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International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) Vol-1, Issue-2, (2017), 64-70
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation
(IJREI)
journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com
ISSN (Online): 2456-6934
___________________________________________________________________________________
Corresponding author: R.S.Mishra
Email Address: rsmishra@dce.ac.in 64
Comparative study of parabolic trough collector through MWCNT/H2o
nanofluid and water
R.S. Mishra, Harwinder Singh
Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Production Engineering, Delhi Technological University, India-110042
E.Mail:harrymehrok14@gmail.com, rsmishra@dtu.ac.in
__________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
In this present work MWCNT nanofluid and water were used as working fluid to compare the thermal performance of solar
parabolic trough collector. Both the fluids were flowing through receiver at different volume flow rates 160L/h and 100L/h.
Experimental tests was performed only during sunny weather and temperature at outlet of receiver was measured through
thermometer after every half an hour of total testing time period. MWCNT nanofluid with weight fraction 0.01% and 0.02%
and water were used to find efficiency of system and it has been seen that MWCNT nanofluid 0.02wt% with 160L/h showed
better results for overall thermal efficiency among other and also an application of surfactant Triton X-100 with in MWCNT
nanofluid was used to enhance the quantity of heat absorption capability of base fluid. © 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved
Keywords: MWCNTs, Solar Parabolic Trough Collector, Surfactant Triton X-100, Thermal performance, overall thermal efficiency
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
Solar parabolic trough collector is a prominent way to
generate the electric power for both commercial and
industrial purpose among other concentrating solar power
technologies. Conventional fluids are having a limited
capacity to extract and carrying heat in the receiver of
parabolic trough collector, therefore concept of using nano
fluids instead of conventional fluids become more popular
in solar thermal collector. In this present study MWCNT
nanofluid at different concentration and water as
conventional fluid were used to examine and compare the
performance of solar parabolic trough collector. Tooraj
Yousefi et al [1] was conducted an experimental study
through MWCNT nanofluid with 0.2wt% and 0.4wt % at
different mass flow rates 0.0167kg/sec to 0.05kg/sec and
also studied the effect of surfactant Triton X-100 on the
stability of nanofluid. Xiang-Qi Wang et al [2] studied
the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nano
fluids in forced and free convection. He also studied that
nano fluids has a capability to enhance the heat transfer
characteristics and concluded that nano fluids are
superior to conventional fluids in term of thermal
physical properties. It has been seen from review study
that suspended carbon nanotubes possess higher thermal
conductivity and aspect ratio as compare to other
existing nano particles. Nor Azwadi Che Sidik [3] et al
concentrated his review study upon synthesis process
for nano fluids. Both metallic and nonmetallic particles
can be used to prepare nano fluids, Apart from this it has
been noticed in this review work that metallic particles
acquire higher thermal conductivity value as
comparison to nano fluids containing oxide particles and
nano fluids possess also less specific heat and higher
viscosity as compare to conventional fluids. John Philip
et al [4] studied in his review work that enhancement in
thermal conductivity with incremental change in particle
volume fraction and effect of temperature on thermal
conductivity of nanofluid. Tooraj yousefi et al [5]
conducted an experimental study with the use of Al2O3-
H2O nanofluid as working fluid in flat plate collector.
Volume concentration of nano particles were taken as
0.2% and 0.4% with the application of surfactant Triton
X-100 and nanofluid was flowing through collector
tubes with different mass flow rates i.e. 1, 2 and
3Lit/min and it was concluded in this experimental work
that 28.3% enhancement in efficiency of collector along
with 15.63% efficiency enhancement with the
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
65
application of surfactant, which is due to enhancement
in heat transfer. Zhongyang Luo et al [6] was proposed a
simulation model of nano fluid solar collector based upon
direct absorption solar collection process by solving the
radiative heat transfer for particulate media along with
conductive and convective heat transfer in collector for
evaluation of efficiency and to achieve the purpose of
improvement in efficiency various nanoparticles like TiO2,
Al2O3, Ag, Cu, SiO2, graphite nanoparticles, and carbon
nanotubes were used in process of manufacturing nano
fluid. Further this study concludes that thermal
conductivity decrease with increase in temperature and
improvement in outlet temperature around 30k-100k along
with enhancement in efficiency 2-25% through nanofluid
than base oil. Omid Mahian [7] et al conducted a
theoretical to evaluate the performance of mini channel-
based flat plate collector by using four different types of
nanoparticles like Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 in water as
base fluid. Mass flow rate in this work was assumed 0.1%
and 0.5kg/s along with 4% volume fraction of
nanoparticles. This study was concluded that heat transfer
coefficient generally higher in all types of Nano fluids
except SiO2-H2O nanofluid and higher efficiency with
maximum entropy generation was measured through SiO2-
water based nanofluid, while lower efficiency and lowest
entropy generation was measured through Cu/water based
nanofluid. Ali Ijam [8] et al examine the stability of
nanofluid with the help of thermal conductivity and UV-
measurement technique and further thermos physical
properties and electrical conductivity of graphite oxide
nano sheets-deionized water and ethylene glycol were
investigated at different temperatures and it was concluded
in this research study that enhancement in thermal
conductivity in a linear way with increasing concentrations
and temperature and maximum enhancement in thermal
conductivity was measured from 6.67% to 10.47% with
volume fraction 0.10% and range of temperature varies
between 25 to 450
C. Further an enhancement in electrical
conductivity was noticed linearly with increasing the
temperature of nanofluid and nonlinear enhancement in
electrical conductivity was measured with increasing the
concentration of graphite oxide nano sheets. Tooraj
Yousefi et al [9] also conducted an experimental study
related to the investigation of pH value MWCNT-H2O
nanofluid on the performance of the flat plate collector and
results outcomes from the experimentation concluded that
enhancement in efficiency of the collector due to high
difference between pH of nanofluid and pH of isoelectric
point.
2. Experimental Procedure
2.1 Working fluids
MWCNT nanofluid and water were used as working fluid
in solar parabolic trough collector. MWCNTs with 97%
purity mixed with base fluid (Distilled water) used to
manufacture nanofluid. After reviewing all past research
work and going through lot of test run, sonication time was
decided up to 45 minutes with proper stirring for certain 8-
10 minutes. Application of Triton X-100 was used for the
proper dispersion of nanoparticles in base fluid during
experimental work. Water as working conventional fluid
was also used for evaluation and compares the
performance of collector.
(a)
(b)
Figure 1(a) & (b) showed sonicated MWCNT nanofluid at
different 0.01wt% and 0.02wt%
2.2 Mathematical equations
Important mathematical equations were used to evaluate
the performance and properties of nano fluids are discussed
as under:
Specific heat or heat capacity of nanofluid
cnf = {(1 – φp) ρf cf + φp ρnp cnp} / ρnf (1)
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
66
Density of nanofluid
ρnf = (1 – φp) ρf + φp ρnp (2)
Instantaneous efficiency
ηi = Qu / (GT Rb W L) (3)
Thermal efficiency
ηth=
mCnf(Tout−Tin)
AaperGTt
(4)
Overall thermal efficiency
ot =
mCnf(Tmax−Tmini)
AaperGavgT
(5)
2.3 Experimental set up
Parabolic trough collector has a receiver tube at focal point,
which was covered by glass tube to maintain vacuum
around absorber tube and it was coated black to absorb the
maximum amount of solar radiations. Mirror strips were
provided on parabolic shape of collector to reflect and
concentrate the sun light on absorber tube. Inlet and outlet
temperature measured through thermometer and storage
tank of certain capacity around 10 Liters was also provided
to store working fluid. Further proper aluminium foil and
glass wool insulation was used to cover piping system and
storage tank to reduce the heat losses. Pump was used for
continuous forced flow of liquid through the receiver tube.
Experiment was performed during the day time 9:30am to
3:00pm according to Indian standard time and during the
conditions of continuous solar flux. Global solar flux and
wind speed throughout the day measured with solar power
meter and anemometer. Figure 2 showed experimental set
up of solar parabolic collector, which is situated in Thapar
University (Patiala).
Figure: 2: Experimental set up of parabolic through collector at
Thapar University, Patiala
Table 1: Specification of parabolic trough collector
(Thapar University)
Length of collector 1.2m
Breadth of collector 0.915m
Aperture area 1.0188m2
Rim angle 90
Focal Length 0.30m
Receiver internal diameter 0.027m
Receiver outer diameter 0.028m
Glass cover internal diameter 0.064m
Glass cover outer diameter 0.066m
2.4 Experimental findings
This section contains inlet and outlet temperatures along
with total solar intensity data related to performance of
solar parabolic collector. Transient analysis was done on
solar collector and it was assumed that piping and storage
tank are fully insulated; it means that heat losses from these
system components are negligible.
Table 2: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.01wt% at 160L/h
on (24/3/2015)
Time
Interval
Tin
(℃)
Tout
(℃)
Solar
Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind
Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 24.9 27.9 941.454 0.9
10-10:30 27.9 33.1 1008.504 1
10:30-11 33.1 39.5 1123.949 0.2
11-11:30 39.5 45.5 1085.224 0.9
11:30-12 45.5 50.8 974.809 1
12-12:30 50.8 54.8 960.654 0.95
12:30-1 54.8 58 956.929 0.8
1-1:30 58 59.6 942.029 0.9
1:30-2 59.6 60.5 893.604 1.2
2-2:30 60.5 60.9 887.644 2.2
2:30-3 60.9 61.2 874.239 2.3
Table 3: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.01wt% at 100L/h
(25/3/2015)
Time interval Tin
(0
C)
Tout
(0
C)
Solar Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 26.6 29.9 690.964 0.4
10-10:30 29.9 35.6 725.234 0.6
10:30-11 35.6 41.9 759.504 0.8
11-11:30 41.9 47 834.749 0.7
11:30-12 47 49.9 860.079 0.55
12-12:30 49.9 52.9 854.864 0.7
12:30-1 52.9 55.4 881.684 1
1-1:30 55.4 57.5 883.919 1.15
1:30-2 57.5 58.6 868.274 1.45
2-2:30 58.6 59 865.294 3.55
2:30-3 59 59.2 712.569 1.3
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
67
Table 4: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.02wt% at 160L/h
(27/3/2015)
Time
interval
Tin
(℃)
Tout
(℃)
Solar
Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind
Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 26.2 29.2 755.779 0.2
10-10:30 29.2 33.3 881.109 0.8
10:30-11 33.3 38.7 971.884 0.8
11-11:30 38.7 44.9 1089.134 1.1
11:30-12 44.9 50.5 990.309 0.6
12-12:30 50.5 55.7 976.739 0.75
12:30-1 55.7 59.5 980.619 0.8
1-1:30 59.5 62.6 950.769 0.85
1:30-2 62.6 64 936.814 2.5
2-2:30 64 64.8 922.659 2.1
2:30-3 64.8 65.1 901.799 1.4
Table 5: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.02wt% at 100L/h
(28/3/2015)
Time
interval
Tin
(℃)
Tout
(℃)
Solar
Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind
Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 26.4 29.4 777.384 0.95
10-10:30 29.4 33.9 859.334 2.05
10:30-11 33.9 40.9 929.364 2.35
11-11:30 40.9 47.4 959.909 3.2
11:30-12 47.4 52.3 969.594 3.65
12-12:30 52.3 55.4 974.809 0.3
12:30-1 55.4 58.9 953.204 3.25
1-1:30 58.9 61 1003.119 2.1
1:30-2 61 62 1013.549 1.7
2-2:30 62 62.5 975.554 2
2:30-3 62.5 62.7 958.419 2.65
Table 6: Water at 160L/h (12/3/2015)
Time
interval
Tin
(℃)
Tout
(℃)
Solar
Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind
Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 17.6 19.8 765.464 0.5
10-10:30 19.8 23.4 788.559 0.25
10:30-11 23.4 26.9 833.259 1.15
11-11:30 26.9 31.5 864.549 0.5
11:30-12 31.5 34.8 893.604 0.65
12-12:30 34.8 37.8 924.149 1.1
12:30-1 37.8 40.9 960.654 0.4
1-1:30 40.9 43.3 940.539 0.65
1:30-2 43.3 45.1 934.579 1.1
2-2:30 45.1 46 948.734 0.7
2:30-3 46 46.3 946.499 1.9
Table 7: Water at 100L/h (13/3/2015)
Time
interval
Tin
(℃)
Tout
(℃)
Solar
Intensity
(W/m2
)
Wind
Speed
(m/s)
9:30-10 15.3 18 873.489 1.65
10-10:30 18 21.6 891.369 0.8
10:30-11 21.6 25.8 900.309 0.7
11-11:30 25.8 29.3 907.759 1.45
11:30-12 29.3 32.6 946.499 1.55
12-12:30 32.6 35.4 950.969 2.5
12:30-1 35.4 38 959.164 1.4
1-1:30 38 40.9 922.659 0.55
1:30-2 40.9 42.2 944.264 2.65
2-2:30 42.2 43 940.539 1.05
2:30-3 43 43.5 999.394 1.4
3. Results and Discussions
This section includes the comparative study between the
results achieved from MWCNT nanofluid (0.01wt% &
0.02wt %) and water at dissimilar volume flow rate 160L/h
and 100L/h and results of comparative study are discussed
and shown graphically in this area.
(a) It has been noticed during experimental work that
maximum instantaneous efficiency through MWCNT
nano fluid at 0.01% with 160L/h comes out 96.49%
in the time interval 10:30-11:00am and also
maximum instantaneous efficiency through water
90.17% was measured at 160L/h during the time
interval 11:00-11:30am shown graphically in figure 3.
After that value of instantaneous efficiency starts to
decrease continuously and it can be due to increasing
instability and agglomeration of MWCNTs in base
fluid and also can be due to decreasing solar intensity
after around 12:00am and increasing wind speed.
Thermophysical properties of nanofluid and water
also affect the performance characteristics like
thermal conductivity of MWCNT nanofluid is higher
as comparison to water, while other properties for
MWCNT nanofluid like specific heat and density
posses’ lower value than water.
(b) Figure 4 showed graphical comparison between
instantaneous efficiency from MWCNT nanofluid
(0.01wt %) at 100L/h and water. Maximum
instantaneous efficiency comes out 87.85% through
MWCNT nanofluid during the time interval 10:30-
11:00am and for water maximum instantaneous
efficiency was 49.40% was measured in same time
interval. Suspension of nano particles in to base fluid
is the better solution to increase the heat transfer
properties or to improve the thermos physical
properties of the base fluid.
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
68
(c) Increasing concentration of nano tubes in base fluid
has an ability to increase the thermos physical
properties of nano fluids, which is further very helpful
to enhance the performance of system. In figure 5 the
maximum instantaneous efficiency 96.46% was
measured by MWCNT nano fluid (0.02%) at 160L/h
showed in the time interval 11:00-11:30am and water
showed 90.17% in the same time interval, which is
less in amount as comparison to nano fluid. It was also
seen that increasing concentration of carbon
nanotubes also increases the viscosity of nanofluid.
Increasing viscosity of nanofluid also has an ability to
increase pressure loss in the system, which directly
affects to the efficiency of the collector system.
Graphical figure 6 showed Maximum instantaneous
efficiency from solar parabolic trough collector was
79.77% measured during the time interval 10:30-
11:00am through MWCNT. Nano fluid (0.02%) at
100L/h and also water showed maximum
instantaneous efficiency was 49.40% measured at
same volume flow rate and also in same time interval.
(d) Maximum thermal efficiency through MWCNT nano
fluid (0.01wt %) at 160L/h was 7.79% during the time
interval 10:30-11:00am, which is larger than
maximum thermal efficiency was achieved from water
i.e. 7.28% in the time interval 11:00-11:30am as
shown figure 7. Further Maximum thermal efficiency
possessed by nano fluid (0.01wt %) at 100L/h was
11.36% during the time interval 10:30-11:00am,
which is greater than maximum thermal efficiency of
water 6.39% was measured at 100L/h in the same time
interval is shown graphically in figure 8.
(e) MWCNT (0.02%) nanofluid at 160L/h possess
maximum value of thermal efficiency was 7.79%
during the time interval 11:00-11:30am as
comparison to maximum thermal efficiency achieved
from water i.e. 7.28% was measured in the same time
interval as shown in figure 9 graphically, while
MWCNT nano fluid (0.02%) at 100L/h showed
Maximum thermal efficiency was 10.31% at 100L/h
during time interval 10:30-11:00am and water
showed maximum thermal efficiency 6.39% was
measured in the same time interval as shown in
graphical figure 10.
Figure. 3 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to
time
Figure. 4 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to
time
Figure: 5 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to
time
0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%
Instantaneousefficiency
Time interval (half an hours)
9:30 am to 3:30 pm
Instantaneous efficiency of MWCNT nanofluid at 160L/h
Instantaneous efficiency of water at 160L/h
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%
Instantaneousefficiency
Time interval (half an hours)
9:30 am to 3:30 pm
Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h
Instantaneous efficiency of water at 100L/h
0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%
Instantaneousefficiency
Time interval (half an hours)
9:30 am to 3:30 pm
Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h
Instantaneous efficiency of water at 160L/h
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
69
Figure: 6 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to time
Figure. 7 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time
Figure. 8 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time
Figure. 9 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time
Figure. 10 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time
4. Conclusion
In this research work comparative study has done between
performance of solar collector due to MWCNT- Distilled
H2O nano fluid and simple water. Total amount of fluid
was taken 6 litres and MWCNTs was used in 0.01wt% and
0.02wt% with water as reference fluid. Instantaneous
efficiency and thermal efficiency showed better results
than water up to certain time limit. Thermal conductivity is
the only thermo physical property of nano fluid, which is
responsible to enhance the efficiency of solar collector.
MWCNT nano fluid 0.02wt% at 160L/h volume flow rate
showed highest overall thermal efficiency, which can be
due to higher heat transfer rate in nano fluid at high
concentration of nanoparticles and high mass flow rate.
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%Instantaneousefficiency
Time interval (half an hours)
9:30 am to 3:30 pm
Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h
Instantaneous efficiency of water at 100L/h
0.00%
1.00%
2.00%
3.00%
4.00%
5.00%
6.00%
7.00%
8.00%
9.00%
Thermalefficiency
Time interval (half an hour)
9:30am to 3:00pm
Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h
Thermal efficiency of water at 160L/h
0.00%
2.00%
4.00%
6.00%
8.00%
10.00%
12.00%
Thermalefficiency
Time interval (half an hour)
9:30am to 3:00pm
Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h
Thermal efficiency of water at 100L/h
0.00%
1.00%
2.00%
3.00%
4.00%
5.00%
6.00%
7.00%
8.00%
9.00%
Thermalefficiency
Time interval (half an hour)
9:30am to 3:00pm
Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h
Thermal efficiency of water at 160L/h
0.00%
2.00%
4.00%
6.00%
8.00%
10.00%
12.00%
Thermalefficiency
Time interval (half an hour)
9:30am to 3:00pm
Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h
Thermal efficiency of water at 100L/h
R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70
70
Nomenclature
𝑚̇ = mass flow rate (Kg/s)
C = Specific heat of water [
J
kg−k
]
Cnf = Specific heat of MWCNT nano fluid [
J
kg−k
]
GT = Total solar intensity (W/m2
)
𝑡 =Time period (half an hour)
Tout= Outlet temperature (0
C)
Tin= Inlet temperature (k)
W = Width of collector (m)
𝜌 = Density of water [
𝑘𝑔
𝑚3]
ηi = Instantaneous efficiency
ηth = Thermal efficiency
ovt = Overall thermal efficiency
T = Total experimental time period
Tmax= Maximum temperature (K)
Tmini = Minimum temperature (K)
Greek symbols
φp = Weight fraction of MWCNTs
𝜌nf = Density of nanofluid [
𝑘𝑔
𝑚3]
𝜌np = Density of MWCNTs [
𝑘𝑔
𝑚3]
Subscript
th = Thermal
ovt = Overall thermal
np = Nano particles
in = Inlet
Acknowledgement
One of Author (Er. Harwinder Singh) is thankful to Dr.
Kundan Lal, Deptt. of Mechanical Engineering, Thapar
University Patiala for guidance
References
[1] Tooraj Yousefi, Farzad Veisy, Ehsan Shojaeizadeh, Sirus
Zinadini (2012), “An experimental investigation on the
effect of MWCNT-H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat-
plate solar collectors,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid
Science, vol. 39: pp. 207–212.
[2] Xiang-Qi Wang, Arun S. Mujumdar (2007), Heat transfer
characteristic of nano fluids: a review,” International Journal
of Thermal Science, vol. 46: pp. 1-19.
[3] Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, H.A. Mohammed Omer A. Alawi,
S. Samion (2014), A review paper on preparation methods
and challenges of nanoluids,” International Communications
in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 54: pp. 115–125.
[4] John Philip, P.D. Shima (2012), “Thermal properties of
nanofluids,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol.
183–184: pp. 30–45.
[5] Tooraj Yousefi, Farzad Veysi, Ehsan Shojaeizadeh, Sirus
Zinadini (2012), “An experimental investigation on the
effect of Al2O3-H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat-plate
solar collectors,” Renewable Energy, vol. 39: pp. 293-298.
[6] Zhongyang Luo, Cheng Wang, Wei Wei, Gang Xiao,
Mingjiang Ni (2014), “Performance improvement of a
nanofluid solar collector based on direct absorption
collection (DAC) concepts,” International Journal of Heat
and Mass Transfer, vol. 75: pp. 262-271.
[7] Omid Mahian, Ali Kianifar, Ahmet Z. Sahin, Somchai
Wongwises (2014), “Performance analysis of a
minichannel-based solar collector using different
nanofluids,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 88:
pp. 129-138.
[8] Ali Ijam, R. Saidur, P. Ganesan, Moradi Golsheikh (2015),
“Stability, thermo-physical properties, and electrical
conductivity of graphene oxide-deionized water/ethylene
glycol based nanofluid,” International Journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer, vol. 87: pp. 92–103.
[9] T. Yousefi, E. Shojaeizadeh, F. Veysi, S. Zinadini (2012),
“An experimental investigation on the effect of pH variation
of MWCNT–H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of a flat-plate
solar collector,” Solar Energy, Vol. 86: pp. 771-779.
[10] S.P. Sukhatme, J.K. Nayak (2012), “Solar Energy principles
of thermal collection and storage,” Mc Graw Hill, ISBN 0-
07-026064-8.

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  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) Vol-1, Issue-2, (2017), 64-70 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com ISSN (Online): 2456-6934 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Corresponding author: R.S.Mishra Email Address: rsmishra@dce.ac.in 64 Comparative study of parabolic trough collector through MWCNT/H2o nanofluid and water R.S. Mishra, Harwinder Singh Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Production Engineering, Delhi Technological University, India-110042 E.Mail:harrymehrok14@gmail.com, rsmishra@dtu.ac.in __________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract In this present work MWCNT nanofluid and water were used as working fluid to compare the thermal performance of solar parabolic trough collector. Both the fluids were flowing through receiver at different volume flow rates 160L/h and 100L/h. Experimental tests was performed only during sunny weather and temperature at outlet of receiver was measured through thermometer after every half an hour of total testing time period. MWCNT nanofluid with weight fraction 0.01% and 0.02% and water were used to find efficiency of system and it has been seen that MWCNT nanofluid 0.02wt% with 160L/h showed better results for overall thermal efficiency among other and also an application of surfactant Triton X-100 with in MWCNT nanofluid was used to enhance the quantity of heat absorption capability of base fluid. © 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved Keywords: MWCNTs, Solar Parabolic Trough Collector, Surfactant Triton X-100, Thermal performance, overall thermal efficiency ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction Solar parabolic trough collector is a prominent way to generate the electric power for both commercial and industrial purpose among other concentrating solar power technologies. Conventional fluids are having a limited capacity to extract and carrying heat in the receiver of parabolic trough collector, therefore concept of using nano fluids instead of conventional fluids become more popular in solar thermal collector. In this present study MWCNT nanofluid at different concentration and water as conventional fluid were used to examine and compare the performance of solar parabolic trough collector. Tooraj Yousefi et al [1] was conducted an experimental study through MWCNT nanofluid with 0.2wt% and 0.4wt % at different mass flow rates 0.0167kg/sec to 0.05kg/sec and also studied the effect of surfactant Triton X-100 on the stability of nanofluid. Xiang-Qi Wang et al [2] studied the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nano fluids in forced and free convection. He also studied that nano fluids has a capability to enhance the heat transfer characteristics and concluded that nano fluids are superior to conventional fluids in term of thermal physical properties. It has been seen from review study that suspended carbon nanotubes possess higher thermal conductivity and aspect ratio as compare to other existing nano particles. Nor Azwadi Che Sidik [3] et al concentrated his review study upon synthesis process for nano fluids. Both metallic and nonmetallic particles can be used to prepare nano fluids, Apart from this it has been noticed in this review work that metallic particles acquire higher thermal conductivity value as comparison to nano fluids containing oxide particles and nano fluids possess also less specific heat and higher viscosity as compare to conventional fluids. John Philip et al [4] studied in his review work that enhancement in thermal conductivity with incremental change in particle volume fraction and effect of temperature on thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Tooraj yousefi et al [5] conducted an experimental study with the use of Al2O3- H2O nanofluid as working fluid in flat plate collector. Volume concentration of nano particles were taken as 0.2% and 0.4% with the application of surfactant Triton X-100 and nanofluid was flowing through collector tubes with different mass flow rates i.e. 1, 2 and 3Lit/min and it was concluded in this experimental work that 28.3% enhancement in efficiency of collector along with 15.63% efficiency enhancement with the
  • 2. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 65 application of surfactant, which is due to enhancement in heat transfer. Zhongyang Luo et al [6] was proposed a simulation model of nano fluid solar collector based upon direct absorption solar collection process by solving the radiative heat transfer for particulate media along with conductive and convective heat transfer in collector for evaluation of efficiency and to achieve the purpose of improvement in efficiency various nanoparticles like TiO2, Al2O3, Ag, Cu, SiO2, graphite nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes were used in process of manufacturing nano fluid. Further this study concludes that thermal conductivity decrease with increase in temperature and improvement in outlet temperature around 30k-100k along with enhancement in efficiency 2-25% through nanofluid than base oil. Omid Mahian [7] et al conducted a theoretical to evaluate the performance of mini channel- based flat plate collector by using four different types of nanoparticles like Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 in water as base fluid. Mass flow rate in this work was assumed 0.1% and 0.5kg/s along with 4% volume fraction of nanoparticles. This study was concluded that heat transfer coefficient generally higher in all types of Nano fluids except SiO2-H2O nanofluid and higher efficiency with maximum entropy generation was measured through SiO2- water based nanofluid, while lower efficiency and lowest entropy generation was measured through Cu/water based nanofluid. Ali Ijam [8] et al examine the stability of nanofluid with the help of thermal conductivity and UV- measurement technique and further thermos physical properties and electrical conductivity of graphite oxide nano sheets-deionized water and ethylene glycol were investigated at different temperatures and it was concluded in this research study that enhancement in thermal conductivity in a linear way with increasing concentrations and temperature and maximum enhancement in thermal conductivity was measured from 6.67% to 10.47% with volume fraction 0.10% and range of temperature varies between 25 to 450 C. Further an enhancement in electrical conductivity was noticed linearly with increasing the temperature of nanofluid and nonlinear enhancement in electrical conductivity was measured with increasing the concentration of graphite oxide nano sheets. Tooraj Yousefi et al [9] also conducted an experimental study related to the investigation of pH value MWCNT-H2O nanofluid on the performance of the flat plate collector and results outcomes from the experimentation concluded that enhancement in efficiency of the collector due to high difference between pH of nanofluid and pH of isoelectric point. 2. Experimental Procedure 2.1 Working fluids MWCNT nanofluid and water were used as working fluid in solar parabolic trough collector. MWCNTs with 97% purity mixed with base fluid (Distilled water) used to manufacture nanofluid. After reviewing all past research work and going through lot of test run, sonication time was decided up to 45 minutes with proper stirring for certain 8- 10 minutes. Application of Triton X-100 was used for the proper dispersion of nanoparticles in base fluid during experimental work. Water as working conventional fluid was also used for evaluation and compares the performance of collector. (a) (b) Figure 1(a) & (b) showed sonicated MWCNT nanofluid at different 0.01wt% and 0.02wt% 2.2 Mathematical equations Important mathematical equations were used to evaluate the performance and properties of nano fluids are discussed as under: Specific heat or heat capacity of nanofluid cnf = {(1 – φp) ρf cf + φp ρnp cnp} / ρnf (1)
  • 3. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 66 Density of nanofluid ρnf = (1 – φp) ρf + φp ρnp (2) Instantaneous efficiency ηi = Qu / (GT Rb W L) (3) Thermal efficiency ηth= mCnf(Tout−Tin) AaperGTt (4) Overall thermal efficiency ot = mCnf(Tmax−Tmini) AaperGavgT (5) 2.3 Experimental set up Parabolic trough collector has a receiver tube at focal point, which was covered by glass tube to maintain vacuum around absorber tube and it was coated black to absorb the maximum amount of solar radiations. Mirror strips were provided on parabolic shape of collector to reflect and concentrate the sun light on absorber tube. Inlet and outlet temperature measured through thermometer and storage tank of certain capacity around 10 Liters was also provided to store working fluid. Further proper aluminium foil and glass wool insulation was used to cover piping system and storage tank to reduce the heat losses. Pump was used for continuous forced flow of liquid through the receiver tube. Experiment was performed during the day time 9:30am to 3:00pm according to Indian standard time and during the conditions of continuous solar flux. Global solar flux and wind speed throughout the day measured with solar power meter and anemometer. Figure 2 showed experimental set up of solar parabolic collector, which is situated in Thapar University (Patiala). Figure: 2: Experimental set up of parabolic through collector at Thapar University, Patiala Table 1: Specification of parabolic trough collector (Thapar University) Length of collector 1.2m Breadth of collector 0.915m Aperture area 1.0188m2 Rim angle 90 Focal Length 0.30m Receiver internal diameter 0.027m Receiver outer diameter 0.028m Glass cover internal diameter 0.064m Glass cover outer diameter 0.066m 2.4 Experimental findings This section contains inlet and outlet temperatures along with total solar intensity data related to performance of solar parabolic collector. Transient analysis was done on solar collector and it was assumed that piping and storage tank are fully insulated; it means that heat losses from these system components are negligible. Table 2: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.01wt% at 160L/h on (24/3/2015) Time Interval Tin (℃) Tout (℃) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 24.9 27.9 941.454 0.9 10-10:30 27.9 33.1 1008.504 1 10:30-11 33.1 39.5 1123.949 0.2 11-11:30 39.5 45.5 1085.224 0.9 11:30-12 45.5 50.8 974.809 1 12-12:30 50.8 54.8 960.654 0.95 12:30-1 54.8 58 956.929 0.8 1-1:30 58 59.6 942.029 0.9 1:30-2 59.6 60.5 893.604 1.2 2-2:30 60.5 60.9 887.644 2.2 2:30-3 60.9 61.2 874.239 2.3 Table 3: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.01wt% at 100L/h (25/3/2015) Time interval Tin (0 C) Tout (0 C) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 26.6 29.9 690.964 0.4 10-10:30 29.9 35.6 725.234 0.6 10:30-11 35.6 41.9 759.504 0.8 11-11:30 41.9 47 834.749 0.7 11:30-12 47 49.9 860.079 0.55 12-12:30 49.9 52.9 854.864 0.7 12:30-1 52.9 55.4 881.684 1 1-1:30 55.4 57.5 883.919 1.15 1:30-2 57.5 58.6 868.274 1.45 2-2:30 58.6 59 865.294 3.55 2:30-3 59 59.2 712.569 1.3
  • 4. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 67 Table 4: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.02wt% at 160L/h (27/3/2015) Time interval Tin (℃) Tout (℃) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 26.2 29.2 755.779 0.2 10-10:30 29.2 33.3 881.109 0.8 10:30-11 33.3 38.7 971.884 0.8 11-11:30 38.7 44.9 1089.134 1.1 11:30-12 44.9 50.5 990.309 0.6 12-12:30 50.5 55.7 976.739 0.75 12:30-1 55.7 59.5 980.619 0.8 1-1:30 59.5 62.6 950.769 0.85 1:30-2 62.6 64 936.814 2.5 2-2:30 64 64.8 922.659 2.1 2:30-3 64.8 65.1 901.799 1.4 Table 5: MWCNT nanofluid with 0.02wt% at 100L/h (28/3/2015) Time interval Tin (℃) Tout (℃) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 26.4 29.4 777.384 0.95 10-10:30 29.4 33.9 859.334 2.05 10:30-11 33.9 40.9 929.364 2.35 11-11:30 40.9 47.4 959.909 3.2 11:30-12 47.4 52.3 969.594 3.65 12-12:30 52.3 55.4 974.809 0.3 12:30-1 55.4 58.9 953.204 3.25 1-1:30 58.9 61 1003.119 2.1 1:30-2 61 62 1013.549 1.7 2-2:30 62 62.5 975.554 2 2:30-3 62.5 62.7 958.419 2.65 Table 6: Water at 160L/h (12/3/2015) Time interval Tin (℃) Tout (℃) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 17.6 19.8 765.464 0.5 10-10:30 19.8 23.4 788.559 0.25 10:30-11 23.4 26.9 833.259 1.15 11-11:30 26.9 31.5 864.549 0.5 11:30-12 31.5 34.8 893.604 0.65 12-12:30 34.8 37.8 924.149 1.1 12:30-1 37.8 40.9 960.654 0.4 1-1:30 40.9 43.3 940.539 0.65 1:30-2 43.3 45.1 934.579 1.1 2-2:30 45.1 46 948.734 0.7 2:30-3 46 46.3 946.499 1.9 Table 7: Water at 100L/h (13/3/2015) Time interval Tin (℃) Tout (℃) Solar Intensity (W/m2 ) Wind Speed (m/s) 9:30-10 15.3 18 873.489 1.65 10-10:30 18 21.6 891.369 0.8 10:30-11 21.6 25.8 900.309 0.7 11-11:30 25.8 29.3 907.759 1.45 11:30-12 29.3 32.6 946.499 1.55 12-12:30 32.6 35.4 950.969 2.5 12:30-1 35.4 38 959.164 1.4 1-1:30 38 40.9 922.659 0.55 1:30-2 40.9 42.2 944.264 2.65 2-2:30 42.2 43 940.539 1.05 2:30-3 43 43.5 999.394 1.4 3. Results and Discussions This section includes the comparative study between the results achieved from MWCNT nanofluid (0.01wt% & 0.02wt %) and water at dissimilar volume flow rate 160L/h and 100L/h and results of comparative study are discussed and shown graphically in this area. (a) It has been noticed during experimental work that maximum instantaneous efficiency through MWCNT nano fluid at 0.01% with 160L/h comes out 96.49% in the time interval 10:30-11:00am and also maximum instantaneous efficiency through water 90.17% was measured at 160L/h during the time interval 11:00-11:30am shown graphically in figure 3. After that value of instantaneous efficiency starts to decrease continuously and it can be due to increasing instability and agglomeration of MWCNTs in base fluid and also can be due to decreasing solar intensity after around 12:00am and increasing wind speed. Thermophysical properties of nanofluid and water also affect the performance characteristics like thermal conductivity of MWCNT nanofluid is higher as comparison to water, while other properties for MWCNT nanofluid like specific heat and density posses’ lower value than water. (b) Figure 4 showed graphical comparison between instantaneous efficiency from MWCNT nanofluid (0.01wt %) at 100L/h and water. Maximum instantaneous efficiency comes out 87.85% through MWCNT nanofluid during the time interval 10:30- 11:00am and for water maximum instantaneous efficiency was 49.40% was measured in same time interval. Suspension of nano particles in to base fluid is the better solution to increase the heat transfer properties or to improve the thermos physical properties of the base fluid.
  • 5. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 68 (c) Increasing concentration of nano tubes in base fluid has an ability to increase the thermos physical properties of nano fluids, which is further very helpful to enhance the performance of system. In figure 5 the maximum instantaneous efficiency 96.46% was measured by MWCNT nano fluid (0.02%) at 160L/h showed in the time interval 11:00-11:30am and water showed 90.17% in the same time interval, which is less in amount as comparison to nano fluid. It was also seen that increasing concentration of carbon nanotubes also increases the viscosity of nanofluid. Increasing viscosity of nanofluid also has an ability to increase pressure loss in the system, which directly affects to the efficiency of the collector system. Graphical figure 6 showed Maximum instantaneous efficiency from solar parabolic trough collector was 79.77% measured during the time interval 10:30- 11:00am through MWCNT. Nano fluid (0.02%) at 100L/h and also water showed maximum instantaneous efficiency was 49.40% measured at same volume flow rate and also in same time interval. (d) Maximum thermal efficiency through MWCNT nano fluid (0.01wt %) at 160L/h was 7.79% during the time interval 10:30-11:00am, which is larger than maximum thermal efficiency was achieved from water i.e. 7.28% in the time interval 11:00-11:30am as shown figure 7. Further Maximum thermal efficiency possessed by nano fluid (0.01wt %) at 100L/h was 11.36% during the time interval 10:30-11:00am, which is greater than maximum thermal efficiency of water 6.39% was measured at 100L/h in the same time interval is shown graphically in figure 8. (e) MWCNT (0.02%) nanofluid at 160L/h possess maximum value of thermal efficiency was 7.79% during the time interval 11:00-11:30am as comparison to maximum thermal efficiency achieved from water i.e. 7.28% was measured in the same time interval as shown in figure 9 graphically, while MWCNT nano fluid (0.02%) at 100L/h showed Maximum thermal efficiency was 10.31% at 100L/h during time interval 10:30-11:00am and water showed maximum thermal efficiency 6.39% was measured in the same time interval as shown in graphical figure 10. Figure. 3 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to time Figure. 4 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to time Figure: 5 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to time 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Instantaneousefficiency Time interval (half an hours) 9:30 am to 3:30 pm Instantaneous efficiency of MWCNT nanofluid at 160L/h Instantaneous efficiency of water at 160L/h 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% Instantaneousefficiency Time interval (half an hours) 9:30 am to 3:30 pm Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h Instantaneous efficiency of water at 100L/h 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Instantaneousefficiency Time interval (half an hours) 9:30 am to 3:30 pm Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h Instantaneous efficiency of water at 160L/h
  • 6. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 69 Figure: 6 variations in instantaneous efficiency with respect to time Figure. 7 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time Figure. 8 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time Figure. 9 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time Figure. 10 variations in thermal efficiency with respect to time 4. Conclusion In this research work comparative study has done between performance of solar collector due to MWCNT- Distilled H2O nano fluid and simple water. Total amount of fluid was taken 6 litres and MWCNTs was used in 0.01wt% and 0.02wt% with water as reference fluid. Instantaneous efficiency and thermal efficiency showed better results than water up to certain time limit. Thermal conductivity is the only thermo physical property of nano fluid, which is responsible to enhance the efficiency of solar collector. MWCNT nano fluid 0.02wt% at 160L/h volume flow rate showed highest overall thermal efficiency, which can be due to higher heat transfer rate in nano fluid at high concentration of nanoparticles and high mass flow rate. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00%Instantaneousefficiency Time interval (half an hours) 9:30 am to 3:30 pm Instantaneous efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h Instantaneous efficiency of water at 100L/h 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 7.00% 8.00% 9.00% Thermalefficiency Time interval (half an hour) 9:30am to 3:00pm Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h Thermal efficiency of water at 160L/h 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% Thermalefficiency Time interval (half an hour) 9:30am to 3:00pm Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h Thermal efficiency of water at 100L/h 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 7.00% 8.00% 9.00% Thermalefficiency Time interval (half an hour) 9:30am to 3:00pm Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 160L/h Thermal efficiency of water at 160L/h 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% Thermalefficiency Time interval (half an hour) 9:30am to 3:00pm Thermal efficiency of nano fluid at 100L/h Thermal efficiency of water at 100L/h
  • 7. R.S.Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 1, issue 2 (2017), 64-70 70 Nomenclature 𝑚̇ = mass flow rate (Kg/s) C = Specific heat of water [ J kg−k ] Cnf = Specific heat of MWCNT nano fluid [ J kg−k ] GT = Total solar intensity (W/m2 ) 𝑡 =Time period (half an hour) Tout= Outlet temperature (0 C) Tin= Inlet temperature (k) W = Width of collector (m) 𝜌 = Density of water [ 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3] ηi = Instantaneous efficiency ηth = Thermal efficiency ovt = Overall thermal efficiency T = Total experimental time period Tmax= Maximum temperature (K) Tmini = Minimum temperature (K) Greek symbols φp = Weight fraction of MWCNTs 𝜌nf = Density of nanofluid [ 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3] 𝜌np = Density of MWCNTs [ 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3] Subscript th = Thermal ovt = Overall thermal np = Nano particles in = Inlet Acknowledgement One of Author (Er. Harwinder Singh) is thankful to Dr. Kundan Lal, Deptt. of Mechanical Engineering, Thapar University Patiala for guidance References [1] Tooraj Yousefi, Farzad Veisy, Ehsan Shojaeizadeh, Sirus Zinadini (2012), “An experimental investigation on the effect of MWCNT-H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat- plate solar collectors,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 39: pp. 207–212. [2] Xiang-Qi Wang, Arun S. Mujumdar (2007), Heat transfer characteristic of nano fluids: a review,” International Journal of Thermal Science, vol. 46: pp. 1-19. [3] Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, H.A. Mohammed Omer A. Alawi, S. Samion (2014), A review paper on preparation methods and challenges of nanoluids,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 54: pp. 115–125. [4] John Philip, P.D. Shima (2012), “Thermal properties of nanofluids,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 183–184: pp. 30–45. [5] Tooraj Yousefi, Farzad Veysi, Ehsan Shojaeizadeh, Sirus Zinadini (2012), “An experimental investigation on the effect of Al2O3-H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat-plate solar collectors,” Renewable Energy, vol. 39: pp. 293-298. [6] Zhongyang Luo, Cheng Wang, Wei Wei, Gang Xiao, Mingjiang Ni (2014), “Performance improvement of a nanofluid solar collector based on direct absorption collection (DAC) concepts,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 75: pp. 262-271. [7] Omid Mahian, Ali Kianifar, Ahmet Z. Sahin, Somchai Wongwises (2014), “Performance analysis of a minichannel-based solar collector using different nanofluids,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 88: pp. 129-138. [8] Ali Ijam, R. Saidur, P. Ganesan, Moradi Golsheikh (2015), “Stability, thermo-physical properties, and electrical conductivity of graphene oxide-deionized water/ethylene glycol based nanofluid,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 87: pp. 92–103. [9] T. Yousefi, E. Shojaeizadeh, F. Veysi, S. Zinadini (2012), “An experimental investigation on the effect of pH variation of MWCNT–H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector,” Solar Energy, Vol. 86: pp. 771-779. [10] S.P. Sukhatme, J.K. Nayak (2012), “Solar Energy principles of thermal collection and storage,” Mc Graw Hill, ISBN 0- 07-026064-8.