Cold war origins and elements

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Cold war origins and elements

  1. 1. Unit 11: The Cold War
  2. 2. Essential Understandings1) The Cold War set the framework for GLOBAL POLITICS for 45 years after the end of WORLD WAR II. It also influenced American DOMESTIC POLITICS, the conduct of FOREIGN AFFAIRS, and the role of the GOVERNMENT in the ECONOMY after 1945
  3. 3. 2) The Cold War was essentially a COMPETITION between two very different ways of organizing GOVERNMENT, SOCIETY, and the ECONOMY:A) The AMERICAN-led B) The SOVIET belief inwestern nations’ belief in a TOTALITARIAN stateDEMOCRACY, INDIVIDAUL and SOCIALISMfreedom, and a MARKETeconomy
  4. 4. Origins of the Cold WarDefinition: “The COMPETITION thatdeveloped after WWII between theUNITED STATES and the SOVIETUNION for power and influence in theworld
  5. 5. The Cold War lasted from 1945 tothe COLLAPSE of the SovietUnion in 1991.”
  6. 6. 1945 – A Critical YearCooperation during WWII between UnitedStates and Soviet Union wasTEMPORARY arrangement
  7. 7. History of HostilitySTRAINED relationship between U.S. andSoviet Union RUSSIAN REVOLUTION of 1917 – American troops supported anti-Communist resistance USSR NOT INVITED to peace conferences after WWI U.S. DIDN’T recognize Soviet government until 1933 Soviets signed a pact with HITLER before WWII Soviets DISAGREED with Americans/British over battle TACTICS, postwar PLANS during WWII Americans FEARED communism
  8. 8. YALTA Conference of 1945 –Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchillmet to work out future ofGERMANY and POLAND Germany divided into American, British, French, and Soviet OCCUPATION ZONES American, British, French zones  WEST GERMANY Soviet zone  EAST GERMANY Conflict over future of POLAND
  9. 9. Leaders agreed to form UNITEDNATIONSTRUMAN becomes president
  10. 10. Conflicting postwar goalsUnited States Soviet Union1) Fought to bring 1) Wanted to REBUILDDEMOCRACY, economic and protect its ownOPPORTUNITY to interests = “SATELLITEconquered nations of NATIONS”Europe/Asia. 2) Spread of 2) Economically strong COMMUNISM throughoutand politically open world the world = supported= MARKETS for American totalitarian Communistproducts governments in EASTERN EUROPE
  11. 11. Creation of Soviet “satellite nations”
  12. 12. Clash of Ideologies United States Soviet UnionPolitical DEMOCRATIC TOTALITARIANsystem government government Democracy: Totalitarianism: government by STATE controls the PEOPLE, all aspects of either directly or citizens’ lives, one through elected ultimate leader representatives
  13. 13. United States Soviet UnionEconomic CAPITALIST COMMUNIST system (free market) (socialism) Capitalism: Socialism: economic system in which the economic system in factors of which property/means production are of production are owned owned INDIVIDUALLY; COMMUNALLY; NO DIFFERENT SOCIAL CLASSES SOCIAL CLASSES EXIST
  14. 14. Communism: “economic system in whichthere is NO state or private property, allgoods are owned in COMMON, and thereis NO CLASS DIVISION of citizens
  15. 15. The “Iron Curtain” February 1946 – STALIN predicted ultimate triumph of communism over capitalism. March 5, 1946 – WINSTON CHURCHILL responded while speaking in Fulton, Missouri
  16. 16.  “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an IRON CURTAIN has descended across the Continent…”
  17. 17. Marshall Plan Unveiled by Secretary of State George C. Marshall in 1947 United States supported European ECONOMIC RECOVERY from World War II U.S. allocated approx. $13 BILLION to Western Europe
  18. 18. Berlin Airlift of 1948-1949 Soviets BLOCKED Allied access to West Berlin Blockade caused severe SHORTAGES of FOOD and SUPPLIES for 2.5 million people in WEST BERLIN British and American AIRCRAFT made more than 200,000 flights to deliver food, fuel, other supplies until May 1949
  19. 19. Communist Takeover of China The Communist takeover in China led by MAO ZEDONG shortly after WWII increased American fears of communist DOMINATION Rather than being strong allies, however, CHINA and the SOVIET UNION eventually became RIVALS for territory and diplomatic influence Chinese communist dictator Mao Zedong
  20. 20. Elements of the Cold War
  21. 21. Containment American policy that called for the United States to RESIST Soviet attempts to form Communist governments ELSEWHERE
  22. 22. Truman DoctrinePres. Harry Truman’s 1947 SPEECHbefore a joint session of Congress, callingUnited States to take LEADERSHIP role inthe world, and declaring that the UNITEDSTATES would SUPPORT nationsthreatened by communism
  23. 23. “…I believe that it must be the policy of theUnited States to support free peoples whoare resisting attempted subjugation byarmed minorities or by outsidepressures…” - Pres. Truman, March 12, 1947
  24. 24. Development of Competing Alliances NATO (1949) The Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty (1955) OrganizationUS & WESTERN USSR & EASTERNEUROPE promise EUROPE promisedcommon defense common defense IF ONE IS ATTACKED, ALL ARE ATTACKED
  25. 25. For nearly 50 years, both sides maintainedlarge MILITARY forces facing each otherin Europe
  26. 26. Arms RaceStruggle between U.S. and Soviet Unionto gain weapons SUPERIORITYDETERRENCE – policy of making militarypower of U.S. and allies so strong that noenemy would dare attack out of fear1949 – U.S.S.R. exploded a nuclear bomb= new threat of nuclear warUnited States NOT the only ones with theBOMB anymore
  27. 27. Soviets focused on long-range rocketscalled ICBMs (Inter Continental BallisticMissiles)May 1960, Soviet military used guidedmissile to SHOOT DOWN an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory
  28. 28. Massive retaliationSTRATEGICDOCTRINE instituted byPres. Dwight D.EISENHOWERIf the Soviets attackedat all, the United Stateswould respond withTOTAL destructivenuclear forceEstablished“MUTUALLY ASSUREDDESTRUCTION”
  29. 29. Differences between WWII and Cold War World War II Cold WarMULTIPLE countries involved (US, TWO main superpowers (United StatesBritain, Germany, France, Soviet Union, and Soviet Union)etc.)CLEARLY DEFINED sides, alliances, IDEOLOGICAL /economic lines drawnand geographic areas (Allies vs. Axis in between two powers (capitalism vs.European, Pacific, and North African communism, democracy vs.theaters) totalitarianism)Actual ARMED CONFLICT MILITARY TENSIONS, but never direct military engagement between two powersATOMIC BOMB used by United States NO nuclear weapons actually usedWar ended with VICTORY FOR ALLIES NO VICTORY for U.S. in Korean/Vietnam Wars, war ended b/c of Soviet Union collapse

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