Culture is defined as human creation. It is the human part of the environment.
Culture is the non-biological aspects of life. It is the process of generating and
sharing meaning within a social system. This social system is comprised of values,
norms and ways of behaving and so culture comprises the ways we interact,
behave and communicate with one another. Culture is something that is learned
from parents, schools and media and the broader community.
Meaning of Culture:
Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It
includes basic beliefs, ideas, values, customs, codes, institution, tools, and
techniques, work of arts, religions and rituals prevalent in a given society.
Definition of Culture:
E.B Taylor defines Culture as;
“The complex wholewhichincludesknowledge, beliefs, art, morals, custom and
any all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as members of society.”
Pakistan Culture is a Islamic Culture:
Pakistan is an Ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the
Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients
of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur,
simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.
Salient Features of Pakistan
Pakistan culture has experienced multiple evolutionary changes. It look 5000 years
to develop itself in to the present form. The invasion by different nations and
groups added to the cultural values and cultural traditions. People who invaded or
migrated from all over the world made Indus valley as permanent abode.
Different people brought with them different cultural heritage. It was the blend of
many cultures that ultimately evolve into a heterogeneous culture of this area.
Whosoever came to the Indus valley contributed to the enrichment of culture.
Majority of the Muslims inhabiting the Indus valley cause a deep impact on the
1. Religious Uniformity
2. Mixed Culture
7. Literature and Poetry
9. Urs and Festivals
10.Customers and Traditions
Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam; so
the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic ways of life. All the
ingredients of culture are inspired from Islam. So, in the course of more than three
decades of its existence Pakistan has evolved a distinct culture of life its own
which is based on a distinct philosophy and values of life as enunciated by Islam.
Pakistani culture is mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by
birth and faith. But there is a great influence of Hindus and British culture on the
present Pakistani society.
Inhabitants of different provinces and areas of Pakistan have their own values
and traits. Food, cloths, languages and traditions differ from one another. Punjabis,
Sindhis, Balochis, Pathans, Brohis, Kashmiris Makranis and Saraikis lead their
respective cultural life but they are also connected with a common culture.
Dress is an important manifestation of culture. Dresses in a Muslim society and
designed and intended to cover human bodyas nudity is prohibited in Islam.
Different dresses are used in rural and urban areas. The male members of rural
society wear Dhoti, Kurta and Turban. Female members wear Shalwar, Kurta and
Dupatta both in rural and urban areas. Sherwani, Waistcoat, coat and pent are used
in the urban areas by the men.
Variety of food is available in Pakistan. Different food is liked in different
provinces and areas. Vegetables, pulses, rice, and meat are the favorite dishes.
Meat and fruits are preferred in the province of N.W.F.P and Balochistan. Milk and
lassi are part of the food in Punjab. Halal meat is provided in all parts of Pakistan.
Social values have becomean integral part of Pakistani Culture. The
inhabitants of four provinces and areas believe in noble social values. The elders
are respected and Youngers receive love from them. Zakat and alms are provided
to the poor. People participate in the pleasures and griefs of one another
The female enjoys equal rights and possess respectablestatus. They have every
right to purchase and maintain property. Woman work in offices, factories, farms,
and educational institutions. In rural areas, women work in the fields side by side
with the men folk.
A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi,
Sindhi, Pashto and Balochi. But Urdu is spoken and understands in all parts of
Pakistan. Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all
regions of Pakistan. English language cannot be deprived from the official status
yet the majority can neither understand nor speak it. However Urdu, simple and
easy, is our national Language.
7-Literature and Poetry:
Pakistan literature originates from when Pakistan gained its nationhood as a
Sovereign state in 1947. A bodyof literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in
nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pashto,
Seraiki, Balochi and Sindhi.
Poetry is a highly respected art and profession in Pakistan. The enthusiasm for
poetry exists at a regional level as well, with nearly all of Pakistan`s provincial
languages continuing the legacy. The Urdu language has a rich tradition of poetry
and includes the famous poets Mirza Ghalib, FaizAhmad Faiz, Ahmad Faraz
and Ahmad NadeemQasimi. Pakistani poetry also has blends of other regional
The official national sports of Pakistan is field Hockey, and the Polo is
recognized as the state sport, although cricket, squash, badminton and kabaddi are
also very popular.
Pakistan enjoys a high position in the field of hockey. Our hockey team has
won many great tournaments from time to time. Pakistan has won Olympic Gold
Medal in Hockey at Rome 1960, Mexico 1964 and Loss Angles 1984. Pakistan
has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978,1982and 1994).
Cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup in 1992. They won in the 20-20
International World Cup in 2009. The team has also won the Asia Cup in 1986,
1990 and 1994.
We are the world Champions in Squash. Jahangir Khan is our World
Champion who is regarded as World`s No 1 Squash Player.
9-Urs and Festivals:
A large number of Urs and festivals are celebrated in Pakistan every year. Urs
and festivals are arranged in spring season.
Some important festivals and urs are as under:
Horse and Cattle Show
Sheendor (Gilgit) Polo matches
Annual Sibbi Mela
Urs Hazrat Shah Rukin-e-Alam, Multan
Urs Hazrat Ali Hajweri, Lahore
Urs Hazrat Fareed-ud-din Ganj Shakar, Pakpattan
Urs Hazrat Madhood Lal Hussain, Lahore
Urs Hazrat Saidan Shah(Punjab)
Urs Hazrat Sachal Sarmast(Sindh)
Urs Hazrat Abdul Lateef Bhittai(Sindh)
10-Customs and Traditions:
Customs and Traditions are important feature of Pakistani Culture. Different
customs and traditions are observed on different occasions in Pakistan.
Birth of a Child
Marriage is an Islamic responsibility. Nikkah is performed on a fix day.
The relatives and friends of the families of bride and bridegroom assemble
together. Dowry is also arranged according to financial position. The parents
of bridegroom arrange a Walima Party. Spending of a lot of money on the
meals has been forbidden by the Government of Pakistan.
ii. Birth of a Child:
Aqiqa is performed on the occasionof the birth of a child. Relatives and
friends are invited. One goat for a female and two goats for a male child are
sacrificed in the name of Allah, Azaan is called out in the ears of the newly
born baby. Special gifts are presented by relatives and friends to baby.
All the relatives and friends get together at the house of the deceased to
express their sorrowand condolence. The dead bodyis given bath and
wrapped in a coffin. The dead bodyis buried in the graveyard after the
Namaz-e-Janaza. Some families arrange the Qul Khawani and Chehlum.
The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be traced to four
distinct periods:Pre-Islamic, Colonical and postColonical.
Many Historical buildings were built by the Muslim rulers. The Shahi Fortof
Lahore, Shahi Masjid Lahore, Wazir Khan Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Chauburji,
Tombs of Jahangir and Noor Jahan are the models of our Old Culture. Some
magnificent buildings have been constructed after the creation of Pakistan like the
Tomb of the Quiad-e-Azam, Alfalah building, Faisal Masjid and Shakr parrian.
Embroidery, leather works, glazed pottery, wood work, carpet making, metal
crafts and ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Pakistan craftsmen are known
for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries.
Paintings of Pakistani artists have touched the heights of fame. Ustad Allah
Baksh, Ajaz Anwar, Ismail Gulgee, Jamil Naqsh and Sadequain are prominent
painters of Pakistan. Pakistan vehicle art is a popular folk art.
IV. Performing Arts:
Pakistani Music is represented by a wide variety of Forms. It ranges from
traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal to more modern forms that fuse
traditional Pakistani music with western music. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was
internationally renowed for creating a form of music which synchronized Qawwali
with western music. There are also diverse traditions of folk music, as well as
Folk dances are still popular in Pakistan and vary according to region such
Dhammal-Performed at Sufi shrines in Punjab and Sindh
Attan-Folk dance of Pastuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of
Quetta and Wazirstan
Jhumar-Siraiki and Balochi Folk dance
c. Dramas and Theatre:
These are very similar to stage plays in theatres. They are performed by
well-known actors and actresses of the Lollywood industry. The dramas and plays
deal with many themes from life events, often with a humorous touch.
Eid-ul-Fitar, Eid-ul-Adha, Eid Milad-ul-Nabi, Yom-e-Ashor, Ramadan,
Shab-e-Miraj and Shab-e-Barat are celebrated throughout Pakistan every year with
special fervor. Non-Muslim are free to celebrate their own Religious Festivals.
Culture which includes religion, literature art, architecture, dresses, music, manners and
customs has its roots in the Islamic culture. Islam has described the rights and duties of
every individual .Even in drinking, eating and dressing, we have to observe certain rules
prescribed by Islam .So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture
of Islamic culture.
Pakistan Studies for B.S by Mrs.Mobina