Understanding InterculturalUnderstanding Intercultural
CommunicationCommunication Second EditionSecond Edition
Chapter 9
H...
MENUMENU
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
III. Flexible I...
I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background FactorsBackground Factors
Intercultural ...
Independent-self conflict
lens
Content conflict goal lens
Win-lose conflict approach
“Doing” angle
Outcome-driven mode
Int...
I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background FactorsBackground Factors
B. Intercultur...
I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background FactorsBackground Factors
B. Intercultur...
I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background FactorsBackground Factors
C. Intercultur...
I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background FactorsBackground Factors
D. Intercultur...
II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process
FactorsFactors
A. Defining Conflict Styles:
Three app...
II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process
FactorsFactors
Five-style conflict grid
II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process
FactorsFactors
B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
• Fa...
II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process
FactorsFactors
B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
Face...
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
A. Facework Management
• Self-orien...
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
B. Mindful Listening
• A face-valid...
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
B. Mindful Listening
Mindless Listening
Ethnocentric lens
Reactive approach
Selective hearing
Defensive posture
“Struggle against”
Judgmental a...
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
C. Cultural Empathy
Perspective-tak...
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-AblesIV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
To deal with conflict in a collectivist...
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-
AblesAbles
In conflict situations in an individua...
Parting Thoughts…Parting Thoughts…
Conflict = Chaos = Danger + Opportunity
Learn to listen to the identity stories, yearni...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

IBS354 PP Chapter 9 Module 11

722 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

IBS354 PP Chapter 9 Module 11

  1. 1. Understanding InterculturalUnderstanding Intercultural CommunicationCommunication Second EditionSecond Edition Chapter 9 How CanWe Manage Intercultural Conflict Flexibly? StellaTing-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
  2. 2. MENUMENU I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do- Ables
  3. 3. I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors Intercultural conflict: The implicit or explicit emotional struggle or frustration between persons of different cultures over perceived incompatible values, norms, face orientations, goals, scarce resources, processes, and/or outcomes in a communication situation.
  4. 4. Independent-self conflict lens Content conflict goal lens Win-lose conflict approach “Doing” angle Outcome-driven mode Interdependent-self conflict lens Relational process lens Win-win relational approach “Being” angle Long-term compromising negotiation mode I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors A. Culture-Based Conflict Lenses
  5. 5. I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors B. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid • Uses two value dimensions (individualism-collectivism and power distance) to form grid with four approaches..
  6. 6. I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors B. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
  7. 7. I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors C. Intercultural Conflict Perceptions: Three primary perception features of intercultural conflict: 1. Conflict involves intercultural perceptions, filtered through lenses of ethnocentrism and stereotypes. 2. Ethnocentric perceptions add biases and prejudice to conflict attribution process. 3. Attribution process further compounded by different culture-based verbal and nonverbal conflict styles.
  8. 8. I. Intercultural Conflict: CulturalI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsBackground Factors D. Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues 1. Content goals 2. Relational conflict goals 3. Identity-based goals E. Perceived Scarce Resources 1. Conflict resources 2. Tangible resources 3. Intangible resources
  9. 9. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process FactorsFactors A. Defining Conflict Styles: Three approaches to studying conflict styles: • Dispositional approach • Situational approach • Systems approach
  10. 10. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process FactorsFactors Five-style conflict grid
  11. 11. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process FactorsFactors B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles • Face: Socially approved self-image and other-image consideration issues. • Facework: Verbal and nonverbal strategies used to maintain, defend, or upgrade our social self-image and attack or defend (“save”) social images of others.
  12. 12. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessII. Intercultural Conflict Process FactorsFactors B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles Face-negotiation theory helps explain how individualism-collectivism value patterns influence use of diverse conflict styles in different situations. C. Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework Can you guess the different kinds of conflict styles used by African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Latino/a Americans, and Native Americans on a general patterned level?
  13. 13. III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills A. Facework Management • Self-oriented face-saving behaviors: Attempts to regain or defend one’s image after threats to face or face loss. • Other-oriented face-giving behaviors: Attempts to support others’ face claims and work with them to prevent further face loss or help them restore face constructively. Giving face means not humiliating others in public.
  14. 14. III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills B. Mindful Listening • A face-validation and power-sharing skill; listening with focused attentiveness to cultural and personal assumptions expressed. • Involves learning to listen responsively, or ting (Chinese: “attending mindfully with our ears, eyes, and a focused heart”).
  15. 15. III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills B. Mindful Listening
  16. 16. Mindless Listening Ethnocentric lens Reactive approach Selective hearing Defensive posture “Struggle against” Judgmental attitude Emotional outbursts Coercive power Positional differences Fixed objectives Win-lose/lose-lose outcome Mindful Listening Ethnorelative lens Proactive/choice approach Attentive listening Supportive posture “Struggle with” Mindful reframing Vulnerability shared Shared power Common interests Creative options Win-win synergy III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
  17. 17. III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills C. Cultural Empathy Perspective-take accurately the self-experiences of others and convey your understanding responsively. D. Mindful Reframing How you “frame” conflict via neutrally-toned language may soften conflict defensiveness. E. Adaptive Code-Switching Purposefully modifying one’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors in conflict interaction.
  18. 18. IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-AblesIV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables To deal with conflict in a collectivistic culture, individualists need to do the following: 1. Be mindful of mutual face-saving premises, especially delicate balance of humiliation and pride, respect and disrespect, and shame and honor issues. 2. Practice patient, mindful observation and limit “why?” questions. 3. Practice mindful listening skills, attend to other’s identity and relational expectation issues. Remember listen can become silent and vice versa
  19. 19. IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do- AblesAbles In conflict situations in an individualistic culture, collectivists need to do the following: 1. Use assertive conflict behavior and state a clear thesis, then systematically develop key points. 2. Use “I” statements and more “why?” questions. 3. Engage in active listening skills (rephrasing and perception checking); do not rely solely on nonverbal signals or count on other people to gauge personal reactions.
  20. 20. Parting Thoughts…Parting Thoughts… Conflict = Chaos = Danger + Opportunity Learn to listen to the identity stories, yearnings, and nuances behind the fighting words. ~ Stella Ting-Toomey

×