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Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: instructional designa process to develop teaching materials such as printed modules, instructional video,instructional software and multimedia materials.Diek dan Reiser(1988), ID a process of design, develop, implement, and evaluateteaching is done in a systematic and planned.Reigeluth(1983), ID greater focus on teaching methods of expression as a discipline thatgives importance to the understanding, improvement and application of teachingmethodsRichey (1986) asserts that instructional design is a science to creating detailedspecifications for the development of teaching, assessment and maintenance of acondition that facilitates learning.There are six basic things that encompass the entire process of teaching 1.) determine the needs of pupils 2.) obj n goals 3.) building assessment procedures 4.) design and choose the delivery strategy 5.) try out the instructional system 6.) evaluate the overall systemGustafson(1991) instructional design covers the whole process of teachingInstructional design is a process that made systematically to design, build and evaluateactivities and materials used throughout the process of teaching.Role of instructional design 1.) Improve the teaching professionBuild systematic teaching.Improve the efficiency of teachers in making proper planning before the process ofteaching and learning. 2.) Understand the needsteachers have an understanding of instructional design to determine effective and clearteaching... 3.) problem solvingbring the changes of attitudes, knowledge and skill of the learners.Help T to solve the problem in teachingpreparation and careful planning by teachers to help teachers meet the challenges facedwhen teaching students
  2. 2. 4.) teaching focus conduct suitable activity help teacher to enter the class v confidence and well preparationImportance of instructional design 1.) help in the learning process of SS make T&L smoothly 2.) well preparation can produce effective teaching. Help learners to get desired skills/knowledge and attitudes. 3.) Teacher makes preparation which is suitable to the topic and learners’ background in T and L. Get pupils attention in T n L. 4.) Meaningful and fun learning- active learning Gv T guidance to prepare the lesson with the approaches and media, resources used.instructional design model-make T&L completed n achieve obj-well lesson planning make the T&L effective.-effective T&L made SS get the desired skills, knowledge and attitudes. 1. Classroom-oriented model Role of the teacher only as media users by selecting the appropriate materials with activities -Model Gerlach and Ely(1980), Model ASSURE(1996), Model Dick and Reiser(1989) *Model ASSURE -Heinich,Molenda, dan Russel (1993) -small-scale, focus on instructional planning -planning the use of media A- analyse learners S- state objective S-select Media and Materials U- Utilise Media and Materials R- Required learners participation. E- Evaluation Model Dick and Reisser (1989) 1) define goals 6.) building activities in teaching 2) analyse learners characteristic 7.) select instructional media 3) objective 8.) conduct teaching 4) choose the textbook 5) build test
  3. 3. 2.) product-oriented model i) analysis of the problem ii) analysis the domain iii) analysis and arrange the task iv) support and organize the content analysis studies v) determine the events and learning activities vi) interactive messaging design vii) the value of teaching 3.) System-oriented modelconstruction materials for the long term in a system of effective teachingModel Diek and Carey i) identify the teaching goals ii) analysis of teaching iii) identify the characteristic learners iv) write performance objective v) criterion reference test item construction vi) build the teaching strategic vii) build the teaching material viii) design and conduct a formative evaluation ix) review of teaching 5.) teaching design in the teaching system integrate the element of the design and construction of teaching material to ease the teacher n in conducting the lesson i) determine the subject matter to be taught T must choose the topic to be taught and use the reference (books, internet and software) ii) build the teaching materials -Teacher understand and analysis the teaching content to build and choose the suitable teaching. iii) prepare lesson plans - Lesson plans should be designed to ensure the successful integration of instructional media in teaching and the use of teaching methods Iv) conducting the lesson - role of the teacher, the use of teaching methods and media used by the town planning to ensure information is communicated more effectively V) T and L process - Learning objectives achieved as a result of systematic planning in teaching methods, media development and media integration
  4. 4. Message designmessage design generally emphasizes one way educators shaped channel informationthrough audio visual message that will attract the attention of students in the teachingand learning processFleming and Leive (1993) message design is the pattern of symbols that influencecognitive, affective and psychomotor.Grabowski(1991) message design planning to manipulate the physical messagein this process, the matters related to the delivery of a message such as attention,observation and memory needs of students counted as important-Medium use either static, dynamic or a combination of both such as video, computerdisplay and use of media-Message is information, facts, concepts, skills and values given by the teacher to pupilUsage of materials n media can replace teacherMassage can be transferred to SS through teachers n mediacommunication processes to deliver messages in a systematic and and sources of information may consist of a computer, radio, television or printed.Model Shannon and Weaver (1974) is the first model and the basis for the developmentof teaching communication model in the early stagessource-transmitter-receiver-message-listenerteacher is the source to give the infomesej-subjectstransmitter- microphone, screen.signals will be received by the human ear and mind of the receiver andeventually to studentsintereference- sound of vehicles, pupils soundSchramms communication modelSources- teachers, parents and frens.Encoders- audio forms, images, words or verbalDecoder is the process of organizing and understanding the symbols received
  5. 5. Transactional Communication Model emphasizes the message interpretation process byboth the sender and the receiver.Effective communication can convey the message clearly and is affected by manyfactors such as recipient and sendercultural background, experience and attitudeactive student participation during the communication process should be emphasized byteachers during teaching in the classroom so that the message can be conveyed clearlyand accurately.if the student is actively involved as questioning, an opinion or simply involved physicallyand mentally, the received message will be more effectivethe response that we get frm the SS means that they received info