The Principles of Design are:Movement and RhythmBalanceProportionVariety and EmphasisHarmony and Unity
LineLine - is a mark on a surface thatdescribes a shape or outline. It cancreate texture and can be thick andthin. Types of line can include actual,implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonaland contour lines.
Suptermarket- Ben ShahnLook at this painting by BenShahn. What role do the linesplay in this piece? Shahn drewthese lines to define hissubject. Because of the lineshe made, we can seerecognizable images. Look atthe drawing. Look at the title.Can you tell what Shahn hasdrawn? He uses various linedirections to draw his shoppingcarts. The lines are vertical,horizontal and diagonal.
Tapa Cloth – Island of TongaThis large tapa cloth, from the Polynesian islandof Tonga, is made of strips of mulberry barkfiber that have been pounded to softened themand make a paper-like textile for ritual use. It isstamped and hand painted. Bark cloth, or tapa,has been produced throughout the islands ofthe South Pacific--in both Polynesia andMelanesia.The people of Tonga, Tahiti, Fiji, Samoa andother islands have made bark cloth in distinctivestyles for both functional and ceremonialpurposes. The cloth has played important rolesin weddings, funerals and events associatedwith royalty. The decoration featuresgeometricized plants and fish.Look at the beautiful variety of lines. Repeatedlines form patterns and designs. Can you findthe repeated patterns? Why do artists repeatparticular elements?
Pen and Ink- BeardsleyIn this pen and ink drawing, the artistcreates a beautiful image of two woman.The lines are soft and flowing giving theviewer the impression of elegance,softness and femininity. Beardsley usescurved lines to capture the lines of theelegant costumes worn by the woman.Why do you think he curved the line ofthe skirt?By curving the line, the skirt appears tobe swirling around the figure. This impliesMovement.Why do you think the artist chose to callthis work "The Peacock Skirt"?What do you know about the lives ofthese women from this drawing? Are theywealthy?
Needle Tower – Kenneth SnelsonThis is a view of the Needle Tower lookingdirectly up to the top from the ground. Notice theeffect the lines create with the pipes and thewires. It creates a spiral. If you look closely, youmay even see a six pointed star. Do you thinkthe artist did this intentionally?Sculptor Kenneth Snelsons "Needle Tower" is afragile-looking thing. Crisscrossing rodssuspended by taut wires soar perilously upward20 meters high. Surely it ought to crumble or fallover. Yet it doesnt. When the wind blows, theNeedle Tower bends, not breaks. Whensomeone shoves it, it shoves back. The tower islightweight, strong and curiously beautiful. Thisis an example of a tensegrity (short for tensionalintegrity) sculpture. It balances compressionwith tension, and yields to forces withoutbreaking. In the Needle Tower, the wires carrytension and the rods bear compression
Self Portrait- Kathe KollwitzLook at this stirring portrait. This is a self-portrait of the German artist KatheKollwitz. To learn of her art, you mustfirst learn about her life. She experiencedWW I married to a doctor. She lost herson in that war. She later lost hergrandson in WW II. She saw the painand suffering of the mothers, wives andchildren of the people lost in the war.Look again at this work. Do you view itdifferently?Notice the lines carved into this woodcutproof to create the texture of this print.The direction of the lines follow thecontour of her face. What impact do thelines have on the overall quality of thisprint?
Shape and FormShape - is a 2-dimensional line with no formor thickness. Shapes are flat and can begrouped into two categories, geometric andorganic.Form - is a 3-dimensional object havingvolume and thickness. It is the illusion of a 3-D effect that can be implied with the use oflight and shading techniques. Form can beviewed from many angles.
MondrianThis unique painting appears tobe all about shapes. Theshapes are squares andrectangles. This includes thespaces between the coloredshapes as well. Even the shapeof the canvas reflects thesquare patterns in the painting.Here Mondrian uses shape toconvey his ideas about themechanization of the world.
Fibonacci’s NumeralsThis is a colored paper collagemade up of organic shapes thatoverlap. If you look carefully,you may see that thiscomposition was based on theFibonacci Numerals. Eachshape represents the sequenceof numbers found in Fibonaccisorder: 0,1,2,3,5,8,13,21... Notethe rounded edges of theshapes. Would you recognizethese shapes in nature?
Jaquar Mask- MexicoThis jaguar mask from Mexicoalso emphasizes Shape. Whatshapes do you see? Are theyGeometric, Organic or both?Are the shapes arrangedsymmetrically orasymmetrically?What shape did the artist use toaccent the nose? How about theeyes?What did the artist do to theyellow shapes that make up theskin of the jaguar?
Icon- Byzantine PeriodThis is an icon. An icon is a religiouspainting created during theByzantine period. It was usually aportrait of a saint or the Virgin Mary.Often these icons were using eggtempera on gessoed wood panelsand decorated in gold leaf. Thesewooden panels were used todecorate alters and churches. Theycan still be found decorating Greekand Russian Orthodox churches.What shape do you notice first?Chances are you noticed the circlearound the womans head. Whatdoes this circle represent?Notice that the artist repeats thecircle again and again throughoutthe painting. Why do you think hedid this?
Greek bas-reliefThis is a Greek bas-relief . The images arecarved from a slab ofmarble, but they are notcarved out completely.This type of low-reliefsculpture was verypopular on ancientbuilding walls and wereused to decoratedoorways, facades andcolumns.
David- MichelangeloThis is a detail of the statueDavid created byMichelangelo. The completesculpture, called a statue,stands 15 feet tall.When you visit the statue,you are able to walk aroundthe sculpture seeing it fromall sides and angles. This istruly a three-dimensionalwork.
Notre Dame CathedralThis magnificentbuilding is anarchitectural sculpture.Architecture is the art ofdesigning buildings.Buildings are examplesof works that occupythree-dimensionalspace. It took almost200 years to completethe building begun in1163.
Calder MobileHere we are looking atanother type of three-dimensional sculpturecalled a mobile. This isa sculpture that moves.Suspended from theceiling, this mobilemoves slowly as aircurrents circle the room.Alexander Calder iscredited with inventingthe mobile as an artform.
ValueValue - is the degree of light and dark ina design. It is the contrast betweenblack and white and all the tones inbetween. Value can be used with coloras well as black and white. Contrast isthe extreme changes between values.
DrawingIf you look carefully at this drawing,you will begin to see recognizableobjects. This is a still life, a group ofinanimate objects arrangedtogether. What items do yourecognize?The wide range of white, gray andblack values of shading, give thiswork a realistic sense of form. Usingvalues in drawings is a good way ofshowing light reflection andshadows. Adding these will maketwo-dimensional objects "look" likethey are three-dimensional.
Self- PortraitLook at this student self-portrait.Can you see what makes thisunique? The values werecreated by stampingfingerprints. The closer thefingerprints, the darker the colorappears. Darker fingerprintswere added to give this pictureshadows. The shadows makethe face appear more realisticand three-dimensional. Objectsthat are dark appear to recedeinto the picture. Objects that arelighter in color or value appearto come to the front of thepicture
Values and ColorValues can be exercised in allcolors. The rangeof the values can be changed byadding white tolighten or tint a color. Adding blackwill create ashade of the original color which willappear darker.
ColorColor - refers to specific hues and has 3properties, Chroma, Intensity and Value. Thecolor wheel is a way of showing the chromaticscale in a circle using all the colors made withthe primary triad. Complimentary pairs canproduce dull and neutral color. Black andwhite can be added to produce tints (addwhite), shades (add black) and tones (addgray).
ColorWhat would our world look like without Color.There have been many studies into thepsychological effects of Color. Artists have usedColor in such ways as to create a mood or feelingof a piece of work. This is done by using colorsrealistically and by using colors "creatively".Color is also a very important Element Of Art.Here we will take a look at the science of Color,how we have organized Color and how artistshave used Color to express their ideas andfeeling in their artwork
Color Example 1Look at this wonderful painting. Whatstrikes you at first glance? Chances areyou notice the colors used first. Why doyou think this is so?The artists use of complementary colors,or colors opposite on the color wheel,creates an exciting painting. The colorsappear very intense together.Has the artist done this intentionally?What does he want you to "feel" aboutthe message within this work?Notice how the horses and clouds areexpressed in whites, violets and blues.The people and the carousel are reds,golds and oranges. What parts of thispainting do you notice first?
Color Example 2Notice the color scheme in thispainting.Do you recall which color family theartistused?This is a monochromatic colorpaintingwhich means the artist used onetruecolor and added black and white tocreatetints and shades of that color.How does a monochromatic colorscheme affect the overall "mood" ofthis piece?
Color Example 3- Piet MondrianThis is a painting created by PietMondrian. Did he selectively useone particular family of colors?Absolutely. This piece is a goodexample of the Primary Colors usedin a work of art.If you look at the Credit Line you willsee the title and the size of thiswork. The title "Broadway Boogie-Woogie" should tell you somethingabout this work? Do you knowwhere Broadway is? It is a veryfamous street in New York Citywhere all the theaters areconcentrated. Are you familiar withthe term "boogie-woogie"?
Illuminated Book of Hours- Part 1During the Middle Ages and into theRenaissance, every member of themiddle and upper classes wouldhave had to own an illuminatedBook of Hours. These books weretreasured and were given as gifts onspecial occasions, such asweddings. A Book of Hours wasoften the first and only book anindividual owned. In the mostluxurious books, made for thewealthiest patrons, each sectionwas decorated with a miniature andwords surrounded by beautifullydecorated border designs.
Illuminated Book of Hours- Part 2The Book of Hours—the main prayerbook used in medieval Europe—wasdivided into eight sections (or "hours")that were meant to be read at specifictimes of day. Each Book of Hours waspersonalized for the owners and oftenreflected their economic status.Historically, illuminated (decorated withsilver and gold) manuscripts wereproduced by monks. By the thirteenthcentury, an increasing number werecreated by professional artisans workingin commercial centers across Europe.This page represents the month of Mayand the book contained scenes from theother months as well.
Illuminated Book of Hours- DetailLook at the startling and brilliantblue color that stands out from allthe other colors. The threeLimbourgh brothers used anultramarine made from crushedMiddle Eastern lapis-lazuli. (Thiswas, of course, extremelyexpensive!) The original RichesHeures manuscript is stored in theChantilly Museum, but is sodegraded that it is no longeravailable to the publicLook at this detailed image. TheMay jaunt was a pageantcelebrating the "joli mois de Mai" inwhich one had to wear greengarments known as livree de mai.The riders are young noblemen andwomen, with princes and princessesbeing visible.
SpaceSpace - refers to variations in theproportions of objects, lines or shapes.There is a variation of sizes in objectseither real or imagined. (some sourceslist Proportion/Scale as a Principle ofDesign)
Wooden SculpureLook at this wooden sculpture.Notice the open space carvedthrough the torso of the body.See how this opening givesinterest to the carving. Theround shape created by the"hole" echoes the round shapeof the head and the roundedform of the shoulders. Mooredeliberately removed a piece ofhis sculpture.
PosterThis poster provides us with aninteresting example of how artistsuse Space. The carver, includinghis head, arms and tools representthe Positive Space. The rest of thespace becomes the NegativeSpace. Shahn chooses not to leavethe Negative Space empty. Insteadhe fills a large portion of it withwords. This Negative Spacebecomes a very important part ofShahns message. The words speakto us about what ideals we, ashumans, should live by. Shahnmentions ideas such as the Right ToBe Safe and Justice For All.Note how the arms of the carverencircle
The Persistence of Time - DaliThis is a unique work of art fromthe Surrealism movement.Surrealism artists paintedobjects very realistically...butplace objects together thatwould never be found together.One could say that the artistspainted their dreams ornightmares. Salvador Dali wasone of the great Surrealismartists. How does he create asense of Space in this painting?
Dali - StudyHe uses one-pointperspective. Thebrick like blocks allappear to beconverging on onepoint on the horizonline. Look at thediagram below.
TextureTexture - is about surface quality eithertactile or visual. Texture can be real orimplied by different uses of media. It isthe degree of roughness or smoothnessin objects.
Self-PortraitThis is a self-portrait.That means that theartist painted a pictureof him/her self. Thethick application of thepaint and the use ofmany colors to accentthe paint strokes givesthis painting a Texturedquality.
Coral DrawingLook at this delicate pen andink drawing of a piece ofcoral. Here the artist usedlines to represent the actualtexture of the coral. It looksas if you could reach out andtouch the rough surface andfeel the texture.If the lines and texture werenot added, would you beable to identify what wasdrawn?
Klee PaintingAt first glance, with the image sosmall, you may notice theshapes used in this work first,before you notice the texture.Look below at the detail, orclose-up of a section of thiswork and what do you noticefirst?The entire surface of thispainting is covered in thick,rectangular brushstrokes ofcolor.Can you imagine what thispainting would feel like if youcould touch it?
Klee DetailKlee (pronounced"clay") adds the textureto make the workvisually interesting. Thecolors and lines of thework are extremelysimple. The addedtexture adds detail.How would circularbrushstrokes haveworked with this piece?
Movement and RhythmDirectional Movement - is a visual flow through thecomposition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design asyou move from object to object by way of placement andposition. Directional movement can be created with a valuepattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that youcan move your attention through the format.Rhythm - is a movement in which some elements recursregularly. Like a dance it will have a flow of objects that willseem to be like the beat of music.
Tessellation DesignHere is an example of a cutpaper tessellation design. Whatis used to create theappearance of Rhythm in thiswork?Possible answers could be:a) the fish design is repeatedover and over.b) the colors white and orangeappear as a pattern. Do you seeanything else that is repeated inthis artwork? How about thelines that form the scales of thefish. Or the black triangles thatdecorate the backbone of thefish.
Starry Night – Vincent Van GoghIn Starry Night, famed artistVincent Van Gogh createsMovement in his sky. Howdoes he show us this?Possible answers could be:a) the swirling motion of thecolors in the sky showing theartists interpretation of windb) the repetition of thebrushstrokes and paint dabs
Van Gogh 2Can you find anything elsethat appears to give thispainting a sense ofMovement?Look at thestars. They are all yellowand round, vary in size andplacement, and they have"halos" of light encirclingthem. Look at the paintingand concentrate on how youreyes bounce from one starto another. This is anexample of how an artist cancreate Movement in a workof art.
Australian AboriginalsThis unusual work of art was created inAustralia by the indigenous people of thatcountry now called the Aboriginals.These mystical designs are based onancient symbols and designs.The paint is applied with the fingers in apoint by point method.Notice how the repeated patterns androws of dots give the illusion that thesurface of the paper is moving.Traditionally the Aborigines used colorsmade from organic materials. ModernAboriginal artists often use brightercolors and modern paints. This does nottake away from the ancient traditionsthese young artists are trying to preserve.
Aboriginal DetailLook at this detail. Notice therhythm created by therepetition of the dots and thecolors.This rhythm createsMovement. How does it dothat? Notice how each dotresembles a stepping stoneon a path. That path leadsthe eye around the paper.
BalanceBalance - is a feeling of visual equalityin shape, form, value, color, etc.Balance can be symmetrical or evenlybalanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly balanced. Objects, values,colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc.,can be used in creating a balance in acomposition.
Oriental Poppies –GeorgiaO’KeefeHere is an example of a paintingdemonstrating Formal Balance.Note that you could visuallydivide the paper in half. Therewould be a poppy on both sides.No one side dominates thepictures. Neither poppy appearsto be more important than theother. Formal Balance pictureswill have an imaginary "line ofsymmetry".Be aware that in evaluatingworks of art, the symmetry doesNOT have to illustrate an exactmirror image.
Ramas Rule-RamrajHere also is an example of FormalBalance. Even though the objectsare different, the images on bothsides of the artwork balance eachother perfectly.This is an illustration from anilluminated manuscript. Amanuscript is considered illuminatedif it is decorated in gold and silver.This illustration page comes fromone of the greatest pieces of Indianliterature the Ramayana.It is an epicpoem of the lives of Rama and Sita.The Ramayana has been used forcenturies to teach moral dilemmas.
" "Whistlers Mother" – James WhistlerLook at this painting commonlycalled "Whistlers Mother". Is this anexample of Formal Balance?No, it is not. Note that the woman isplaced far to the right. The blackcurtain and large painting on thewall were placed to the left tobalance the woman on the right.This is an example of InformalBalance. The large form of thewoman is "visually equal" to theblack curtain and white painting onthe wall. This makes the paintingappear balanced, though thecomposition is more relaxed andless stiff than if the woman hadbeen placed in the exact center ofthe canvas
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte,-George SeuratHere the larger figures to theright are balanced by the manysmaller figures to the left. Also,Seurat add additional "light" tothe left. How does this addbalance to the painting?Seurats style of paintingbecame known as Pointillism.Look at this detail below andyou will see that the canvas iscovered with small "dots" ofcolor, not brushstrokes. Seuratfelt that the human eye wouldblend all the color dots togetherwhen seen from a distance.(This is the same principle usedin television screens)
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte,-George SeuratIf you look at the size of thecompleted painting, you willsee that it is approximately 51/2 feet tall by 10 feet wide.Imagine covering a canvasthis size with tiny dots ofcolor!Seurat believed that if hepainted yellow dots next toblue dots, the human eyewould see the color green.
Loan, 7th Grade, pencil DrawingHere, Loans drawing isan example of asymmetrical work of art.Symmetrical works canbe divided in half withan imaginary "Line OfSymmetry". Both sidesare mirror images of theother. What you see onone half, you see on theother in a reversedorder, like a "mirrorimage".
ProportionThe word "Proportion" means one part in relation toanother. All people have a sense of proportionconcerning themselves as compared to others. "Mynose is too long for my face". "She has long legs"."His eyes are wide set." All of these commentsreinforce the idea that we see and have opinionsabout the relationships between one thing comparedto another. Artists use their sense of Proportion tomake statements or express a particular feelingabout a subject in a work of art. Lets see someexamples
Faheem, 6th grade, felt pen,Computer generated imageOne area often associated withProportion is Scale. Scale is a bitdifferent as it refers to a comparison ofone entire object in relation to other likeobjects. Look at this illustration byFaheem. Note the two figures. One figureis extremely large or you could say thatone figure is extremely small. By alteringthe scale, what does the artist intend foryou to see or think about his figures?The larger figure implies that it is moreimportant, or more dominant. You couldeven say that the larger figure isstronger, fiercer or more powerful. Thelittle figure is weak and powerless. This isone way artists use the Principle ofProportion to give you clues about whatthe work of art is about.
Artist Unknown, Little WarriorsAnother term that one hears in theworld of art is HierarchicalProportion. When an artistdeliberately changes the scale ofthe objects in his/her work to showwhich object is the most important, itis referred to as HierarchicalProportion.Look as this Mayan bas-reliefsculpture. A bas-relief sculpture is awork that is sculpted in the frontonly. The images appear to be liftedfrom the surface, but they are nottotally free and a true sculpture inthe round. Notice the size of theking compared to the size of thewarriors. What does this tell you?
Little Warriors DetailIt is obvious that the king isheld in higher regard andhas more power than thewarriors. We do know thatthe king is not necessarily amuch bigger person inphysical stature. Thesculptor sought to illustratethe importance andsuperiority of the king and toimpress this viewpointon the viewer.
Fernando Botero, (1932-),Columbian, A FamilySometimes an artist deliberatelychanges the Proportion for uniquereasons. Look at this family portraitpainted by Columbian artistFernando Botero. Why do you thinkthe family members are painted withsuch large volume and size?He introduced inflated forms. These"puffed up forms" exaggerate thesize of people. This larger than lifesize celebrates the life within, andsometimes mocks their role in theworld. Not without humor, thesymbols of power and authorityeverywhere - presidents, soldiersand churchmen - are targeted in hisattacks on a society still unable todeal intelligently with social issues..
Family - ContinuedWhen you look at thisfamily portrait, whatstrikes you as unusualabout the placement ofthe family members?Why is the childrensnurse painted so muchsmaller than the otheradult figures in thepainting?
Variety & EmphasisVariety keeps life interesting. Imagine ifeverything in your life was the same,day in and day out. Imagine themonotony! Artists also understand theimportance of Emphasis in their work.Usually one part or area is given moredetail to enhance that section. Clickhere to see how artists use Variety andEmphasis in their work.
GoyaGoya uses which Elements OfArt to draw your eyes to theman raising his arms? Whydoes he emphasize the area hewants you to look at? Goya"lights" up the painting in muchthe same way a spotlight lightsup the actors on a stage. Goyacreates a very light valuearound the area he wants you tosee. The man in the white shirtis the Focal Point of thepainting. He uses value contrastto emphasize this area.
KadinskyThis is an example of anabstract work. The picture doesnot seem to represent a realisticscene or image. Works such asthese are considered Non-Objective.Kandinsky uses a Variety oflines, shapes and colors to givethis painting interest. He alsooverlaps some of theseElements. Look at this paintingcarefully. What area is your eyedrawn to? Why? Kandinskyemphasized the large blackcircle in the upper left corner ofhis work. The object is differentfrom everything else in thepainting and therefore it "standsout".
VaseVases were created bypotters in Greece andaround the world to hold oils,liquids and fruits. TheGreeks developed thesebeautiful red on black vasesusually decorated withscenes from Mythologicalstories or images of greatleaders, warriors and artists.Even thousands of yearslater, these vases are stillconsidered beautiful. Whatmakes them special?
Vase ContinuedHow does the artist useEmphasis? What did heemphasize and why?Thecontrast of the red and whitefigures against the blackbackground draws the eye tothe images. To accent theimages, he decorated aroundthe vase using the same colors.These patterns accent thefigures.These vases are a form ofpottery or ceramics in which clayis used to create the work and itis fired in a kiln to make it hardand permanent.Why did Greekartists draw so much frommythology?
Harmony and Unity"Harmony" in music results in pleasing tonesto the ears. "Harmony" in art results from acombination of related Elements of Artcreating a pleasing work for the eye. "Unity"infers that the work of art is presented as a "whole". When a work of art has "Unity", theviewer sees the work as a whole, not inseparate sections. Lets go on to see just howthis works!
Beveux TapestryLook at this wonderful segmentof the Bayeux Tapestry. This isconsidered a textile, or a workmade up of cloth and/or fibers. Itis not a Tapestry in the fullsense of the word. It is anembroidery. It was constructedfrom eight separate pieces oflinen which were joined to makeup its length. It is approximately70 meters long and half a meterwide. It is evident that at onestage it was even longer,probably by as much as sevenor eight meters which are nowmissing.
Beveux DetailLook at this detail of asingle section. Note thedetails of theembroidered images,designs and words.Eight earthen colorswere used to create thismarvel. The use ofrelated colors, stitcherytextures, two parallelborders, and a similartheme throughout makethis piece harmonious.
Landscape- CezanneThis is a landscape. Alandscape details a scene of theoutdoors. Cezanne paintedmany landscapes and manyscenes of this particularmountain. What do you think heused to keep this paintingunified, or having a sense of the"whole" painting workingtogether?( Ill give you a hint: The secretwas in his color palette.)
Klee PortraitLook at this unusual portrait.Is it realistic or abstract?What makes this pieceappear as a "whole" orfinished product?Look at Klees painting style.He uses flat, geometricareas of color. All the detailshave been reduced to themost simple shapes andareas. His color paletteemphasizes the warmcolors.
Klee TechniquesBecause Klee uses thesetechniques CONSISTENTLYthroughout his work, the finalpainting appears to beUnified. All the parts seem tofit together. Unity is a verydifficult concept tounderstand, but, if youcreate a piece of art that justdoesnt look right, or appearsas if it needs more work,then you need to unify theElements of Art