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Chapter 19      States and Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa                                                                ...
Effects of Early African Migrations   Bantu-speaking peoples settle south of Equator   Agriculture, herding spreads with...
Bantu Migrations, 2000 BCE-1000 CE                                                                                        ...
Cultivation of Bananas   Domesticated in south-east Asia   Malay sailors colonize Madagascar, 300-500 CE       Introduc...
Population Growth 25 20 15                                                                                                ...
Kin-Based Societies   Stateless, segmentary societies   No elaborate hierarchies, bureaucracies   Average population of...
Chiefdoms   Population pressures after 1000 increase    competition, disputes   Small chiefdoms appear, overrule kin-bas...
Kingdoms and empires of sub-SaharanAfrica, 800-1500 C.E.                                                                  ...
Kingdom of Kongo   Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river   Conglomeration of several village alliances   Participated active...
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires   Islam spreads to west Africa       Trans-Saharan caravans       Coastal east Africa thro...
Trans-saharan Trade and Islamic States inWest Africa   Desiccation of Sahara begins c. 5000 BCE   Introduction of Arabia...
The Kingdom of Ghana   Not related to modern State of Ghana   Developed 4th-5th c. CE   Protection against camel-drivin...
Koumbi-Saleh   Capital of Kingdom of Ghana   High point 9th-12th centuries       Population 15,000-20,000   Military, ...
Islam in West Africa   Kings of Ghana convert 10th c.   Positive impact on trade, relations with north    Africa   Synt...
Sundiata (r. 1230-1255)   Empire of Mali extends over Kingdom of Ghana       Neighboring kingdoms as well   Took greate...
Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337)   Grandson of Sundiata   Fervent Muslim   Performed Hajj in 1324-25       Constructed numero...
Mansa Musa                                                                                             17     Copyright © ...
The Indian Ocean Trade and IslamicStates in East Africa   East coast maritime trade weak until 2nd century   Bantu peopl...
The Swahili City-States   Great wealth, 11th-12th centuries CE   Development of city-states   Architecture moved from w...
Nok Sculpture                                                                                             20     Copyright...
Kilwa   City-state on east African coast   Fishing, limited trade, 800-1000 CE   Turn to agriculture, increased trade i...
Zimbabwe   “dwelling of the chief”   Stone complex called “Great Zimbabwe” built    early 13th century CE, capital   Po...
Islam in East Africa   Ruling elites in east Africa accept Islam without    forcing general population to convert   Ofte...
Arabian Society and CulturalDevelopment   Some kingdoms, empires, city-states with well-    defined classes       Ruling...
Kinship Groups   Extended families, clans   Idea of private property less prevalent   Land held communally   Harvests ...
Sex and Gender Relations   Men work with specialized skills       Tanning, iron work       Heavy labor   Both sexes wo...
Age grades   From early agricultural period, Sudan   Peer groups of single age cohort   Crosses lines of family and kin...
Slavery   Practiced since ancient times   Most slaves captives of war       Debtors       Suspected witches       Cri...
Slave Trading   Increased trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trade    stimulates slave trade, 9th c. CE   Africa replaces ea...
Arabian Swahili Slave Trade                                                                                              3...
The Zanj Revolt   Slaves from Swahili coast exported to work in    Mesopotamia       Sugarcane plantations       Salt d...
African Religion   Great diversity of religious belief   Common element: single, male creator god       Lesser deities ...
Early Christianity in North Africa   1st century: popular in Egypt, north Africa       Initially weak in sub-Saharan Afr...
The Obelisk at Axum                                                                                             34     Cop...
Ethiopian Christianity   Isolation from other Christian areas until 16th    century   Independent development   Strong ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 19 States and Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Effects of Early African Migrations Bantu-speaking peoples settle south of Equator Agriculture, herding spreads with Bantu migrations Iron metallurgy 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Bantu Migrations, 2000 BCE-1000 CE 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Cultivation of Bananas Domesticated in south-east Asia Malay sailors colonize Madagascar, 300-500 CE  Introduce bananas, yams, chickens Well-adpated to African climate Food supply increases with this key crop 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Population Growth 25 20 15 Millions 10 5 0 400 BCE 0 800 CE 1000 CE 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Kin-Based Societies Stateless, segmentary societies No elaborate hierarchies, bureaucracies Average population of village: 100 Ruled by elders Network of villages resolve disputes in ad hoc manner Higher government authorities rare 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Chiefdoms Population pressures after 1000 increase competition, disputes Small chiefdoms appear, overrule kin-based groups Small kingdoms form  Ife, Benin 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Kingdoms and empires of sub-SaharanAfrica, 800-1500 C.E. 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Kingdom of Kongo Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river Conglomeration of several village alliances Participated actively in trade networks Most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms Royal currency: cowries Ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portugese slave traders 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Islam spreads to west Africa  Trans-Saharan caravans  Coastal east Africa through maritime trade Profound influence after 8th century 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Trans-saharan Trade and Islamic States inWest Africa Desiccation of Sahara begins c. 5000 BCE Introduction of Arabian camels revolutionizes trade  70-90 days to cross Sahara Arabs establish trading communities  Gao 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. The Kingdom of Ghana Not related to modern State of Ghana Developed 4th-5th c. CE Protection against camel-driving raiders Center of African gold trade  Imported from south to Ghana Also sold ivory, slaves 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Koumbi-Saleh Capital of Kingdom of Ghana High point 9th-12th centuries  Population 15,000-20,000 Military, cultural center 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Islam in West Africa Kings of Ghana convert 10th c. Positive impact on trade, relations with north Africa Synthesized Islam with local traditions  Nearby Takrur aggressive missionaries 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Sundiata (r. 1230-1255) Empire of Mali extends over Kingdom of Ghana  Neighboring kingdoms as well Took greater advantage of trans-Saharan trade Nominally Muslim, but did not force conversions 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337) Grandson of Sundiata Fervent Muslim Performed Hajj in 1324-25  Constructed numerous mosques  Supported Muslim scholars Empire declines after his rule 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Mansa Musa 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. The Indian Ocean Trade and IslamicStates in East Africa East coast maritime trade weak until 2nd century Bantu peoples populate coast Swahili (“coasters”) engage in trade with Arabs  Language a form of Bantu, influenced by Arabic 10th century trade increases 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. The Swahili City-States Great wealth, 11th-12th centuries CE Development of city-states Architecture moved from wood/mud to coral, stone Chinese silk, porcelain imported 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Nok Sculpture 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Kilwa City-state on east African coast Fishing, limited trade, 800-1000 CE Turn to agriculture, increased trade in pottery and stoneware Major trading center by 14th century  Exporting over a ton of gold per year by 15th century CE 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Zimbabwe “dwelling of the chief” Stone complex called “Great Zimbabwe” built early 13th century CE, capital Population 18,000 in late 15th century Managed trade between internal and coastal regions 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Islam in East Africa Ruling elites in east Africa accept Islam without forcing general population to convert Often retained pagan religious traditions and practices Islam serves as social glue with other merchants, states 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Arabian Society and CulturalDevelopment Some kingdoms, empires, city-states with well- defined classes  Ruling elites  Merchant class  Peasant class Other areas in sub-Saharan Africa continue to use traditional kin-based groups 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Kinship Groups Extended families, clans Idea of private property less prevalent Land held communally Harvests distributed by elders 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Sex and Gender Relations Men work with specialized skills  Tanning, iron work  Heavy labor Both sexes work in agriculture Male rule more common, but some expanded roles for women  Merchants, some military activity Islamic norms slow to penetrate African society 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Age grades From early agricultural period, Sudan Peer groups of single age cohort Crosses lines of family and kinship 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Slavery Practiced since ancient times Most slaves captives of war  Debtors  Suspected witches  Criminals Used principally in agricultural labor Slave possession a status symbol 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Slave Trading Increased trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trade stimulates slave trade, 9th c. CE Africa replaces eastern Europe as principal source of slaves Creates internal African slave trade  More powerful states attack smaller kinship-based groups  10,000-20,000 slaves per year 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. Arabian Swahili Slave Trade 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. The Zanj Revolt Slaves from Swahili coast exported to work in Mesopotamia  Sugarcane plantations  Salt deposits 869 CE, slave Ali bin Muhamad mounts revolt of 15,000 slaves Captures Basra Later crushed by Abbasids 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. African Religion Great diversity of religious belief Common element: single, male creator god  Lesser deities associated with natural phenomena Ancestor worship Diviners  Religious specialists, principally men  Oracle reading, spells, other rituals Limited emphasis on theology Morality, balance of nature important 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. Early Christianity in North Africa 1st century: popular in Egypt, north Africa  Initially weak in sub-Saharan Africa The Christian Kingdom of Axum, 4th c. CE  Ethiopia  Merchants, then kings convert  Bible translated into Ethiopian  Isolated during Islamic period, renaissance during 12th century CE  Massive churches carved out of solid rock 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. The Obelisk at Axum 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  35. 35. Ethiopian Christianity Isolation from other Christian areas until 16th century Independent development Strong African influence  Spirit world  amulets 35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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