Business Cloud Integration Glossary


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Cloud computing and integration are the hottest topics in IT, with Amazon, Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other key players providing application services. This glossary clarifies some of the terms bursting out of “the cloud.”

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Business Cloud Integration Glossary

  1. 1. Business Cloud Integration Glossary.Cloud computing and integration are the hottest topics in IT, with Amazon, Apple, Google, Mi-crosoft, and other key players providing application services. This glossary clarifies some of theterms bursting out of “the cloud.”aaS – Stands for “as a service.” The phrase is usually preceded by a capital letter that indicates thecloud-based provision, as in Hardware (HaaS), Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS), or Software(SaaS).Advertising-based pricing model – The service provider and the ads are bundled with the ser-vices that are delivered to the consumer.Amazon EC2 – Also known as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud, a web service that provides re-sizable computing capacity in the cloud, so that developers can enjoy great scalability for buildingapplications.Amazon S3 – Amazon’s cloud storage service, also known as Amazon Simple Storage Services.Amazon Web Services (AWS) – A set of services that create a reliable, scalable, and inexpensivecomputing platform “in the cloud”. For more information, visit connections – A platform that works across internal and external applications, pro-tocols, and systems, and integrates data and processes among business partners and communities.Any-to-any connections go beyond point-to-point or application-to-application connections.B2B integration – Business-to-business connections among a company and its partners to inte-grate information and processes.Billing and service usage metering – A pay-as-you-go model whereby the service providercharges for services that the consumer selected, rather than the entire package. For example, newsoutlets may let you read 8 articles for free, and then start charging you to read a certain amount ofarticles per week or month.
  2. 2. Content delivery network (CDN) – Content that exists on multiple computers and can be re-trieved by anyone with access to the network.Cloud – A metaphor for a global network, from the telephone to the Internet. A cloud has fiveessential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapidelasticity, and measured service. See also Cloud Computing.Cloud application – A software application that is never installed on a local machine and is onlyaccessed over the Internet. In the Cloud Pyramid, the Cloud Application is the top layer of a soft-ware application that is only accessible on the web. The application is controlled by the serviceprovider, such as Gmail or arcs – Cloud architectures are designs for software applications that can be accessed andused over the Internet.Cloud-based integration solutions – A cloud architecture that integrates data, applications, andbusiness (B2B) processes.Cloud bridge – Running an application so that its components are integrated within a multiplecloud environment, including any combination of internal/private and external/public clouds.Cloud broker – An entity that creates and maintains relationships with multiple cloud servicecustomers and cloud service providers. It acts as a liaison by selecting the best provider for eachcustomer and monitoring the services.Cloudburst – An outage or security breach that occurs in a cloud and makes its services unavail-able. Cloudbursts can have negative or positive consequences. A negative cloudburst occurs whena cloud-computing environment cannot a handle a spike in demand. A positive cloudburst ad-dresses a spike in demand by rapidly deploying a software application that enables increased usageand prevents a communications breakdown.Cloudburst (negative) – A negative cloudburst occurs when a cloud-computing environmentcannot handle a spike in demand.Cloudburst (positive) – A positive cloudburst addresses a spike in demand by rapidly deployinga software application that enables increased usage and prevents a communications breakdown.Cloud center – A cloud architecture that comprises a data center that rents components of its in-frastructure. Renting store space that is accessible on is a good example.
  3. 3. Cloud client – A computing device for cloud computing.Cloud computing – Cloud computing differs from the classic client-server model, which requiresan application to be installed on the client’s computer. Instead, cloud-computing applications areexecuted and managed by a client’s web browser from its underlying technical architecture (e.g.,servers, storage, and networks) with minimal management effort or service provider interac-tion. Centralization allows cloud service providers to control browser-based applications, versionupgrades, and updated end user license agreements. Clouds have five essential characteristics:on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measuredservice. One requests a service (resource), not a specific server (machine). Infrastructure, applica-tions, and business processes can be delivered to you as a service, over the Internet (or your ownnetwork). “The Cloud” enables Hardware (HaaS), Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS), or Ser-vice (SaaS) that are installed on the client’s web-based device(s).Cloud enabler – Organizations (typically vendors) that make cloud-computing technologies,such as cloudware, available to clients so they can engage in cloud computing.Cloud Computing Manifesto – A document with a “public declaration of principles and inten-tions” for cloud computing providers and vendors. It is annotated as a “call to action for the world-wide cloud community” and the “dedicated belief that the cloud should be open.” It is based on theCloud Computing Bill of Rights. Companies known to have rejected the document by declining tobe signatories include Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and envy – A phrase applied to a vendor who jumps on the cloud computing bandwagon byrebranding existing services.Cloud governance and compliance – Policies and procedures about the cloud infrastructure forindividuals and groups to follow.Cloud hosting – A type of Internet hosting in which the client leases scalable infrastructure on anas-needed basis. Typically, clients can select the operating system and other infrastructure com-ponents. Cloud hosting is usually offered as a self-service. Billing is controlled via a Web interfaceor API, usually hourly or monthly.Cloud Infrastructure – The bottom layer (or foundation) of the Cloud Pyramid delivers the com-puter infrastructure. It includes servers, networks, and other hardware appliances that are deliv-ered as Infrastructure Web Services or “cloud centers.” Examples include GoGrid and AmazonWeb Services.Cloud integration platform – Multi-tenant architecture provided by Hubspan.
  4. 4. Cloud manageability – Managing asset provisions and quality of service (QOS) consistently inon-site and cloud-based environments.Cloud network – This occurs when multiple cloud computing environments are connecting. Alsocalled Cloud storm.Cloud operating system – A computer operating system that is specially designed to run in a pro-vider’s data center and to be delivered to the user over the Internet or another network. WindowsAzure is an example of a cloud operating system or “cloud layer” that runs on Windows Server2008. The term also applies to cloud-based client operating systems, including Google ChromeOS.Cloud-Oriented Architecture (COA) – A term coined by Jeff Barr at Amazon Web Services todescribe an architecture or IT infrastructure where software applications act as services in thecloud and serve other applications in the cloud environment.Cloud platform – The middle layer of the Cloud Pyramid. It provides a computing platform orframework. Examples include .NET, Ruby on Rails, Python, Google AppEngine, and MicrosoftAzure.Cloud portability – The ability to move applications (and often associated data) across cloudcomputing environments, cloud providers, and public/external and private/internal clouds. Alsoknown as cloud standards.Cloud providers – Cloud computing service providers whose product/platform is based on vir-tualization of computing resources and a utility-based payment model. A company that providescloud-based platform, infrastructure, application, or storage services to clients, usually for a fee.Cloud Pyramid – A visual representation of the layers of cloud computing that are differentiatedby functionality. The most basic cloud pyramid includes infrastructure, platform, and applicationlayers.Cloud servers – Virtual servers running a Windows or Linux operating system through a webinterface or API.Cloud service – Applications or application components that act as services in the cloud and areprovided to clients.Cloud Service Architecture (CSA) – Architecture with applications and application components
  5. 5. that act as services in the cloud and serve other applications in the same cloud environment. JeffBarr, chief evangelist at Amazon Web Services coined the phrase.Cloud sourcing – Replacing traditional IT services with cloud services.Cloud standards – See also Cloud portability.Cloud storage – A service that allows customers to save data by transferring it over the Internet oranother network to an off-site storage system maintained by a third party. The customer can accessthe data on any device with a web connection.Cloud storm – This occurs when multiple cloud computing environments are connecting. Alsocalled cloud network.Cloud storming – See Cloud storm.Cloudware – The software that enables a cloud-computing environment to build, deploy, run, ormanage applications.Cloud washing – Applying the word “cloud” to products and services you already have.Cluster – A group of linked computers that function as a single computer, for high availabilityand/or load balancing.Community cloud – See Hybrid cloud.Consumption-based pricing model – The service provider charges its customers for the amountof service consumed, rather than a time-based fee. A good example is charging per gigabyte ofinformation stored. See also Subscription-based pricing model.Customer self-service – A feature that allows customers to provision, manage, and terminate ser-vices through a Web interface or API, without involving the service provider.Data in the cloud – Managing data in the cloud requires data security and privacy, includingcontrols for moving data from point A to point B and managing data storage and resources forlarge-scale data processing.Disruptive technology – A term used to describe innovations that improve products or servicesin unexpected ways and cause dramatic change the way things are done. Cloud computing isoften referred to as a disruptive technology because it changes the way IT services are procured,
  6. 6. deployed, and maintained.Elasticity and scalability – The cloud is elastic and scalable because resource allocations and thescale of the cloud can increase or decrease depending on rising and falling demand for use. Cloudapplications can also be scaled to adapt to changes in features and functionality.Elastic computing – The ability to automatically provision and de-provision cloud services ac-cording to rising and falling demands for use.Encryption – Coding in a way that protects your information assets.External cloud – Public or private cloud services are provided by a third party.Funnel cloud – A discussion about cloud computing that swirls around but falls through.Google App Engine – A service that enables developers to create and run Web applications onGoogle’s infrastructure and share their applications. Google offers a pay-as-you-go, consumption-based plan, with no setup costs or recurring fees.Google Apps – Google’s SaaS offering includes an office productivity suite that includes Gmail,Google Talk for instant messaging, Google Calendar, and Google Docs (word processor, spread-sheet, and slide presentation software) that can be accessed and shared in the cloud. Google alsooffers Google Cloud Connect for Microsoft Office.Hardware as a service (HaaS) –. Cloud hardware services delivered by the provider via the Web.See also IaaS.Hosted application – An Internet-based or Web-based application software program that runs ona remote server and can be accessed via an Internet-connected PC or device. See also IaaS.Hubspan integration platform – An any-to-any platform that creates collaboration across inter-nal and external applications, protocols, and systems. It goes beyond point-to-point or applica-tion-to-application connections and integrates data and processes across supply chain, demandchain, e-commerce, logistics, and financial entities.Hybrid cloud – A network composed of two or more clouds (public, private, or community) thatoffer the benefits of multiple deployment models.IBM Smart Business – The suite of IBM cloud solutions, which include IBM Smart Business TestCloud, IBM Smart Analytics Cloud, IBM Smart Business Storage Cloud, IBM Information Ar-
  7. 7. chive, IBM Lotus Live, and IBM Lotus Live iNotes.iCloud – Apple’s cloud computing service (formerly iTools, .Mac, and Mobile Me) allows users tostore data on Apple servers for downloading to Apple’s multiple devices (iPhones, iPads, iPods)and on personal computers with Mac OS X or Microsoft Windows. The iCloud acts as a data-syncing center for Mac services and replaces MobileMe.Identity management – Managing personal identity information so that access to computer re-sources, applications, data, and services is secure.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – Cloud infrastructure services (servers, network equipment,and software) that are delivered by the service provider from the Web. Iaas evolved from web host-ing and virtual private server offerings. Instead of buying servers, software, data center space, ornetwork equipment, a client pays for an outsourced service.Intercloud – The Intercloud is a global “cloud of clouds,” a concept similar to the Internet’s “net-work of networks.” In 2007, Kevin Kelly coined the term. In 2009, the term became popular andis often used to describe the data center of the future. According to the Intercloud scenario, eachindividual cloud does not have infinite physical resources and its infrastructure could burst byover-saturated demand from users. In theory, each cloud can use the infrastructure resources ofother clouds. However, that possibility poses significant challenges, including federation, security,interoperability, vendor lock-ins, legal issues, QoS, monitoring, and billing. But, in practice, infra-structure sharing could inspire new business models and opportunities.Internal cloud – A type of private cloud with services provided internally by an IT department.Managed file transfer (MFT) – The transfer of data or files from one computer to another througha network (e.g. the Internet). MFT typically refers to software solutions, either on-premise orcloud-based.Mashup – A Web-based application that combines data and/or functionality from multiple sourc-es.Microsoft Azure – A Platform as a Service (PaaS) that allows developers to create cloud applica-tions and services.Middleware – A set of software services that exist between applications and operating systems.Middleware enables interoperability by supporting the passing of data between applications ondistributed architectures. Thus, data in one database can be accessed through another database.
  8. 8. Multi-tenancy – Sharing of resources by multiple companies over a cloud.On-demand service – A model by which a client can purchase cloud services as needed.Pay as you go – A cost model for cloud services that encompasses both subscription-based andconsumption-based models, rather than pay-in-advance methods for purchasing hardware andsoftware.Personal cloud – A personal wireless router that takes a mobile wireless signal and translates itto Wi-Fi. It is synonymous with MiFi, but often pronounced “ME-fi,” as in “the personal cloudbelongs to me — but if you’re nice I’ll let you connect.”Platform as a Service (PaaS) – Cloud platform services that are delivered by the provider via theWeb. The PaaS layer offers black-box services so developers can build applications on top of theplatform.Private clouds – A private/internal cloud behind a company’s firewall or private space dedicatedto a company in a cloud provider’s data center.Public cloud – Services offered over the Internet and available to anyone who wants to purchasethe service.Roaming workloads – The backend product of cloud centers.Software as a Service (SaaS) – Cloud application services delivered by the provider via the Web.Customer Relationship Management (CRM) services is a good example. Also known as Applica-tion Service Providers (ASP) – An online SaaS company, it is best known for delivering customer relationshipmanagement (CRM) software to companies over the InternetSelf-service provisioning – Cloud customers can purchase application services to use and depro-vision according to their business requirements.Service migration – The act of moving from one cloud service or vendor to another.Service provider – The company or organization that provides a public or private cloud service.Service level agreement (SLA) – A contractual agreement by which a service provider defines thelevel of service, responsibilities, priorities, and guarantees regarding availability, performance, andother aspects of the service.
  9. 9. Standardized interfaces – Cloud services should have standardized APIs that provide instruc-tions for two applications or data sources to communicate with each other. A standardized inter-face lets the customer link cloud services together.Subscription-based pricing model – A pricing model that lets customers pay a fee to use the ser-vice for a particular time period, often used for SaaS services.Utility computing – Online computing or storage sold as a metered commercial service in a waysimilar to a public utility.Vendor lock-in – Lack of standardized protocols, APIs, data structures (schemas), and servicemodels make it difficult to move from one cloud to another. This can result in being dependent ona particular cloud vendor for service provisions.Vertical cloud – A cloud-computing environment that is optimized for use in a particular indus-try, such as health care or financial services.Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) – A concept that is derived from Virtual Private Network (VPN)and applied to cloud computing. —–It involves turning a public cloud into a secure VPC, acrossinternal and external components. Reuven Cohen, CEO and founder of Enomaly, coined the term.Virtual private data center – Resources grouped according to specific business objectives.Windows Live Services – Microsoft’s cloud-based consumer applications, which include Win-dows Live Mail, Windows Live Photo Gallery, Windows Live Calendar, Windows Live Events,Windows Live Skydrive, Windows Live Spaces, Windows Live Messenger, Windows Live Writer,and Windows Live for Mobile.