each month, you can groupeach week.Did You Know?You can also hide rows and columns by clickingand dragging the lines that separate the columnletters or the row numbers. Also, if you click anddrag over column letters or row numbers and thenright-click, a menu appears. Click Hide to hidethe column or row or Unhide to display hiddencolumns or rows.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 13
  26. 26. 1 Click the Home tab.2 Click Find & Select in the Editinggroup.A menu appears.3 Click Replace.Alternatively, you can pressCtrl+H to open the Find andReplace dialog box.FIND AND REPLACEformatsCells can contain numbers, text, comments, formats,and formulas. With Excel, you can search for anyof these elements to view them, replace them, orperform some other action. You may, for example,find and replace values to correct mistakes, or perhapsyou need to return to a value to add a comment orapply formatting.The Excel Find and Replace dialog box is available onthe Home tab in the Editing group or by pressingCtrl+H. The Find feature is part of Find and Replaceand is available on the Home tab in the Editing groupor by pressing Ctrl+F.To find and replace formats, specify what you areseeking and with what you want to replace the itemyou are seeking. Click the Options button in the Findand Replace dialog box to specify additional details.Use the Within drop-down menu to indicate whetherto search the current worksheet or the currentworkbook. Click the Formatting button to restrictyour search to characters formatted in a certain way,such as bold or percentages.1122555533l The Find and Replace dialog boxappears.4 Click Options if your dialog boxdoes not look like the one shownhere.Note: The Options button allowsyou to toggle between the shortand long form of the dialog box.5 Click here and select ChooseFormat from Cell.1403_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 14
  27. 27. The Find and Replacedialog box disappears.6 Click in a cell that hasthe format you want toreplace.This example selectsgreen fills.l The Find and Replacedialog box reappears.l A preview of the formatyou selected appears.7 Click here and selectChoose Format from cell.The Find and Replacedialog box disappears.7777!!00668899158 Click in a cell that has the format you want touse as a replacement.This example selects a cell with no fill.The Find and Replace dialog box reappears.l A preview of the format you selected appears.9 Click Replace All.l Excel replaces the formats.Excel replaces all of the green fills with plain fills.0 Click OK.! Click Close.l You can click Replace to make one change ata time.l If you want to find instead of replace formats,click Find All or Find Next to highlight cells inthe worksheet but not replace formats.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!Before you start a new Findand/or Replace, make sure youclear all formats by clicking thedown arrow next to the twoFormat buttons and then clickingClear Find Format and ClearReplace Format.Did You Know?In the Find and Replace dialogbox, clicking a Format buttonopens the Find Format or ReplaceFormat dialog box. You can usethese dialog boxes to specify theNumber, Alignment, Font, Border,Fill, or Protection you want tofind and/or replace.Did You Know?When searching for text or values,type the text or value you arelooking for in the Find What field.Type the text or value you wantto replace it with in the ReplaceWith field.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 15
  28. 28. ADD A COMMENT1 Click in the cell to which youwant to add a comment.2 Click the Review tab.3 Click New Comment in theComments group.ADD COMMENTSto your worksheetA comment is a bit of descriptive text that enablesyou to document your work when you add text orcreate a formula. If someone else maintains yourworksheet, or others use it in a workgroup, yourcomments can provide useful information. You canenter comments in any cell you want to document orotherwise annotate.Comments in Excel do not appear until you choose toview them. Excel associates comments withindividual cells and indicates their presence with atiny red triangle in the cell’s upper-right corner. Viewan individual comment by clicking in the cell orpassing your cursor over it. View all comments in aworksheet by clicking the Review tab and thenclicking Show All Comments.When you track your changes, Excel automaticallygenerates a comment every time you copy or changea cell. The comment records what changes in thecell, who makes the change, and the time and dateof the change. To learn more about tracking changes,see Task #34.44221133l A comment box appears.l A tiny red triangle appears in theupper-right corner of the cell.4 Type your comment.Note: To apply bold and otherformatting effects, select the text,right-click, click Format Comment,and then make changes asappropriate.5 Click outside the comment boxwhen you finish.The comment box disappears.Move the cursor over the cell todisplay your comment again.1603_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 16
  29. 29. 6 Click Edit Comment inthe Comments groupto edit a comment.7 Click Delete in theComments group todelete a comment.7788669917DISPLAY ALL COMMENTS8 Click Show All Comments in theComments group.l You can now see all the comments in theworksheet.To close the comment boxes, click ShowAll Comments again.9 To cycle through comments click Previousor Next in the Comments group.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?To set the name that displays when you enter acomment, click the Office button, and then click ExcelOptions. The Excel Options dialog box appears. ClickPopular and then type the name you want to appearin the comment box in the User Name field.Did You Know?When a comment gets in the way of anothercomment or blocks data, you can move it. Positionyour cursor over the comment box border until thearrow turns into a four-sided arrow. Click and dragthe comment to a better location and then releasethe mouse button. Your comment remains in thisposition until you display all comments again.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 17
  30. 30. READ CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want Excel to read.2 Click either the Speak byColumns or the Speak by Rowsbutton.l Click Speak by Columns if youwant Excel to read down thecolumns.l Click Speak by Rows if you wantExcel to read across the rows.Let ExcelREAD BACK YOUR DATAIf you have a large amount of data to enter, especiallynumbers, you may want to check the accuracy ofyour data entry by having the data read back to youwhile you match it against a printed list. Excel canread back your data. All you have to do is specify thedata you want to read, click a button, and Excelbegins reading. You can choose to have Excel readacross the first row and then move to the next row,or down the first column and then move to the nextcolumn. You can also have Excel read data as youenter it.However, before Excel can read your data, you mustadd the following buttons to the Quick Accesstoolbar: Speak Cells, Speak Cells — Stop SpeakingCells, Speak Cells by Columns, Speak Cells by Rows,and Speak Cells on Enter. To learn how to addbuttons to the Quick Access toolbar, see Task #95.You can find the buttons needed for this task in theCommands Not in the Ribbon section.11333 Click the Speak Cells button.Excel reads the cells.l To stop the reading of cells, clickthe Speak Cells — Stop SpeakingCells button.1803_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 18
  31. 31. SPEAK CELLS ON ENTER4 Click the Speak onEnter button.Excel says, “Cells willnow be spoken onEnter.”5 Enter data into yourworksheet.Excel reads the data asyou enter it.554466196 Click the Speak on Enter button again.Excel says, “Turn off Speak on Enter.”Excel stops reading the data as you enter it.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!To have Excel read your worksheet, you must havespeakers attached to your computer and you mustset the Speech, Sound, and Audio Devices optionin the Control Panel properly. Click the Startbutton, Settings, and then Control Panel to checkthese device settings.Did You Know?You can also check the accuracy of your data entryby performing a spell check. Just click the Reviewtab, Proofing, and then Spelling. If your worksheethas errors, the Spelling dialog box appears andoffers suggestions for the correct spelling. You canaccept one of the suggestions or click one of theother dialog box options.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 19
  32. 32. 1 Click and drag to select the cellswith which you want to createyour custom list.2 Click the Office button.A menu appears.3 Click Excel Options.Create your ownSORT OR AUTOFILLIn Excel, you can sort your data alphabetically, bydays of the week, or by months of the year. SeeChapter 4 to learn more about sorting your data. Youcan also automatically fill cells with the days of theweek or months of the year by using Excel’s AutoFillfeature. See Task # 3 to learn more about AutoFill.If you have a data series you use often, you cancreate your own custom list and use it to fill cellsautomatically or to sort a list. For example, youcollect data by region and you always list the datain the following order: North East, South East, NorthCentral, South Central, North West, and South West.You can create a custom list that enables you toAutoFill and sort based on your list.Use the Custom List dialog box to create your customlist. You can type your list into the Custom List dialogbox or import your list from cells in your worksheet.You access your custom list the same way you wouldany other custom list or AutoFill.2244551133The Excel Options dialog boxappears.4 Click Popular.5 Click the Edit Custom Listsbutton.2003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 20
  33. 33. l The Custom Lists dialogbox appears.l The range you selected inStep 1 appears here.You can click and drag ortype the range in theImport list from cells field.l Alternatively, you cantype your list here andthen click Add.6 Click Import.667721l Your list appears as a custom list.7 Click OK.Your list is ready to use.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?To create an AutoFill using your custom list, type thefirst item in your list. Click and drag the fill handlelocated in the lower-right corner of the cell. Excelfills the cells with your custom list. If Excel does notfill the cells with your custom list, click the AutoFillOptions button ( ) that appears and then clickFill Series ( changes to ).Did You Know?To sort using the custom list you created, click anddrag to select the items you want to sort. Click theData tab and then click Sort in the Sort & FilterGroup. The Sort dialog box appears. In the Orderfield, click Custom List. The Custom List dialog boxappears. Click your list and then click OK. Fordetailed instructions, see Chapter 4.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 21
  34. 34. Work with Formulasand FunctionsExcel provides you with tools for storingnumbers and other kinds of information.However, the real power of Excel comes frommanipulating all this information. You can useformulas and functions to calculate in Excel.The more than 300 functions built into Excelenable you to perform tasks of every kind,from adding numbers to calculating theinternal rate of return for an investment. Youcan think of a function as a black box. You putyour information into the box, and out comethe results you want. You do not need to knowany obscure algorithms to use functions.Each bit of information you provide is calledan argument. Excel’s Function Wizard providesguidance for every argument for every function.A formula consists of an equal sign, one ormore functions, their arguments, operatorssuch as the division and multiplication symbols,and any other values required to get yourresults.Many Excel functions do special-purposefinancial, statistical, engineering, andmathematical calculations. The FunctionWizard arranges functions in categories foreasy access. The Payment (PMT) function in theFinancial category, for example, enables you todetermine an optimal loan payment for a givenprincipal, interest rate, and length of loan.This chapter introduces useful techniques formaking formulas and functions even easier,including the Function Wizard and the Excelcalculator. You can also find tips for workingmore efficiently with functions by naming cells,creating constants, and documenting yourwork. Finally, you can find tips for functionssuch as IF and special-purpose functions suchas PMT and Internal Rate of Return (IRR).04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 22
  35. 35. Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 24Name Cells and Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Define a Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Create Formulas That Include Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Calculate with the Function Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Figure Out Loan Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Determine the Internal Rate of Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Determine the Nth Largest Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Create a Conditional Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Calculate a Conditional Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Add a Calculator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Find Products and Square Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Perform Time Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Perform Date Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 23
  36. 36. CALCULATE WITH AN OPERATOR1 Type =.2 Click in the cell with the numberyou want to use in yourcalculation, or type the firstnumber.3 Type an operator, such as plus(+), minus (–), multiply (*), ordivide (/).4 Click in the cell with the numberyou want to use in yourcalculation, or type the nextnumber.5 Repeat Steps 2 to 4, if necessary.6 Press Enter.l The result appears in the currentcell.CALCULATE BY USING A FUNCTION ANDCELL ADDRESSES1 Type the numbers you want tocalculate into adjacent cells.2 In another cell, type = followedby the first few letters of thefunction.A list of options appears.3 Double-click the option youwant to use.4 Click and drag to select thenumbers you want to calculate.5 Click Check.ENTER FORMULASusing a variety of methodsIn Excel, you can carry out calculations such assimple arithmetic in three ways. One method is touse the plus (+), minus (–), multiplication (*), anddivision (/) signs. Start by typing an equal sign andthe values to be added, subtracted, multiplied, ordivided, each separated by an operator; for example,=25 + 31. Press Enter, and Excel does the math anddisplays the answer in the same cell. You can alsotype an equal sign, click in a cell that contains thevalue you want to perform an operation on, and thentype the operator.A second method involves functions. Functionsperform calculations on your information and makethe results available to you. To use a function, typean equal sign followed by the function; for example,=SUM(). Place the numbers you want to add insidethe parentheses, separating them with commas. Ifthe numbers are on the worksheet, click the cells.A third method is to use Excel’s AutoSum feature,which offers a point-and-click interface for severalfunctions, including SUM, AVERAGE, and COUNT.115522 4444 22 3311 332404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 24
  37. 37. l The result appears inthe cell.CALCULATE BY USING AUTOSUM1 In adjacent cells, typenumbers.2 Click the cell in whichyou want the result.3 Click the Formulas tab.11 2244334 Click here and select an option.l This example uses SUM.l Excel places =sum() in the cell, with thecell address for numbers you may wantto add.5 To accept the cell addresses chosen byExcel, press Enter.To select other addresses, click and dragthem and then press Enter.The result appears in the cell selected inStep 2.25Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?You can click the chevron ( ) atthe end of the formula bar toexpand and collapse the bar.Expanding the formula bar letsyou enter longer formulas.Did You Know?When you click and drag overmultiple cells, Excel automaticallyplaces the average, a numbercount, and the sum of the valueson the status bar, at the bottomof the screen.Did You Know?You can add buttons for equal,plus, minus, divide, and multiplyto the Quick Access toolbar. Youcan use these buttons to enterformulas quickly. To learn how toadd buttons to the Quick Accesstoolbar, see Task #95.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 25
  38. 38. NAME A RANGE OF CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to name.Alternatively, click in a cell with avalue to create a named cell.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Define Name.NameCELLS AND RANGESIn Excel, you can name individual cells and groups ofcells, called ranges. A cell named Tax or a rangenamed Northern_Region is easier to remember thanthe corresponding cell address. You can use namedcells and ranges directly in formulas to refer to thevalues contained in them. When you move a namedrange to a new location, Excel automatically updatesany formulas that refer to the named range.When you name a range, you determine the scope ofthe name by telling Excel whether it applies to thecurrent worksheet or the entire workbook. You canname several ranges at once by using Excel’s Createfrom Selection option. You can use the NameManager to delete named ranges.Excel range names must be fewer than 255 characters.The first character must be a letter. You cannot usespaces or symbols except for the period andunderscore. It is best to create short, memorablenames. To learn how to use a named range, seeTask #13.221144553366l The New Name dialog boxappears.4 Type a name for the range.5 Click here and then select thescope of the range.l The range you selected in Step 1appears here.6 Click OK.Excel creates a named range.l The defined name is nowavailable when you click Use inFormula.2604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 26
  39. 39. CREATE NAMED RANGES FROMA SELECTION1 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toinclude in the namedrange.Include the headings;they become the rangenames.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Create fromSelection.l The Create Names fromSelection dialog boxappears.226677443311 55884 Click the location of the range names( changes to ).5 Click OK.l The defined names are now availablewhen you click Use in Formula.l You click here to move to a named range.6 Click Name Manager.l All the range names appear in the NameManager.7 Click a name.8 Click Delete.Excel deletes the named range.27Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?If you click the Edit button in theName Manager dialog box, youcan change the range name or thecell address to which a namedrange refers.Did You Know?When you click the down arrowon the left side of the formula bar,a list of named ranges appears.Refer to Step 5 under CreateNamed Ranges from a Selection.If you click one of the namedranges, you move to the cells itdefines.Did You Know?When creating a formula, if youclick and drag to select a groupof cells that have a range name,Excel automatically uses the rangename instead of the cell address.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 27
  40. 40. DEFINE A CONSTANT1 Click the Formulas tab.2 Click Define Name.Define aCONSTANTUse a constant whenever you want to use the samevalue in different cells and/or formulas. Withconstants, you can refer to a value, whether it issimple or consists of many digits, by simply usingthe constant’s name.You can use constants in many applications. Forexample, sales tax rate is a familiar constant that,when multiplied by the subtotal on an invoice, resultsin the tax owed. Likewise, income tax rates are theconstants used to calculate tax liabilities. Althoughtax rates change from time to time, they tend toremain constant within a tax period.To create a constant in Excel, you need to type itsvalue in the New Name dialog box, the same dialogbox you use to name ranges as shown in Task #11.When you define a constant, you determine thescope of the constant by telling Excel whether itapplies to the current worksheet or the entireworkbook. To use the constant in any formula in thesame workbook, simply use the name you defined.112233445566The New Name dialog boxappears.3 Type a name for the constant.4 Click here and select the scope ofthe constant.5 Type an equal sign (=) followedby the constant’s value.6 Click OK.You can now use the constant.2804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 28
  41. 41. DISPLAY A CONSTANT1 Click in a cell.2 Type an equal signfollowed by the firstletter or letters of theconstant’s name.A menu appears.Note: If you do not knowthe constant’s name,click the Formulas taband then Use in Formula.When the menu appears,click the name and thenpress Enter.3 Double-click the name ofthe constant.22 11334 Press Enter.l The constant’s value appears in the cell.Note: To use named constants and rangesin formulas, see Task #13.29Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?You can use Excel’s name manager to rename, edit, or delete named ranges and constant values.On the Formulas tab, click Name Manager. The Name Manager dialog box appears. Double-click thename you want to edit. The Edit Name dialog box appears. Make the changes you want and thenclick OK. To delete a constant, click the name in the Name Manager dialog box and then clickDelete. If you want to create a new constant, click New in the Name Manager dialog box. The NewName dialog box appears; you can make your entries. In addition to formulas, you can also entertext as a constant value. Simply type the text into the Refers To field.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 29
  42. 42. USE A CONSTANT OR RANGE NAME IN AFORMULA1 Place your cursor in the cell inwhich you want to create yourformula.2 Type the name of the constantor range.As you type, a list of possiblevalues appears. Double-click avalue to place it in the formula.3 Press Enter.CREATE FORMULASthat include namesConstructing formulas can be complicated, especiallywhen you use several functions in the same formulaor when multiple arguments are required in a singlefunction. Using named constants and named rangescan make creating formulas and using functionseasier by enabling you to use terms you have createdthat clearly identify a value or range of values. Anargument is information you provide to the functionso the function can do its work. A named constant isa name you create that refers to a single, frequentlyused value; see Task #12. A named range is a nameyou assign to a group of related cells; see Task #11.To insert a name into a function or use it in aformula or as a function’s argument, you must typeit, access it by using Use in Formula on the Formulastab, or select it from the Function Auto-complete list.2211l The cell displays the result.3004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 30
  43. 43. USE A CONSTANT OR RANGENAME IN A FORMULANote: Use this technique ifyou forget the name of aconstant or range.1 Begin typing yourformula.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Use in Formula.A menu appears.4 Click the constant orrange name you wantto use.If necessary, continuetyping your formula andpress Enter when youfinish.113322445 Press Enter.l Excel feeds the selected constant or rangename into the formula, which thendisplays a result based on it.31Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?To create several named constants at the same time,create two adjacent columns, one listing names andthe other listing the values — for example, state namesand state sales tax rates. Select both columns. Clickthe Formulas tab and then click Create from Selection.The Create Names from Selection dialog box appears.Click a check box to indicate which column or row touse for the name. Click OK. Click Name Manager tosee the constants listed in the Name Manager dialogbox. Use the same procedure to create named ranges.Did You Know?Naming a formula enables you to reuse it by merelytyping its name. To create a named formula, click inthe cell that contains the formula, click Formulas, andthen click Define Name. The New Name dialog boxappears. Type a name for the formula in the Namesfield, define its scope, and then click OK.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 31
  44. 44. 1 Type your data into theworksheet.Note: This example shows theROUND function, which takes twoarguments, one indicating thenumber to be rounded and theother indicating the number ofdigits to which it is to be rounded.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.Calculate withTHE FUNCTION WIZARDExcel’s Function Wizard simplifies the use offunctions. You can take advantage of the wizard forevery one of Excel’s functions, from the sum (SUM)function to the most complex statistical, mathematical,financial, and engineering function. One simple butuseful function, ROUND, rounds off values to thenumber of places you choose.You can access the Function Wizard in two ways. Oneway involves selecting a cell where the result is toappear and then clicking the Insert Function buttonand using the Insert Function dialog box to select afunction. Another way, which is a bit quicker, makessense when you know the name of your function.Start by selecting a cell for the result. Type an equalsign (=) and the beginning of the function name. Inthe list of functions that appears, double-click thefunction you want and then click the Insert Functionbutton.Both methods bring up the Function Arguments box,where you type the values you want in your calculationor click in the cells containing the values.22443355113 Click the Insert Function button.l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All to list allthe functions.5 Double-click the function youwant to use.3204_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 32
  45. 45. l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Click in the cell(s) ortype the valuesrequested in each field.l For this example, click inthe cell containing thevalue you entered inStep 1.l Type the number ofdecimal places to whichyou want to round. Anegative number refersto decimal places to theleft of the decimal point.7 Click OK.77l The result appears in the cell.33Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?If you do not know which function you want touse, type a question in the Search for a Functionfield in the Insert Function dialog box. For help withthe function itself, click Help on This Function in theFunction Arguments dialog box.Caution!Do not confuse the ROUND function with numberformatting. ROUND works by evaluating a number in anargument and rounding it to the number of digits youspecify in the second field of the Function Argumentsdialog box. When you format numbers, you simplify theappearance of the number in the worksheet, makingthe number easier to read. The underlying number isnot changed.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 33
  46. 46. 1 Type the principal (the presentvalue), interest rate, and numberof periods.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Figure outLOAN TERMSYou can use Excel’s Payment (PMT) function whenbuying a house or car. This function enables you tocompare loan terms and make an objective decisionbased on factors such as the amount of the monthlypayment.You can calculate loan payments in many ways whenusing Excel, but using the PMT function may be thesimplest because you merely enter the argumentsinto the Function Wizard. To make your job eveneasier, enter your argument values into yourworksheet before launching the wizard. Then byclicking in a cell, you can enter the value of the cellinto the wizard.The PMT function takes three required arguments. ForRATE, enter an annual interest rate such as 5 percentand then type .05 divided by 12 to calculate themonthly rate. For NPER, number of periods, enterthe number of loan periods for the loan you areseeking. For PV, present value, enter the amount ofthe loan. The monthly payment appears surroundedby parentheses, signifying that the number isnegative, or a cash outflow.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select Financial.5 Double-click PMT.3404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 34
  47. 47. l The PMT FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.6 Click in the cell withthe interest rate.7 Divide the interest rateby the number ofperiods per year; forexample, type 12.8 Click in the cell withthe number of periods.9 Click in the cell withthe principal.0 Click OK.0066 778899l The result appears in the cell.Note: The result shows the amount of asingle loan payment.Note: You can repeat Steps 1 to 10 for othercombinations of the three variables.35Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In a worksheet, you can create a loan calculatorshowing all the values at once. Place the labelsPrincipal, Interest, and Number of Months of a loanperiod in a column. Type their respective values intoadjacent cells to the right. Use references to thosecells in the Function Arguments dialog box for PMT.Did You Know?Excel’s Goal Seeking feature enables you to calculatepayments. With Goal Seeking, you can set up aproblem so you specify a goal, such as payments lessthan $1,100 per month, and have Excel vary a singlevalue to reach the goal. The limitation is that you canvary only one value at a time. See Task #59 for moreinformation.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 35
  48. 48. 1 Type the series of projected cashflows into a worksheet.2 Click in the cell in which theresult appears.3 Click the Insert Function button.Determine theINTERNAL RATE OF RETURNYou can use Excel’s Internal Rate of Return (IRR)function to calculate the rate of return on aninvestment. When using the IRR function, the cashflows do not have to be equal, but they must occur atregular intervals. As an example, you make a loan of$6,607 on January 1, year 1. You receive paymentsevery January 1 for four succeeding years. You canuse the IRR function to determine the interest rateyou receive on the loan.Your loan of $6,607 is a cash outflow, so you enter itas a negative number. Each payment is a cash inflow,so you enter them as positive numbers. When usingthe Internal Rate of Return function, you must enterat least one positive and one negative number.Optionally, you can provide, as the second argument,your best-guess estimate as to the rate of return.The default value, if you do not provide an estimate,is .10, representing a 10 percent rate of return. Yourestimate merely gives Excel a starting point at whichto calculate the IRR.112255443366l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Type IRR.5 Click Go.6 Double-click IRR.3604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 36
  49. 49. l The IRR FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.7 Click and drag thecash-flow valuesentered in Step 1 ortype the range.l Optionally, you canprovide an estimatedrate of return just to getExcel started.8 Click OK.8877l The cell with the formula displays theresults of the calculations as a percentwith no decimal places.Repeat Steps 1 to 8 for each set ofanticipated future cash flows.37Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?The IRR function is related to the Net Present Value(NPV) function, which calculates the net presentvalue of future cash flows. Whereas IRR returns apercentage — the rate of return on the initialinvestment — NPV returns the amount that mustbe invested to achieve the specified interest rate.Caution!Excel’s IRR function has strict assumptions. Cashflows must be regularly timed and take place at thesame point within the payment period. IRR mayperform less reliably for inconsistent payments, a mixof positive and negative flows, and variable interestrates.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 37
  50. 50. 1 Type the values from which youwant to identify the highestnumber, or second highest, orother value.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Determine theNTH LARGEST VALUESometimes you want to identify and characterizethe top values in a series, such as the RBIs of thetop three hitters in Major League Baseball or thepurchases, in a given period, for your five largestpurchasers.The LARGE function evaluates a series of numbersand determines the highest value, second highest, orNth highest in the series, with N being a value’s rankorder. LARGE takes two arguments: the range of cellsyou want to evaluate and the rank order of the valueyou are seeking, with 1 being the highest, 2 the nexthighest, and so on. The result of LARGE is the valueyou requested.Another way to determine the first, second, or Nthnumber in a series is to sort the numbers frombiggest to smallest and then simply read the results,as shown in Chapter 4. Sorting is less useful whenyou have a long list or when you want to use theresult in another function, such as summing the topfive values.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select Statistical.5 Double-click LARGE.3804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 38
  51. 51. l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears forthe LARGE function.6 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toevaluate, or type therange.7 Type a numberindicating what you areseeking: 1 for highest, 2for second highest, 3 forthird highest, and so on.8 Click OK.886677l The cell displays the value you requested.If K in Step 7 is greater than the numberof cells, a #NUM error appears in the cellinstead.39Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!To add the top three or other highest values in aseries, you can use LARGE three times in a formula:=LARGE(Sales,3) + LARGE(Sales,2) +LARGE(Sales,1), with Sales being the namedrange of sales values.Did You Know?Other useful functions work in a similar manner tothe LARGE function. SMALL evaluates a range ofvalues and returns a number. For example, if youenter 1 as the K value, it returns the lowest number,2 for next lowest, and so on. The MIN and MAXfunctions return the lowest and highest values in aseries, respectively. They take one argument: a rangeof cell values.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 39
  52. 52. 1 Type the data into theworksheet.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Create aCONDITIONAL FORMULAWith a conditional formula, you can performcalculations on numbers that meet a certaincondition. For example, you can find the highest scorefor a particular team from a list that consists ofseveral teams. The Team number is the condition andyou can set the formula so only the values for playerson a particular team are evaluated.A conditional formula uses at least two functions. Thefirst function, IF, defines the condition, or test, suchas players on Team 1. To create the condition, youuse comparison operators, such as greater than (>),greater than or equal to (>=), less than (<), lessthan or equal to (<= ), or equal to (=).The second function in a conditional formula performsa calculation on numbers that meet the condition.Excel carries out the IF function first and thencalculates the values that meet the condition definedin the IF function. Because two functions are involved,when you use the Function Wizard, one function, IF,is an argument of another function.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All.5 Double-click the function onwhich you want to base yourconditional function.This example uses MAX, whichfinds the highest value in a list.4004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 40
  53. 53. l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Type If(.7 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.8 Type a comparisonoperator, the condition,and then a comma.9 Type the range or rangename for the series thatyou want to calculate.0 Type ).0066778899! Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.l The result appears in the cell with theformula.41Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsImportant!IF is an array function. It compares every numberin a series to a condition and keeps track of thenumbers meeting the condition. To create anarray function, press Ctrl+Shift+Enter instead ofpressing Enter or clicking OK to complete yourfunction. You must surround arrays with curlybraces ({ }). The braces are entered automaticallywhen you press Ctrl+Shift+Enter but notwhen you press Enter or click OK when usingthe Function Arguments dialog box.Did You Know?IF has an optional third argument. Use the thirdargument if you want to specify what happenswhen the condition is not met. For example, youcan use IF to test whether any sales valuesexceed 9,000, and then display True if suchvalues exist and False if they do not.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 41
  54. 54. 1 Create a list of values to sumconditionally.Note: Each value in the list istested to see whether it meets acondition. If it does, it is added toother values meeting the condition.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Calculate aCONDITIONAL SUMYou can use conditional sums to identify and suminvestments whose growth exceeds a certain rate. TheSUMIF function combines the SUM and IF functions intoone easy-to-use function.SUMIF() is simple, relative to a formula that usesboth SUM() and IF(). SUMIF() enables you to avoidcomplicated nesting and to use the Function Wizardwithout making one function an argument of theother. However, using two functions — SUM and IF —gives you more flexibility. For example, you can useIF to create multiple complex conditions.SUMIF takes three arguments: a range of numbers,the condition being applied to the numbers, and therange to which the condition applies. Values thatmeet the condition are added together. For example,you can create a function that evaluates a list todetermine the team a person is on and for allpersons on Team 1 it can add the scores. The thirdargument, the range to which the condition applies,is optional. If you exclude it, Excel sums the rangeyou specify in the first argument.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All.5 Double-click SUMIF.4204_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 42
  55. 55. l The Function Argumentsdialog box for SUMIFappears.6 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.7 Type a comparisonoperator and acondition.8 Type the range or rangename for the series tobe summed if thecondition is met.9 Click OK.66778899l The result appears in the cell with theformula.43Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?The COUNTIF function works like SUMIF. Itcombines two functions, COUNT and IF, and takestwo arguments: a series of values and the conditionby which the values are tested. Whereas SUMIFsums the values, COUNTIF returns the number ofitems that passed the test.Did You Know?You can use the Conditional Sum Wizard, an Exceladd-in. The Conditional Sum Wizard has four self-explanatory steps. The last step diverges from theSUMIF Function Wizard in that both the conditionand the result can appear on your worksheet. Youcan thus display conditions and results side by sideto compare them. To learn how to install this add-in,see Task #94.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 43
  56. 56. ADD THE CALCULATOR1 Click here and then click MoreCommands.Add aCALCULATOROften you may want to do quick calculations withoutusing a formula or function. In Excel, you can place acalculator on the Quick Access toolbar so it is alwaysavailable. The Excel calculator is one of manycommands you can add to the Quick Access toolbar.You can use the calculator as you would any electroniccalculator. Click a number, choose an operator — suchas the plus key (+) to do addition — and then clickanother number. Press the equal sign key (=) to get aresult. Use MS to remember a value, MR to recall it,and MC to clear memory.Statistical and mathematical functions are availablein the calculator’s scientific view by clicking View andthen Scientific. In this view, you can cube a number,find its square root, compute its log, and more. Inboth standard and scientific views, you can transfera value from the calculator to Excel by displaying it,copying it, and pasting it into a cell.332244551122The Excel Options dialog boxappears.2 Click here and select CommandsNot in the Ribbon.3 Click Calculator.4 Click Add.l Excel adds the Calculator to thelist on the right.5 Click OK.4404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 44
  57. 57. 6 Click the Calculatorbutton.l The calculator appears.22661133USE THE SCIENTIFIC MODE1 Click the Calculator button.2 Click View.3 Click Scientific.The calculator displays in scientific mode.45Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!To calculate an average, switch to the scientific viewand enter the first number to be averaged. Click theSta button to display the Statistics box. Click Dat.Back in the calculator, click another value to averageand click Dat. Keep entering data and clicking Datuntil you have entered all the values. Click Ave to findthe average.Did You Know?For complete instructions on using the Excelcalculator, open the calculator. On the calculator’smenu, click Help and then Help Topics. The Calculatordialog box appears. Click the Contents tab and thenCalculator. A list of topics appears. Click any topic tolearn more about the calculator.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 45
  58. 58. CALCULATE A PRODUCT1 Type the values you want tomultiply.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.3 Type =product( in the cell.Note: Typing the function directlyinto a cell or into the formula barpreceded by an equal sign is analternative to choosing it from theFunction Wizard.4 Click the Insert Function button.l The Function Arguments dialogbox appears.5 Click the cell address of the firstvalue you want to multiply ortype the cell address.Optionally, you can type a valuedirectly into the Number1 field.6 Click the cell address of thesecond value you want tomultiply or type the cell address.Optionally, you can type thevalue directly into the Number2field.l The Function Arguments dialogbox displays the interim answer.7 Click OK.l The product appears in the cellyou clicked in Step 2.FindPRODUCTS AND SQUARE ROOTSMany Excel users are familiar with the basicoperations available by clicking the AutoSum button:addition, subtraction, minimum, maximum, andcount. Fewer are familiar with two other basicoperations available by using a mathematicalfunction. Using the PRODUCT function, you canmultiply two or more numbers, and using the SQRTfunction, you can find the square root of a number.Excel can calculate the square roots of positivenumbers only. If a negative number is the argument,as in SQRT(–1), Excel returns #NUM in the cell.You can compute a PRODUCT or SQRT by entering thevalues to be used in the function into the worksheet.If you do not want the values to appear in theworksheet, start by clicking in the cell where theresult is to appear and pressing an equal sign (=),typing the function name — PRODUCT or SQRT — andparentheses. Click the Insert Function button (fx) toenter your values for the formula.113366554422774604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 46
  59. 59. CALCULATE A SQUARE ROOT1 Click in the cell inwhich you want theresult to appear.2 Type =SQRT( in theformula bar or in thecell in which you wantthe result to appear.As you begin to type,the Function Auto-complete list appears.Double-click an optionto select it.3 Click the Insert Functionbutton.2244335511l The Function Arguments dialog boxappears.4 Type the value for which you want thesquare root.Optionally, you can click in a cellcontaining the value.l The Function Arguments dialog boxdisplays the interim answer.5 Click OK.l The square root appears in the cell.47Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!Related to PRODUCT and SQRT is POWER. To findthe power of any number, such as 3 to the 9thpower, use the Power function.Did You Know?Each argument in PRODUCT can have more thanone value, for example, 2, 3, and 4. These valuescan be represented as an array, a series of numbersenclosed in curly braces: {2,3,4}. Each value in thearray is multiplied, so the product of {2,3,4} is 24.Arrays can be multiplied by each other. Each valuein the array has to be a number.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 47
  60. 60. FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEENTWO TIMES1 Type the first time in a cell.Note: If you do not include AM orPM, Excel defaults to a.m. If youwant p.m., you must type PM.2 Type the second time in a cell.3 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.PerformTIME CALCULATIONSUsing Excel formulas and functions, you can performcalculations with dates and times. You can find, forexample, the number of hours worked between twotimes or the number of days between two dates. Dateand time functions convert every date and time into aserial value that can be added and subtracted andthen converted back into a recognizable date or time.Excel calculates a date’s serial value as the numberof days after January 1, 1900, so each date can berepresented by a whole number. Excel calculates atime’s serial value in units of 1/60th of a second.Every time can be represented as a serial valuebetween 0 and 1.A date and time, such as January 1, 2000, at noon,consists of the date to the left of the decimal and atime to the right. Take the example August 25, 2005,at 5:46 PM. The date and time serial value is38589.74028.Subtracting one date from another involves subtractingone serial value from another and then converting theresult back into a date or time.331144225577 664 Type an equal sign (=).5 Click in the cell with the latertime.6 Type a minus sign (–).7 Click in the cell with the earliertime.8 Press Enter.4804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 48
  61. 61. l The result may appearas a serial value.113366442255CONVERT A SERIAL VALUE TO A TIME1 Click the Home tab.2 Click the Number group’s dialog boxlauncher.l The Format Cells dialog box appears.3 Click the Number tab.4 Click Time.5 Click a format type.The 13:30 format displays hours:minutes.6 Click OK.l The cell displays the number of hours andminutes between the two times.49Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In subtracting times that crossmidnight, such as 11 p.m. to 2a.m., you need a programmingfunction called modulus, or MOD.The formula is =MOD(later time –earlier time, 1). Thanks to JohnWalkenbach’s Excel 2003 Bible(Wiley Publishing, 2003) forthis tip.Did You Know?If subtracting times or dates yieldsa negative time or date, this erroris reflected by a series of poundsigns (######).Did You Know?Showing a time or date in theGeneral format displays its serialvalue. Use a Time or Date formatto display a recognizable date ortime. To display a time inhour:minute format, right-click it,click Format Cell, click Time, andclick the 13:30 format.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 49
  62. 62. FIND NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEENTWO DATES1 Type the start date.2 Type the end date.l If you want the calculation toconsider holidays, type the datesof holidays between the startand end dates.3 Click the field in which you wantthe result to appear.4 Click the Insert Function button.PerformDATE CALCULATIONSOne special-purpose Date and Time function enablesyou to find the number of workdays between twodates. Like other Excel functions, Date and Timefunctions make use of the Function Wizard. As withall functions, the wizard works with data you typeinto the wizard, such as a specific date, and withdata you have typed into cells in your worksheet.To calculate the number of workdays between twodates, you use the NETWORKDAY function. Thefunction’s arguments include a start date, an enddate, and optionally, any intervening holidays thatautomatically reduce the number of workdaysbetween the two dates. Excel automatically deductsthe number of weekend dates.Excel can perform date arithmetic on any date afterJanuary 1, 1900. If you use dates before then,Excel treats them as text and does not performa calculation on them. Instead, it gives you a#VALUE! error.5511446622 33l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.5 Click here and select Date &Time.6 Double-click NETWORKDAYS.5004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 50
  63. 63. l The FunctionArguments dialogbox appears.7 Click in the cellcontaining the startdate or type the celladdress.8 Click in the cellcontaining the enddate or type the celladdress.l Optionally, click anddrag the range ofholidays or type therange.9 Click OK.997788l The cell with the formula displays the networkdays between the two dates.51Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In Excel you can enter the currentdate simply by clicking in the cellin which you want the date toappear and pressing the Ctrl andsemicolon keys at the same time.Did You Know?There are more than 15 ways youcan format a date, includingAugust 1, 1956; Aug 1, 1956;01-Aug-56, Wednesday, August,1956, 8/1; and 8/1/56.Did You Know?When calculating NETWORKDAYS,if your start date is later than yourend date, Excel returns a negativenumber.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 51
  64. 64. Copy, Format, and MoreIf you have used Word, you know that copyingtext for use in another document or applicationenables you to reuse material and minimizeretyping and errors. Basic copying in Excel issimilar: Select the value and then click the Copybutton in the Ribbon. In the new location, clickin the cell where you want to place the valueand then click Paste. But copying can be bothmore involved and more powerful in Excelbecause so many elements can occupy a cell:values, functions, formulas, formats, styles, andmore. You can copy any of these elementsbetween cells, worksheets, workbooks, andeven applications. You can copy one value at atime, such as a specific number or specific bit oftext, or many consecutively arranged values atthe same time, such as a range.Excel makes use of the copy features built intoWindows as well as those built into Office2007. You can store as many as 24 differentitems on the Office Clipboard for pasting intoExcel and other Office applications.In this chapter, you learn to use the OfficeClipboard. You also learn to transpose a rowinto a column, to copy styles from oneworksheet to another, to copy formulas fromone cell to another, to change text to numbers,and much more. If you share your workbookswith others, you may want to use the tip onkeeping track of the changes.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:03 PM Page 52
  65. 65. Check Your Formulas for Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Trace Precedents and Dependents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Change Text to Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Convert a Row to a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Copy with the Office Clipboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Adjust Column Widths with Paste Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Specify How to Paste with Paste Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Create Your Own Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Copy Styles to Another Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Conditionally Format Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Track Changes While Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Consolidate Worksheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 53
  66. 66. 1 Click in the cell that contains theformula you want to check.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Evaluate Formulas in theFormula Auditing group.CHECK YOUR FORMULASfor errorsWhen you create formulas, you can nest a formulawithin another formula. Because there are so manyintermediate steps when you nest formulas,determining the accuracy of your results may bedifficult. You can use the Evaluate Formula dialog boxto check the result of intermediate calculations todetermine if your result is correct.When you open the Evaluate Formula dialog box, yousee your formula. The Evaluate Formula dialog boxsteps you through the calculation one expression ata time so you can see how Excel evaluates eachargument. Click the Evaluate button to begin theprocess. Excel underlines individual expressions. Youcan click the Evaluate button again to see the resultsof an expression. The results of expressions appearin italics.If you base the reference on another formula, youcan click the Step In button to display the formula.Click the Step Out button to return to the reference.After you step through the entire formula, Exceldisplays the result and a Restart button. Click theRestart button to evaluate your expression again.22441133l The Evaluate Formula dialog boxappears.4 Click Evaluate.l Excel begins evaluating theformula.5405_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 54
  67. 67. 5 Continue clickingEvaluate to revieweach expression.l Click Step In to reviewthe results of anexpression.l Click Step Out to returnto the expression.5566l When Excel reaches the end of theformula, it displays the results.l Click Restart to evaluate the formulaagain.6 Click Close to close the dialog box.55Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?The maximum number of functions you can nestwithin a function is 64.Did You Know?The #### error occurs when a cell is not wideenough or when you use a negative date or time.The #DIV/0 error occurs when you try to divide byzero. The #N/A error occurs when a value is notavailable to your function. The #VALUE error occurswhen you use the wrong type of argument oroperand.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 55
  68. 68. TRACE PRECEDENTS1 Click in the cell containing theformula for which you want totrace precedents.l If the cell has an error, an Errorbutton displays next to theformula.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Trace Precedents in theFormula Auditing group.TRACEprecedents and dependentsWhen you create a formula, Excel evaluates all thevalues in the formula and returns the result. If Excelcannot calculate the formula, it displays an error inthe formula’s cell. You can use the Excel tracefeatures to help you locate your error.You can view a graphical representation of the cellsa formula refers to by clicking in the cell and thenclicking Trace Precedents in the Formula Auditinggroup on the Formulas tab. This option draws bluearrows to each cell referenced by your formula. Byselecting this option, you can identify the exact cellsused by your formula.If you want to find out which formulas use a specificcell, you can view a graphical representation byclicking in the cell and then clicking TraceDependents in the Formula Auditing group on theFormulas tab. This option draws blue arrows to eachcell that contains a formula that uses the active cellas an argument. If you perform this function beforedeleting a value, you can determine if your deletionaffects a formula in your worksheet.2244113355l Excel draws arrows between thecells on which the formula isbased and the formula’s cell.4 Make the appropriatemodifications to correct the errorin the formula.5 Click Remove Arrows.Excel removes the arrows.Note: Click the down arrow next toRemove Arrows to choose RemoveArrow, Remove Precedent Arrows,or Remove Dependent Arrows.5605_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 56
  69. 69. TRACE DEPENDENTS1 Click in the cell forwhich you want totrace dependants.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Trace Dependents.22113344l Excel draws arrows between the formula’scell and the dependent cells.4 Click Remove Arrows.Excel removes the arrows.Note: Click the down arrow next to RemoveArrows to choose Remove Arrow, RemovePrecedent Arrows, or Remove DependentArrows.57Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?When working with large or complicated worksheets, where the result of the formula isdependent on the results of another formula in another cell, you may want to monitor cellvalues. To do so, you can use the Watch Window. To add a cell to the Watch Window, clickWatch Window on the Formulas tab in the Formula Auditing group. The Watch Windowappears at the bottom of your screen. Click the Add Watch button. The Add Watch dialogbox appears. Click and drag to select the cells you want to watch and then click Add. Youcan now monitor the cells you have added to the Watch Window.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 57
  70. 70. Note: The left-aligned numbersin this task are really text. In Excel,the default position for numbers isthe right side of the cell.l You cannot calculate the average;Excel displays a #DIV/0! error.ChangeTEXT TO NUMBERSYou can use formulas to perform complex calculationsquickly and accurately on numbers, dates, or times.Sometimes, however, your numbers look like numbersbut are, in fact, text — mere characters. If a numberis left-aligned in a cell, it is probably text; truenumbers, by default, are right-aligned.In Excel, text and numbers are different data types.You should use numbers, but not text, in mathematicalformulas and functions. Trying to include text in amathematical calculation results in an error.You can address the problem in several ways. Youcan use the Format Cells dialog box to reformat thetext cells to numbers, but this method does notalways work. A more reliable technique is to multiplyeach numeral by 1 to convert the data type from textto a number.The numbers-as-text problem often occurs when youimport data from another application — for example,an external database such as Access. Chapter 9covers importing data in detail.1122331 Type 1 into any neighboring cell.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.5805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 58
  71. 71. 4 Click and drag toselect the cells youwant to convert.5 Right-click the selectedcells.A contextual menuappears.6 Click Paste Special.4477886655l The Paste Special dialog box appears.7 Click Multiply ( changes to ).8 Click OK.l The numbers now appear on the rightside of their cells, and you can use themin mathematical formulas.59Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?Excel can convert text-based numbers to actual numbers. Click the Office button and then click ExcelOptions. The Excel Options dialog box appears. Click Formulas. In the Error Checking Rules section,select Numbers Formatted as Text or Preceded by an Apostrophe ( changes to ). Excel flagscells containing text by placing a green flag in the upper-left corner. Click the menu buttonappearing alongside any cells with this error. Click Convert to Number. If Excel is able to convertthe text to a number, the numbers will right-align. This method does not always work.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 59
  72. 72. 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to transpose.Note: Make sure a series of blankcells is available to accommodatethe copied data.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.CONVERT A ROWto a columnWhen you create a worksheet, Excel gives youflexibility when working with rows and columns. Atany time, you can insert new rows or columns, deleterows or columns, and move entire rows or columnswhile retaining most of their properties. Sometimes,however, you may want to transpose a row into acolumn — or vice versa.Transposing comes in handy when you need to createa table, a special kind of worksheet discussed inChapter 4. A table might consist of rows describingproducts, with each column describing a featureof the product: its ID, its price, the quantity ininventory, and so on. Tables typically have manyrows and fewer columns.With Excel, you can copy, or transpose, a row intoa column and vice versa by using the Paste Specialdialog box. To ensure you have room for newworksheet data, you can place the transposedcolumns or rows on a different worksheet or in anew workbook.112233447755664 Click to select the first cell in thenew column or row.Note: Excel removes existing databy copying over it.5 Click the Home tab.6 Click Paste.A menu appears.7 Click Paste Special.6005_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 60
  73. 73. l The Paste Special dialogbox appears.8 Click Transpose( changes to ).9 Click OK.8899l The data appears in its new position.61Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?With the TRANSPOSE function, you can transposea grid of cells. Start by selecting an area largeenough to hold the new grid. In the Formula bar,type =TRANSPOSE( and then click the InsertFunction button. The Function Arguments dialogbox appears. Select the cells you want to transposeand then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter. Excel transposesthe grid.Did You Know?You can avoid rearranging worksheets by designingthem carefully. For long lists of people, things,transactions, and so on, arrange them in columnswith descriptive column heads. Excel calls thistype of layout a table. For more about tables, seeChapter 4.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 61
  74. 74. 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.Excel places a copy of the cellsyou selected on the OfficeClipboard.Copy with theOFFICE CLIPBOARDWith Office 2007, you can place content into astorage area called the Clipboard and paste thecontent into Excel or another Office application. Cutand copied content stays on the Clipboard until youclose all Office applications. The Office clipboard canstore up to 24 cut or copied items. All the items onthe Clipboard are available for you to paste to a newlocation in Excel or in another Office document.The Clipboard is not visible until you access it. InExcel, access the Clipboard by clicking the launcherin the Clipboard group of the Home tab. You can usethe Clipboard to store a range of cells. The OfficeClipboard pastes the entire range, including all thevalues, but any formulas in the cells are not includedwhen you paste.After you paste an item from the Clipboard, Excelprovides the Paste Options icon menu. You can usethe menu to choose whether you want to use thesource formatting or the destination formatting onthe pasted data.112233444 Click the Launcher in theClipboard group.The Clipboard Task Pane appears.6205_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 62
  75. 75. 5 Click the destinationcell.6 Click the item youwant to paste.5566l The content is pasted into the newlocation.l In the Paste Options icon menu, choosewhether to keep the formatting of thecopied item or change it to match theformatting of the new location. Thedefault is to match the formatting of thenew location. Press Esc to accept thedefault and remove the menu.63Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?To copy a cell range within or between worksheets,click and drag to select a series of cells and thenclick the Copy button on the Home tab in theClipboard group. To paste the range, navigate to theworksheet to which you want to copy the range,click in the cell where you want the range to start,and click Paste on the Home tab in the Clipboardgroup.Did You Know?To keep the Clipboard Task Pane from unexpectedlyappearing while you are copying, open the pane,click the Options button on the lower left, and selectCollect Without Showing Office Clipboard.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 63
  76. 76. 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.4 Place the cursor in the cell(s)into which you want to paste.5 Click Paste.A menu appears.6 Click Paste Special.Adjust column widths withPASTE SPECIALBy clicking the Copy button on the Home tab,pressing Ctrl+C, or clicking Copy on a contextualmenu, you can easily copy the contents of a rangeof cells so you can paste the contents somewhereelse in your worksheet. Cells can contain a lot ofinformation. When you paste with Paste Special, youdecide exactly what information you want to paste.You can choose to paste everything or you canchoose to paste just one element of the cell’scontents, such as the formula, value, format,comment, validation, or column width.You can paste more than once. For example, whenyou paste by clicking Paste, Excel pastes the values,formulas, and formats but does not adjust thecolumn widths. You can remedy this problem bypasting in two steps. In the first step, paste columnwidths. Excel adjusts the column widths. In thesecond step, paste your values, formulas, andformats.4422331155778866l The Paste Special dialog boxappears.7 Click Column Widths( changes to ).8 Click OK.6405_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 64
  77. 77. l Excel copies thecolumn widthsfrom the source tothe destination.9 Click Paste.99l Excel pastes the contents of the cell.You can press Esc to end the copy session.65Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can choose the Skip Blanksoption ( changes to ) in thePaste Special dialog box if yoursource includes any blanks. If youdo, Excel will not overwrite adestination cell with a blank if thedestination cell has data in it.Did You Know?You can press Ctrl+C to copy. Youcan press Ctrl+V to paste. You canpress Ctrl+X to cut. Cutting movesdata from its current location tothe location where you paste it.Did You Know?The Office Clipboard holdsgraphical objects, so you canuse it to bring digital pictures,WordArt, and clip art fromother programs into Excel.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 65
  78. 78. 1 Click in a cell with the format,formula, or value you want tocopy.2 Click the Copy button.3 Place the cursor in the cell(s)into which you want to paste.4 Click Paste.A menu appears.5 Click Paste Special.Specify how to paste withPASTE SPECIALYou can use the Format Painter to copy formats fromone cell to another. You can also use Paste Special.Simply copy a cell with the format you want, andthen use Paste Special to paste the format into othercells. See Chapter 7 to learn more about the FormatPainter.You can use the same steps to copy formulas orvalues from one location in your worksheet toanother. When you want to use a cell’s formula inother cells in your worksheet, paste the formula.When you want the results of a formula but not theformula itself, paste the value.You can also use Paste Special to perform simplearithmetic operations on each cell in a range. Forexample, in a list of prices, you may want to increaseevery price by 10 percent. You can use Paste Specialto make the change quickly. Just type 1.10 in acell and then select Multiply in the Paste Specialdialog box.33221144667755l The Paste Special dialog boxappears.6 Click to select a Paste option( changes to ).This example copies a formula.7 Click OK.l Excel pastes.6605_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 66
  79. 79. 8 Click in a cell with thenumber by which youwant to add, subtract,multiply, or divide.9 Repeat Steps 2 to 5.l The Paste SpecialDialog box appears.0 Click an operation( changes to ).! Click OK.8800!!l Excel performs the operation you selected.67Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can use the Paste Link option in the PasteSpecial dialog box to keep your source anddestination data synchronized. If you click thePaste Link button when pasting, when you makechanges to the source data, Excel automaticallyupdates the destination data.Did You Know?You do not have to open the Paste Special dialogbox to paste formulas and values. You can selectthese options directly from the Paste menu on theHome tab.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 67

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