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International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) Vol-1, Issue-2, (2017), 58-63
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation
(IJREI)
journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com
ISSN (Online): 2456-6934
___________________________________________________________________________________
Corresponding author: R.S.Mishra
Email Address: rsmishra@dce.ac.in 58
Effect of process parameters using friction stir processing /welding of steel-
a review
R.S. Mishra, Tanusha
Department of Mechanical, Production & Industrial and Automobiles Engineering
Delhi Technological University Delhi
E Mail: rsmishra@dce.ac.in, tanushadtu.96@gmail.com
__________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Microstructural changes and flow of material have be comprehensively studied by many researchers. A lot of studies have
been conducted by changing the process parameters such as axial load, feed, speed of the tool, tool geometry, tool tilt angle
etc. to find the optimum process parameters. Friction stir welding can be applied on various materials such as aluminum,
manganese, copper. Till date majority of the research and development was done on aluminum alloys. This is so because Al
alloys are easy to deform at relatively low temperatures (approximately below 550 Celsius). Also, they are easier to weld as
compared to other materials. But these days a lot of studies are being conducted on carrying out friction stir processing on
steel. This process improves mechanical properties like tensile strength, ductility, micro-hardness etc.
© 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved
Keywords: Micro-structure, Tensile strength, Micro-hardness, FSP, Steel
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a process of modifying the
microstructure of a metal by intense and localized heating
leading to plastic deformation. The tool used consists of
non-consumable tool having a pin and shoulder of a
predefined diameter. The tool is made to revolve in a
stirring motion and transverse motion is then provided to
the tool. FSP can be performed in multiple passes. Multi-
pass FSP has a certain number of overlap generally half the
diameter of the pin between successive passes which is
required for large contact areas. It leads to localized heating
of the work piece till plastic deformation due to friction
between the tool and the work piece. This leads to
refinement of grain structure. The size of the particles
decreased significantly thereby enhancing mechanical
properties such as tensile strength and ductility. However
it does not change the physical state of the material while
changing the physical properties.
This is a two steps process, i.e., first localized heating and
then material flow. Whereas heat treatment is a multistep
process including heating to recrystallization temperature
and then quenching. This helps in increasing ductility and
improves corrosion and wear resistance properties. FSP is
majorly used for various cast aluminum and magnesium
and copper alloys however it is been now employed to
modify steel also.
It offers advantage over heat treatment and other modes of
strengthening as it does not produce any by-products which
may be toxic. It is the most environment friendly and
sustainable form of processes. This is an upcoming and
promising process for the aerospace, aviation and
automobile industry as it helps enhance mechanical
properties of the alloys as well as pure metals of aluminum,
copper, manganese and even steel.
The varied research work done by scientists and authors
regarding the effect of FSP parameters including tool
geometry, rotational speed, axial load, tool tilt angle etc.
has been taken into consideration for this review study.
2. Literature Review
The following is a review of the published data on the
effects of process parameters such as rotational speed, tool
tilt angle, feed, load, tool geometry etc. on steel by friction
stir processing (FSP).The table below gives the details
considered by various authors and their conclusion.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63
59
S.No
.
Author Material Used Tool Used Parameters Conclusion
1.
Z. Feng, M.
L. Santella,
and S. A.
David
Two uncoated
AHSS steels were
used. One of
600MPa strength
(DP600) and other
1310 MPa strength
(M190).
Single tool of
polycrystalline
cubic boron
nitride. Tool
pin height
2mm and
shoulder
diameter
10mm.
For all experiments tool
rotation speed was kept
constant at 1500 rpm.
Tensile test and shear test
conducted with
specimens 38.1-mm
width and 127-mm
length and cross section
50.8-mm width and
152.4-mm length.
It produced approximately a hundred
welds without noticeable wear.
The TMAZ section showed similar
microstructure and micro-hardness as
in the base metal for both steels under
study. The M190 steel showed
significant softening. Tensile strength
reduced significantly for both the
steels. While the joint strength for
both the steels increased.
2.
H. K. D. H.
Bhadeshia
and T.
DebRoy
Multiple tools of
different studies
Multiple tools
of different
studies Different studies
Joining is a problem for steel which
cannot be tackled using conventional
techniques. Thus adaptation of this
process for steel in industry is a bit
difficult especially in under water
joining in case of underwater
pipelines. Tool wear during the
process also processes problems for
its strength and hardness.
3.
Y.S. Sato ,
T.W. Nelson ,
C.J. Sterling ,
R.J. Steel , C.-
O. Pettersson
SAF 2507 super
duplex stainless steel
of thickness 4 mm ,
300 mm length, 100
mm width.
PCBN friction
stir welding
tool with
shoulder
diameter 25
mm and pin
height 3.8 mm.
Atmosphere of argon was
introduced through a gas
chamber at the tool flow
rate of 2.8 × 105 mm3/s.
Tilt angle was kept at 3.5
degrees.
Rotational speed was
kept at 450 rpm and feed
at 1mm/sec.
Micro-structure and
Vickers hardness test
were conducted at 9.8N
load.
Increased the weld ability of the
material. The ferrite and austenite
phases were refined through dynamic
recrystallization. Increased hardness
and strength in stir zone was
observed. The ultimate tensile
strength was roughly the same as that
of the base metal.
4.
H.S. Grewal,
H.S. Arora,
H. Singh, A.
Agrawal
Hydroturbine steel,
13Cr4Ni was used
for the analysis.
Sample size 80 mm
× 40 mm × 5 mm
was chosen. All
samples were
grinded to ensure
flatness.
Tool chosen
was tungsten
carbide with
pin diameter
4mm and pin
height 0.5 mm.
Electron
polishing
machine was
chosen.
The specimens after
processing were
methanol quenched at
kept at -20 degree
Celsius. Rotation speed
was kept at 2500 rpm,
feed at 20mm/sec.
Tool pressure was
0.3mm.
Microstructure was redefined
consisting of ultrafine and sub-micron
grains and large carbide particles
were disintegrated. About 2.6%
improvement in micro-hardness.
Greater resistance to cavitations
erosion. Fatigue was observed in the
base metal at the time of processing.
Increased ductility when compared to
the base metal.
5. Yutaka S.
Sato, Tracy
W. Nelson ,
Colin J.
Sterling
304L austenitic
stainless, hot rolled,
with thickness
6.4mm.
PCBN tool
with shoulder
diameter
25mm, pin
height 3.2 mm.
Pin tapered
from 9mm
(shoulder) to
7mm (pin).
Surface polished by 80
grit emery cloth.
Atmosphere of argon was
introduced through a gas
chamber at the tool flow
rate of 2.8 × 105 mm3/s.
Tilt angle was kept at 3.5
degrees. Rotational speed
was kept at 450 rpm and
feed at 2mm/sec.
Initially undergoes dynamic
crystallization, at the time of intense
deformation and heating, the
undergoes static recrystallization in
those regions of high dislocation
densities. Increased hardness and
strength in stir zone was observed.
The ultimate tensile strength was
roughly the same as that of the base
metal.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63
60
6.
Hidetoshi
Fujii, Rintaro
Ueji, Yutaka
Takada,
Hiromoto
Kitahara,
Nobuhiro
Tsuji,
Kazuhiro
Nakata and
Kiyoshi Nogi
Ultra-low-carbon IF
steel of thickness
1.6mm , length
300mm,width 30mm
for the experiment.
Accumulative
roll-bonding
(ARB) process
was applied to
get ultra-
refined grain
structure.
Tool made up
of tungsten
carbide with
shoulder
diameter 12
mm, pin
diameter 4mm,
pin height
1.4mm.
Multiple pass was used 5
times.Samples were
annealed at 600 degree
Celsius.Samples were
butt welded using fsw
machine. Tool tilt angle
was kept at 3 degree,
rotation speed 400 rpm.
Argon shielding gas was
used during welding.
It decreased the mean size of the
grains from 24.2 to 0.7 µm. The
hardness of the stir zone increased
with the decrease in the grain size.
The steel with grain size of
approximately 1.8 µm gives highest
hardness.
7.
Nhon Q.
Vo, David
C. Dunand,
David N.
Seidman
Al 4.1, Mg
0.47 Sc
0.022 Zr
0.041 Ti 0.15
Fe 0.043
Si by %wt.
Pin height 2.2
mm,pin
diameter
3.75mm at the
tip and 6mm at
the shoulder.
Shoulder
diameter
12mm.
Varied rotational speed
i.e. 325 rpm and 400 rpm.
Transverse speed 3.4
mm/sec.
Tool tilt angle 2.5 degree.
Load applied at
300gm/10sec.
SEM machine used to
record results.
Increased strength up to 1350±35MPa
(maximum) because of strengthening
of grain boundary.
8.
Y. Morisadac,
H. Fujii, T.
Mizuno, G.
Abe, T.
Nagaoka, M.
Fukusumi
Tool steel
Tool made up
of tungsten
carbide.
Conical shape
with column
diameter
12mm and
probe diameter
4mm and
probe height
0.5mm.
Multi pass heating
conducted. Rotational
speed was kept at
400rpm. Overlap
between the passes was
0.3mm. Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ.
Crystal structure after
FSP was identified by
XRD. Micro-hardness
measured by Vickers
micro-hardness tester
with a load of 300g.
There were no coarse carbide
particles in the FSP zone. Increase in
micro-hardness from 260 to 473HV.
Particle size reduced to less than 1µm.
9.
H Schmidt, J
Hattel and J
Wert
Two aluminium
plates with 3mm
thickness,60mm
width,150mm
length.
2043 T3 heat
treatable alloy
with shoulder
cone angle of
10ᵒ.
Pin diameter
6mm and pin
height 2.5mm.
Rotational speed 400
rpm.Feed was kept at
120mm/min.
Tool tilt angle 10
Heat generation equation is proposed.
10.
A.P.
Reynolds,
Wei Tang, T.
Gnaupel-
Herold, H.
Prask
304L stainless steel
Composition: 0.03C,
2 Mn, 0.75 Si,8-12
Ni,18-20 Cr,0.1
N,0.03 S,0.045 P,
balance Fe.
Plate dimensions
305mm X102mm X
3.2mm.
Tungsten alloy
tool of
shoulder
diameter
19mm.
Rotational speed of 300
rpm and 500 rpm.
For tensile strength
width, thickness and
gauge length were 4mm,
3mm and 50mm.
Residual stress pattern were similar to
fusion welding. With 500 rpm grain
size was 13µm and with 300 rpm
grain size was 7.6µm. Thus with
reduction of rotational speed the grain
size reduces.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63
61
11.
P. Xue, B.L.
Xiao, W.G.
Wang, Q.
Zhang, D.
Wang, Q.Z.
Wang, Z.Y.
Ma
Plain low carbon
steel of composition:
0.17 C,1.3 Mn, 0.35
Si, 0.017 P, 0.018 S,
balance Fe.
Tool steel with
end shoulder
titanium
carbide.
Shoulder
diameter
14mm.
Rotational speed 400 rpm
and feed 50mm/min.
Scanning electron
microscope for micro-
structural analysis.
Vickers hardness
performed on 200g load
for 10 sec.
Ultra-fine grain structure was formed.
Increased strength and ductility.
12.
J.D. Escobar,
E. Vela´
squez , T.F.A.
Santos , A.J.
Ramirez, D.
Lo´pez
UNS 32205 DSS
having composition:
0.023 C, 1.8 Mn, 0.3
Si, 22.5 Cr, 5.4
Ni,2.8 Mo, 0.03 P,
0.01 S, 0.16 N
Plate dimensions:
350x150x6 mm.
Friction stir
welding
machine with
PCBN-40%W-
Re tool with
pin height
6mm.
Untitled, rotational speed
200 rpm and feed 100
mm/min.
Enhanced wear rate and incubation
time and this was due to modification
of mechanical properties like
refinement of grain and reduction of
grain size. It was observed that it
reduced porosity level in the
specimen.
13.
G. Buffa , L.
Fratini, S.
Pasta, R.
Shivpuri
AA7075-T6
aluminium alloy
with dimensions
90x60mm.
H13 tool steel
Rotational speed
715rpm.
Tool plunge 2.95mm and
feed 50mm/min.
Tool tilt angle 2ᵒ.
Residual stresses are mainly because
of thermal flux due to friction
between work piece and tool in the
shoulder work piece interface.
There is no residual stress due to
stirring action of tool pin.Result in
modification of metallurgical
properties.
14.
Hoon-Hwe
Cho et al
API X100 grade
linepipe steel of
composition: 0.05-
0.07 C,0.25Si, <2
Mn,<0.01 P, <0.001
S,<0.05 Nb, <0.05
V, <0.3Mo, and
thickness 10mm.
PCBN tool
with shoulder
diameter
16mm and pin
diameter 4mm.
Tool rotation speed 450
rpm and feed
127mm/min.
Fine grain microstructure was
obtained. Significant difference
between base metal and fsw weld.
15.
Yoshihiko
Hangai et al
Aluminium foam
sandwich with
aluminium foam
core and two
metallic face sheets.
Friction stir
welding
machine with
SKH51 high-
speed tool steel
tool of
shoulder
diameter
17mm, pin
diameter 6 mm
and pin height
5mm.
Rotational speed 2200
rpm and feed
100mm/min.
Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ. Plunge
depth was set at 0.2mm.
Metallurgical bonding between
aluminum and steel sheets can be
achieved by friction stir welding with
a reliable interface bonding.
16.
W H Jiang, R
Kovacevic
6061-T6 Al alloy
and AISI 1018 mild
steel were welded.
Composition of
6061-T6 alloy : 0.25
Cu , 1 Mg, 0.6 Mn,
0.6 Si, balance Al.
Composition of AISI
1018 mild steel: 0.18
C, 0.75 Mn, P<0.04,
S<0.04, balance Fe.
H13 tool steel
with shoulder
diameter
25mm and pin
diameter
5.5mm.
Butt welded with single
pass.
Rotational speed
914rpm,feed
140mm/min.
Weld so obtained after performing
FSW is free of cracks and porosity.
Weld has high tensile strength.
Hardness is much greater than that of
the base alloy.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63
62
3. Conclusions
After study of various studies of investigators, it was
concluded that FSP is an advantageous and most
ecofriendly green technology. Due to grain boundary
strengthening the tensile strength and ductility increases
when compared to the base metal. It can be used to convert
heterogeneous metal to homogeneous metal. It reduces
porosity significantly.
Multi pass processing produces enhanced mechanical
properties compared to single pass. It is simple and easy to
control and produces no toxic by-products as against
conventional methods and thus is sustainable green
technology. It is a simple two-step process compared to
multi step process of heat treatment.
Also, it does not change the physical state of the work piece
but changes the micro-structure. It minimizes surface
defects thereby increasing fatigue strength and reducing
crack growth rate.
References
[1] Z. Feng, M. L. Santella, and S. A. David,(2005), Friction Stir
Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels –A
Feasibility Study. SAE International.
[2] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*1 and T. DebRoy2 2009 Critical
assessment: friction stir welding of steels Science and
Technology of Welding and Joining, 14(3), 195-202.
[3] Y.S. Sato, T.W. Nelson, C.J. Sterling , R.J. Steel , C.-O.
Pettersson (2005), Microstructure and mechanical properties
of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel
Materials Science and Engineering A 397 376–384.
[4] H S Grawal, HS Arora, H Singh, A Agrawal (2013),
Surface modification of hydroturbine steel using friction stir
processing Applied Surface Science, - Elsevier, press, U K
[5] Yutaka S. Sato,, Tracy W. Nelson b, Colin J. Sterling (2005)
Recrystallization in type 304L stainless steel during friction
stirring Acta Materialia, Elsevier, Vol-53, page-637–645.
[6] Hidetoshi Fujii1, Rintaro Ueji, Yutaka Takada1, Hiromoto
Kitahara, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Kazuhiro Nakata1 and Kiyoshi
Nogi1 (2006) Friction Stir Welding of Ultrafine Grained
Interstitial Free Steels, Materials Transactions, (The Japan
Institute of Metals )Vol. 47, No. 1 pp. 239 to 242
[7] Nhon Q. Vo, David C. Dunand, David N. Seidman92012)
Atom probe tomographic study of rfriction stir processed Al-
Mg-Sc alloy
17.
Husain Mehdi
,R.S. Mishra
Ti-6Al-4V, F357,
Al-4Mg-1Zr H13 tool steel,
CY16
The rotation speed of pin
was 350 rpm, 1500 rpm
and travel speed was
15mm/min
The mechanical properties of welded
joint by friction stir welding are
largely dependent on the combined
effect of both the composition of
alloying element and processing
parameter, there for, the mechanical
performance of friction stir welding
joint should be evaluated accordingly.
18 Husain Mehdi
,R.S. Mishra
Al-7075, A356,
6061, Al-4Mg-1Zr
H13 tool steel
Tool rotaion speed was
400,600, 800, 1200 and
1600 rpm whereas tool
transverse speed was 100
and 400 mm/min were
used.
FSW is a potential welding process to
achieve defect free joint. Welding
parameter such as tool rotation,
transverse speed and axial force have
a significant effect on the amount of
heat generated and strength of FSW
joints. Microstructure evaluation of
FSW joints clearly shows the
formation of new fine grains and
refinement of reinforcement particles
in the weld zone with different
amount of heat input by controlling
the welding parameter.
19.
Yoshiaki
Morisada et al
Cold worked tool
steel, SKD11,
having chemical
composition: 1.48C,
0.29Si, 0.35 Mn,
0.25P, 0.01 S,
0.09Cu, 11.74Cr,
0.85Mo, balance Fe.
Tungsten
carbide-cobalt
hard metal tool
was used
without a pin.
Shoulder
diameter
12mm.
Tool rotation speed 400
rpm, feed 400mm/min.
Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ.
Micro-structure was
analysed through XRD
and micro-hardness was
tested with Vickers micro
hardness tester.
Diffusion zone is formed without any
nitrate particles formation.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63
63
[8] Y. Morisadac, H. Fujii , T. Mizunob, G. Abeb, T. Nagaokac,
M. Fukusumic (2009) Nanostructured tool steel fabricated
by combination of laser melting and friction stir processing
Materials Science and Engineering Vol- 505 page157–162
[9] H Schmidt, J Hattel and J Wert (2004) Analytical model for
heat generation in friction stir processing Journal of
Modelling Simulation . Mater. Sci. Eng. Vol-12, page- 143-
157
[10] A.P. Reynolds, Wei Tang, T. Gnaupel-Herold, H. Prask
(2003) Structure, properties, and residual stress of 304L
stainless steel friction stir welds Scripta Materialia, Elsevier,
Vol- 48 , page 1289–1294
[11] P.Xue,B.L.Xiao,W.G.Wang,Q.Zhang,D.Wang,Q.Z.Wang,Z
.Y.Ma (2013Achieving ultrafine dual-phase structure with
superior mechanical property in friction stir processed plain
low carbon steel , Materials Science & Engineering A
Elsevier) ,Vol-575,page 30-34.
[12] T.F.A.Santos, A.J.Ramirez, D.Lopez (2013), Improvement
of cavitation erosion resistance of a duplex stainless steel
through friction stir processing (FSP), A Wear, Elsevier,
Vol-297, page-998-1005
[13] G. Buffa, L. Fratini1 , S. Pasta, R. Shivpuri ( 2008)) On the
Thermo-mechanical Loads and the Resultant Residual
Stresses in Friction Stir Processing Operations, CIRP,
Annals, Manufacturing Technology , Dec-2008
[14] Hoon-Hwe Cho , Suk Hoon Kang, Sung-Hwan Kim , Kyu
Hwan Oha, Heung Ju Kim ,Woong-Seong Chang c, Heung
Nam Han (2012) Microstructural evolution in friction stir
welding of high-strength linepipe steel, Material and
Design,Elsevier, Vol-34, Page-258-267.
[15] Yoshihiko Hangai1, Nobuyuki Ishii,, Shinji Koyama1,
Takao Utsunomiya,Osamu Kuwazuru and Nobuhiro
Yoshikawa4 (2012) Fabrication and Tensile Tests of
Aluminum Foam Sandwich with Dense Steel Face Sheets by
Friction Stir Processing Route, Materials Transactions, (The
Japan Institute of Metals), Vol. 53, No. 4 pp. 584 to 587,
[16] W H Jiang and R Kovacevic (2004), Feasibility study of
friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy with AISI
1018 steel, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers Part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture,2004.
[17] Husain Mehdi, R,S,Mishra, Mechanical Properties and
Microstructure Studies in Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
Joints of Dissimilar Alloy – A Review, Journal of
Achievements in Matrials and Manufacturing Engineering,
77 (1), 2016, 31-40.
[18] Husain Mehdi, Influences of Process Parameter and
Microstructural Studies in Friction Stir Welding of Different
Alloys: A Review, International Journal of Advanced
Production and Industrial Engineering, special issue, 2017,
55-62.
[19] Yoshika Morisada, Hidetoshi Fujii, Tadashi Mizuno Genryu
Abe (2009), Surface Modification of nitride layer on cold-
work tool steel by laser melting and friction stir processing
& Coatings Technology, Elsevier, Vol-204, page-386–390.

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Effect of process parameters using friction stir processing /welding of steel- a review

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) Vol-1, Issue-2, (2017), 58-63 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com ISSN (Online): 2456-6934 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Corresponding author: R.S.Mishra Email Address: rsmishra@dce.ac.in 58 Effect of process parameters using friction stir processing /welding of steel- a review R.S. Mishra, Tanusha Department of Mechanical, Production & Industrial and Automobiles Engineering Delhi Technological University Delhi E Mail: rsmishra@dce.ac.in, tanushadtu.96@gmail.com __________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract Microstructural changes and flow of material have be comprehensively studied by many researchers. A lot of studies have been conducted by changing the process parameters such as axial load, feed, speed of the tool, tool geometry, tool tilt angle etc. to find the optimum process parameters. Friction stir welding can be applied on various materials such as aluminum, manganese, copper. Till date majority of the research and development was done on aluminum alloys. This is so because Al alloys are easy to deform at relatively low temperatures (approximately below 550 Celsius). Also, they are easier to weld as compared to other materials. But these days a lot of studies are being conducted on carrying out friction stir processing on steel. This process improves mechanical properties like tensile strength, ductility, micro-hardness etc. © 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved Keywords: Micro-structure, Tensile strength, Micro-hardness, FSP, Steel ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction Friction stir processing (FSP) is a process of modifying the microstructure of a metal by intense and localized heating leading to plastic deformation. The tool used consists of non-consumable tool having a pin and shoulder of a predefined diameter. The tool is made to revolve in a stirring motion and transverse motion is then provided to the tool. FSP can be performed in multiple passes. Multi- pass FSP has a certain number of overlap generally half the diameter of the pin between successive passes which is required for large contact areas. It leads to localized heating of the work piece till plastic deformation due to friction between the tool and the work piece. This leads to refinement of grain structure. The size of the particles decreased significantly thereby enhancing mechanical properties such as tensile strength and ductility. However it does not change the physical state of the material while changing the physical properties. This is a two steps process, i.e., first localized heating and then material flow. Whereas heat treatment is a multistep process including heating to recrystallization temperature and then quenching. This helps in increasing ductility and improves corrosion and wear resistance properties. FSP is majorly used for various cast aluminum and magnesium and copper alloys however it is been now employed to modify steel also. It offers advantage over heat treatment and other modes of strengthening as it does not produce any by-products which may be toxic. It is the most environment friendly and sustainable form of processes. This is an upcoming and promising process for the aerospace, aviation and automobile industry as it helps enhance mechanical properties of the alloys as well as pure metals of aluminum, copper, manganese and even steel. The varied research work done by scientists and authors regarding the effect of FSP parameters including tool geometry, rotational speed, axial load, tool tilt angle etc. has been taken into consideration for this review study. 2. Literature Review The following is a review of the published data on the effects of process parameters such as rotational speed, tool tilt angle, feed, load, tool geometry etc. on steel by friction stir processing (FSP).The table below gives the details considered by various authors and their conclusion.
  • 2. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63 59 S.No . Author Material Used Tool Used Parameters Conclusion 1. Z. Feng, M. L. Santella, and S. A. David Two uncoated AHSS steels were used. One of 600MPa strength (DP600) and other 1310 MPa strength (M190). Single tool of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tool pin height 2mm and shoulder diameter 10mm. For all experiments tool rotation speed was kept constant at 1500 rpm. Tensile test and shear test conducted with specimens 38.1-mm width and 127-mm length and cross section 50.8-mm width and 152.4-mm length. It produced approximately a hundred welds without noticeable wear. The TMAZ section showed similar microstructure and micro-hardness as in the base metal for both steels under study. The M190 steel showed significant softening. Tensile strength reduced significantly for both the steels. While the joint strength for both the steels increased. 2. H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and T. DebRoy Multiple tools of different studies Multiple tools of different studies Different studies Joining is a problem for steel which cannot be tackled using conventional techniques. Thus adaptation of this process for steel in industry is a bit difficult especially in under water joining in case of underwater pipelines. Tool wear during the process also processes problems for its strength and hardness. 3. Y.S. Sato , T.W. Nelson , C.J. Sterling , R.J. Steel , C.- O. Pettersson SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel of thickness 4 mm , 300 mm length, 100 mm width. PCBN friction stir welding tool with shoulder diameter 25 mm and pin height 3.8 mm. Atmosphere of argon was introduced through a gas chamber at the tool flow rate of 2.8 × 105 mm3/s. Tilt angle was kept at 3.5 degrees. Rotational speed was kept at 450 rpm and feed at 1mm/sec. Micro-structure and Vickers hardness test were conducted at 9.8N load. Increased the weld ability of the material. The ferrite and austenite phases were refined through dynamic recrystallization. Increased hardness and strength in stir zone was observed. The ultimate tensile strength was roughly the same as that of the base metal. 4. H.S. Grewal, H.S. Arora, H. Singh, A. Agrawal Hydroturbine steel, 13Cr4Ni was used for the analysis. Sample size 80 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm was chosen. All samples were grinded to ensure flatness. Tool chosen was tungsten carbide with pin diameter 4mm and pin height 0.5 mm. Electron polishing machine was chosen. The specimens after processing were methanol quenched at kept at -20 degree Celsius. Rotation speed was kept at 2500 rpm, feed at 20mm/sec. Tool pressure was 0.3mm. Microstructure was redefined consisting of ultrafine and sub-micron grains and large carbide particles were disintegrated. About 2.6% improvement in micro-hardness. Greater resistance to cavitations erosion. Fatigue was observed in the base metal at the time of processing. Increased ductility when compared to the base metal. 5. Yutaka S. Sato, Tracy W. Nelson , Colin J. Sterling 304L austenitic stainless, hot rolled, with thickness 6.4mm. PCBN tool with shoulder diameter 25mm, pin height 3.2 mm. Pin tapered from 9mm (shoulder) to 7mm (pin). Surface polished by 80 grit emery cloth. Atmosphere of argon was introduced through a gas chamber at the tool flow rate of 2.8 × 105 mm3/s. Tilt angle was kept at 3.5 degrees. Rotational speed was kept at 450 rpm and feed at 2mm/sec. Initially undergoes dynamic crystallization, at the time of intense deformation and heating, the undergoes static recrystallization in those regions of high dislocation densities. Increased hardness and strength in stir zone was observed. The ultimate tensile strength was roughly the same as that of the base metal.
  • 3. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63 60 6. Hidetoshi Fujii, Rintaro Ueji, Yutaka Takada, Hiromoto Kitahara, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Kazuhiro Nakata and Kiyoshi Nogi Ultra-low-carbon IF steel of thickness 1.6mm , length 300mm,width 30mm for the experiment. Accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process was applied to get ultra- refined grain structure. Tool made up of tungsten carbide with shoulder diameter 12 mm, pin diameter 4mm, pin height 1.4mm. Multiple pass was used 5 times.Samples were annealed at 600 degree Celsius.Samples were butt welded using fsw machine. Tool tilt angle was kept at 3 degree, rotation speed 400 rpm. Argon shielding gas was used during welding. It decreased the mean size of the grains from 24.2 to 0.7 µm. The hardness of the stir zone increased with the decrease in the grain size. The steel with grain size of approximately 1.8 µm gives highest hardness. 7. Nhon Q. Vo, David C. Dunand, David N. Seidman Al 4.1, Mg 0.47 Sc 0.022 Zr 0.041 Ti 0.15 Fe 0.043 Si by %wt. Pin height 2.2 mm,pin diameter 3.75mm at the tip and 6mm at the shoulder. Shoulder diameter 12mm. Varied rotational speed i.e. 325 rpm and 400 rpm. Transverse speed 3.4 mm/sec. Tool tilt angle 2.5 degree. Load applied at 300gm/10sec. SEM machine used to record results. Increased strength up to 1350±35MPa (maximum) because of strengthening of grain boundary. 8. Y. Morisadac, H. Fujii, T. Mizuno, G. Abe, T. Nagaoka, M. Fukusumi Tool steel Tool made up of tungsten carbide. Conical shape with column diameter 12mm and probe diameter 4mm and probe height 0.5mm. Multi pass heating conducted. Rotational speed was kept at 400rpm. Overlap between the passes was 0.3mm. Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ. Crystal structure after FSP was identified by XRD. Micro-hardness measured by Vickers micro-hardness tester with a load of 300g. There were no coarse carbide particles in the FSP zone. Increase in micro-hardness from 260 to 473HV. Particle size reduced to less than 1µm. 9. H Schmidt, J Hattel and J Wert Two aluminium plates with 3mm thickness,60mm width,150mm length. 2043 T3 heat treatable alloy with shoulder cone angle of 10ᵒ. Pin diameter 6mm and pin height 2.5mm. Rotational speed 400 rpm.Feed was kept at 120mm/min. Tool tilt angle 10 Heat generation equation is proposed. 10. A.P. Reynolds, Wei Tang, T. Gnaupel- Herold, H. Prask 304L stainless steel Composition: 0.03C, 2 Mn, 0.75 Si,8-12 Ni,18-20 Cr,0.1 N,0.03 S,0.045 P, balance Fe. Plate dimensions 305mm X102mm X 3.2mm. Tungsten alloy tool of shoulder diameter 19mm. Rotational speed of 300 rpm and 500 rpm. For tensile strength width, thickness and gauge length were 4mm, 3mm and 50mm. Residual stress pattern were similar to fusion welding. With 500 rpm grain size was 13µm and with 300 rpm grain size was 7.6µm. Thus with reduction of rotational speed the grain size reduces.
  • 4. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63 61 11. P. Xue, B.L. Xiao, W.G. Wang, Q. Zhang, D. Wang, Q.Z. Wang, Z.Y. Ma Plain low carbon steel of composition: 0.17 C,1.3 Mn, 0.35 Si, 0.017 P, 0.018 S, balance Fe. Tool steel with end shoulder titanium carbide. Shoulder diameter 14mm. Rotational speed 400 rpm and feed 50mm/min. Scanning electron microscope for micro- structural analysis. Vickers hardness performed on 200g load for 10 sec. Ultra-fine grain structure was formed. Increased strength and ductility. 12. J.D. Escobar, E. Vela´ squez , T.F.A. Santos , A.J. Ramirez, D. Lo´pez UNS 32205 DSS having composition: 0.023 C, 1.8 Mn, 0.3 Si, 22.5 Cr, 5.4 Ni,2.8 Mo, 0.03 P, 0.01 S, 0.16 N Plate dimensions: 350x150x6 mm. Friction stir welding machine with PCBN-40%W- Re tool with pin height 6mm. Untitled, rotational speed 200 rpm and feed 100 mm/min. Enhanced wear rate and incubation time and this was due to modification of mechanical properties like refinement of grain and reduction of grain size. It was observed that it reduced porosity level in the specimen. 13. G. Buffa , L. Fratini, S. Pasta, R. Shivpuri AA7075-T6 aluminium alloy with dimensions 90x60mm. H13 tool steel Rotational speed 715rpm. Tool plunge 2.95mm and feed 50mm/min. Tool tilt angle 2ᵒ. Residual stresses are mainly because of thermal flux due to friction between work piece and tool in the shoulder work piece interface. There is no residual stress due to stirring action of tool pin.Result in modification of metallurgical properties. 14. Hoon-Hwe Cho et al API X100 grade linepipe steel of composition: 0.05- 0.07 C,0.25Si, <2 Mn,<0.01 P, <0.001 S,<0.05 Nb, <0.05 V, <0.3Mo, and thickness 10mm. PCBN tool with shoulder diameter 16mm and pin diameter 4mm. Tool rotation speed 450 rpm and feed 127mm/min. Fine grain microstructure was obtained. Significant difference between base metal and fsw weld. 15. Yoshihiko Hangai et al Aluminium foam sandwich with aluminium foam core and two metallic face sheets. Friction stir welding machine with SKH51 high- speed tool steel tool of shoulder diameter 17mm, pin diameter 6 mm and pin height 5mm. Rotational speed 2200 rpm and feed 100mm/min. Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ. Plunge depth was set at 0.2mm. Metallurgical bonding between aluminum and steel sheets can be achieved by friction stir welding with a reliable interface bonding. 16. W H Jiang, R Kovacevic 6061-T6 Al alloy and AISI 1018 mild steel were welded. Composition of 6061-T6 alloy : 0.25 Cu , 1 Mg, 0.6 Mn, 0.6 Si, balance Al. Composition of AISI 1018 mild steel: 0.18 C, 0.75 Mn, P<0.04, S<0.04, balance Fe. H13 tool steel with shoulder diameter 25mm and pin diameter 5.5mm. Butt welded with single pass. Rotational speed 914rpm,feed 140mm/min. Weld so obtained after performing FSW is free of cracks and porosity. Weld has high tensile strength. Hardness is much greater than that of the base alloy.
  • 5. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63 62 3. Conclusions After study of various studies of investigators, it was concluded that FSP is an advantageous and most ecofriendly green technology. Due to grain boundary strengthening the tensile strength and ductility increases when compared to the base metal. It can be used to convert heterogeneous metal to homogeneous metal. It reduces porosity significantly. Multi pass processing produces enhanced mechanical properties compared to single pass. It is simple and easy to control and produces no toxic by-products as against conventional methods and thus is sustainable green technology. It is a simple two-step process compared to multi step process of heat treatment. Also, it does not change the physical state of the work piece but changes the micro-structure. It minimizes surface defects thereby increasing fatigue strength and reducing crack growth rate. References [1] Z. Feng, M. L. Santella, and S. A. David,(2005), Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels –A Feasibility Study. SAE International. [2] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*1 and T. DebRoy2 2009 Critical assessment: friction stir welding of steels Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 14(3), 195-202. [3] Y.S. Sato, T.W. Nelson, C.J. Sterling , R.J. Steel , C.-O. Pettersson (2005), Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel Materials Science and Engineering A 397 376–384. [4] H S Grawal, HS Arora, H Singh, A Agrawal (2013), Surface modification of hydroturbine steel using friction stir processing Applied Surface Science, - Elsevier, press, U K [5] Yutaka S. Sato,, Tracy W. Nelson b, Colin J. Sterling (2005) Recrystallization in type 304L stainless steel during friction stirring Acta Materialia, Elsevier, Vol-53, page-637–645. [6] Hidetoshi Fujii1, Rintaro Ueji, Yutaka Takada1, Hiromoto Kitahara, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Kazuhiro Nakata1 and Kiyoshi Nogi1 (2006) Friction Stir Welding of Ultrafine Grained Interstitial Free Steels, Materials Transactions, (The Japan Institute of Metals )Vol. 47, No. 1 pp. 239 to 242 [7] Nhon Q. Vo, David C. Dunand, David N. Seidman92012) Atom probe tomographic study of rfriction stir processed Al- Mg-Sc alloy 17. Husain Mehdi ,R.S. Mishra Ti-6Al-4V, F357, Al-4Mg-1Zr H13 tool steel, CY16 The rotation speed of pin was 350 rpm, 1500 rpm and travel speed was 15mm/min The mechanical properties of welded joint by friction stir welding are largely dependent on the combined effect of both the composition of alloying element and processing parameter, there for, the mechanical performance of friction stir welding joint should be evaluated accordingly. 18 Husain Mehdi ,R.S. Mishra Al-7075, A356, 6061, Al-4Mg-1Zr H13 tool steel Tool rotaion speed was 400,600, 800, 1200 and 1600 rpm whereas tool transverse speed was 100 and 400 mm/min were used. FSW is a potential welding process to achieve defect free joint. Welding parameter such as tool rotation, transverse speed and axial force have a significant effect on the amount of heat generated and strength of FSW joints. Microstructure evaluation of FSW joints clearly shows the formation of new fine grains and refinement of reinforcement particles in the weld zone with different amount of heat input by controlling the welding parameter. 19. Yoshiaki Morisada et al Cold worked tool steel, SKD11, having chemical composition: 1.48C, 0.29Si, 0.35 Mn, 0.25P, 0.01 S, 0.09Cu, 11.74Cr, 0.85Mo, balance Fe. Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal tool was used without a pin. Shoulder diameter 12mm. Tool rotation speed 400 rpm, feed 400mm/min. Tool tilt angle 3ᵒ. Micro-structure was analysed through XRD and micro-hardness was tested with Vickers micro hardness tester. Diffusion zone is formed without any nitrate particles formation.
  • 6. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 58-63 63 [8] Y. Morisadac, H. Fujii , T. Mizunob, G. Abeb, T. Nagaokac, M. Fukusumic (2009) Nanostructured tool steel fabricated by combination of laser melting and friction stir processing Materials Science and Engineering Vol- 505 page157–162 [9] H Schmidt, J Hattel and J Wert (2004) Analytical model for heat generation in friction stir processing Journal of Modelling Simulation . Mater. Sci. Eng. Vol-12, page- 143- 157 [10] A.P. Reynolds, Wei Tang, T. Gnaupel-Herold, H. Prask (2003) Structure, properties, and residual stress of 304L stainless steel friction stir welds Scripta Materialia, Elsevier, Vol- 48 , page 1289–1294 [11] P.Xue,B.L.Xiao,W.G.Wang,Q.Zhang,D.Wang,Q.Z.Wang,Z .Y.Ma (2013Achieving ultrafine dual-phase structure with superior mechanical property in friction stir processed plain low carbon steel , Materials Science & Engineering A Elsevier) ,Vol-575,page 30-34. [12] T.F.A.Santos, A.J.Ramirez, D.Lopez (2013), Improvement of cavitation erosion resistance of a duplex stainless steel through friction stir processing (FSP), A Wear, Elsevier, Vol-297, page-998-1005 [13] G. Buffa, L. Fratini1 , S. Pasta, R. Shivpuri ( 2008)) On the Thermo-mechanical Loads and the Resultant Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Processing Operations, CIRP, Annals, Manufacturing Technology , Dec-2008 [14] Hoon-Hwe Cho , Suk Hoon Kang, Sung-Hwan Kim , Kyu Hwan Oha, Heung Ju Kim ,Woong-Seong Chang c, Heung Nam Han (2012) Microstructural evolution in friction stir welding of high-strength linepipe steel, Material and Design,Elsevier, Vol-34, Page-258-267. [15] Yoshihiko Hangai1, Nobuyuki Ishii,, Shinji Koyama1, Takao Utsunomiya,Osamu Kuwazuru and Nobuhiro Yoshikawa4 (2012) Fabrication and Tensile Tests of Aluminum Foam Sandwich with Dense Steel Face Sheets by Friction Stir Processing Route, Materials Transactions, (The Japan Institute of Metals), Vol. 53, No. 4 pp. 584 to 587, [16] W H Jiang and R Kovacevic (2004), Feasibility study of friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy with AISI 1018 steel, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture,2004. [17] Husain Mehdi, R,S,Mishra, Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Studies in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Joints of Dissimilar Alloy – A Review, Journal of Achievements in Matrials and Manufacturing Engineering, 77 (1), 2016, 31-40. [18] Husain Mehdi, Influences of Process Parameter and Microstructural Studies in Friction Stir Welding of Different Alloys: A Review, International Journal of Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering, special issue, 2017, 55-62. [19] Yoshika Morisada, Hidetoshi Fujii, Tadashi Mizuno Genryu Abe (2009), Surface Modification of nitride layer on cold- work tool steel by laser melting and friction stir processing & Coatings Technology, Elsevier, Vol-204, page-386–390.