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Hrishi Desai
0813
Contribution of
Maratha Reign to
Residential Architecture
Hrishi Desai
0813
Hrishi Desai
0813
Political Agenda
Marathas were warriors. So in order to increase their territory,
protect their culture ...
Text
Hrishi Desai
0813
Wada Architecture
Hrishi Desai
0813
Introduction
The ‘Wada’ Architecture, also referred to as Courtyard
Architecture is the residential styl...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Wada
The traditional residence in Maharashtra was called the Wada.
A Wada was typically a large building...
Hrishi Desai
0813
EMERGENCE OF WADA
ARCHITECTURE
Wadas - which were the traditional residential form of Maratha
architectu...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Social Structure
Settlements developed around the Peshwa’s residence.
Land around the Peshwas residence ...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Neighbourhood of a Wada
•	 The streets and roads in the settlement were narrow.
•	 Roads were never stra...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Case Study
KHARADKAR WADA
Hrishi Desai
0813
Built in 1875 by
Shri Karandikar, a
moneylender by
profession and
related to the
Peshwas, the
Kharadkar ...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Climate
Pune having a moderate type of climate has the following characteristics:
◦ The solar radiation ...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Ground Floor Plan
Hrishi Desai
0813
First Floor Plan
Hrishi Desai
0813
Characteristics
• Distinct zoning can be seen.
• Separate entrances for guests, domestic help, people vi...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Zoning
• The most significant
features of the Wada
was the way it’s zoning
of public, private and
semi-pr...
Hrishi Desai
0813
• There were very few openings on the sides of the building, so the rooms
were not well lit.
• The rooms...
Hrishi Desai
0813
• One of the most interesting features
of this Wada was the underground
water supply which came from Kat...
Hrishi Desai
0813
• All the staircases were places in 4ft thick
walls.
• This was done so that when the women
moved around...
Other Details
External wall section Ring in the courtyard
to tie horse
Niche in the wall
Wooden
Door Frame
Wooden battens
...
Text
Hrishi Desai
0813
Fort Architecture
Hrishi Desai
0813
Introduction
Forts were a primary defence mechanism in Maharashtra
against enemy invasions since the anc...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Types of Forts
Hill Forts : These forts were constructed on the high hills and made from
stone cut out f...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Sea Forts : These forts were created  in the middle of the sea (at a
shallow point with a solid foundati...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Land Fort (Technical Terms)
Hrishi Desai
0813
Hill Fort
Forts in Maratha times were often a combination of land and sea
forts. They weren’t as picture...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Construction
The hill forts were constructed from stones carved out from the very
mountains and joined (...
Hrishi Desai
0813
Hrishi Desai
0813
Hrishi Desai
0813
Work so hard that one day, your Signature shall be called
An Autograph
Thank You
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Wada Architecture

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Wada Architecture

  1. 1. Hrishi Desai 0813 Contribution of Maratha Reign to Residential Architecture Hrishi Desai 0813
  2. 2. Hrishi Desai 0813 Political Agenda Marathas were warriors. So in order to increase their territory, protect their culture and religion against Islam rulers (Mainly Mughals), they brought in the new architecture style called Wada architecture and also redesigned Forts/‘Killa’ according to their surroundings and taking the advantage of the same, for instance Hills, Water, Forest , etc. This practice fulfilled their objectives by such political approach : The bond between people increased, making them unite and more powerful against the mighty Mughals.
  3. 3. Text Hrishi Desai 0813 Wada Architecture
  4. 4. Hrishi Desai 0813 Introduction The ‘Wada’ Architecture, also referred to as Courtyard Architecture is the residential style of Maratha Architecture which has made a contribution in Residential Architecture. This type of Architecture style dealt perfectly with Air and Light, resulting to great ventilation of both. And it also fulfilled security/privacy concern, due to the exterior of structure. All the courtyard houses/plans in today’s time, have been somewhat influenced by the Maratha Reign Architecture.
  5. 5. Hrishi Desai 0813 Wada The traditional residence in Maharashtra was called the Wada. A Wada was typically a large building of two or more storey with groups of rooms arranged around open courtyards. Two types of wadas: ◦ One which houses many families, like an apartment building of recent times or chawl of Mumbai.(Mostly for the middle class families) ◦ One in which only one family resided. (Mostly owned by the richer class like relatives of the Peshwas and traders)
  6. 6. Hrishi Desai 0813 EMERGENCE OF WADA ARCHITECTURE Wadas - which were the traditional residential form of Maratha architecture, evolved under the reign of Peshwas. Its style was an amalgamation where features from Mughal, Rajasthan, and Gujarat architecture were combined with local construction techniques. So basically, The Wada architecture by Maratha had beep developed under the influence of surrounding architecture at that time ( Mughal, Rajasthan and Gujarat ), resulting to the most powerful designs yet - The Wada Architecture ( Courtyard Architecture in today’s World ).
  7. 7. Hrishi Desai 0813 Social Structure Settlements developed around the Peshwa’s residence. Land around the Peshwas residence was divided into wards called peths. These were self-sufficient units and they were named after the days of weeks or the person who had established the peths. Social life centred around the village community. The village communities were economically self-reliant and self-sufficient units, each having its own set of ethics and residential enclaves, shops,temples , etc. The administration was autonomous. Town had a multinucleated structure.
  8. 8. Hrishi Desai 0813 Neighbourhood of a Wada • The streets and roads in the settlement were narrow. • Roads were never straight as the growth of the settlement was organic. • The plots for construction of wadas were rectangular and lay right next to the streets. • A Wada never had a garden or vistas leading to it. • The urban form of the settlement appeared like a maze of two or three storied structures having internal open spaces, placed along the road network with very little open community space.
  9. 9. Hrishi Desai 0813 Case Study KHARADKAR WADA
  10. 10. Hrishi Desai 0813 Built in 1875 by Shri Karandikar, a moneylender by profession and related to the Peshwas, the Kharadkar Wada is located in Pune, Maharashtra, in Budhwar Peth. Location
  11. 11. Hrishi Desai 0813 Climate Pune having a moderate type of climate has the following characteristics: ◦ The solar radiation is more or less the same throughput the year. ◦ The relative humidity in dry periods varies from 20-55% and in monsoons 55-90%. ◦ The total rainfall usually exceeds 1000 mm per year. Winter is a dry season. ◦ Winds are generally in summer. ◦ Their speed and direction mainly depends upon the topography. ◦ The sky is mostly clear with an occasional presence of dense low clouds during summer. The design of a Wada was not influenced much by the climatic factors rather it was influenced more by the social and cultural factors.
  12. 12. Hrishi Desai 0813 Ground Floor Plan
  13. 13. Hrishi Desai 0813 First Floor Plan
  14. 14. Hrishi Desai 0813 Characteristics • Distinct zoning can be seen. • Separate entrances for guests, domestic help, people visiting the durbar, separate entries for the people performing in the durbar and a separate entry into the cattle shed. • There are 4 entrances to the house. • Privacy for the women is given a priority. • Has three main courtyards or chowk. • The Wada has its entrance facing south.
  15. 15. Hrishi Desai 0813 Zoning • The most significant features of the Wada was the way it’s zoning of public, private and semi-private spaces was done. • This can be seen very distinctly in the plan.
  16. 16. Hrishi Desai 0813 • There were very few openings on the sides of the building, so the rooms were not well lit. • The rooms were ventilated from the courtyards. Wooden grill small window opening
  17. 17. Hrishi Desai 0813 • One of the most interesting features of this Wada was the underground water supply which came from Katraj dam which was 11kms from the site. • One noteworthy point is that no pumping was required. • The water that came was collected in open tanks called ‘HAUDS.’ • Kharadkar Wada has three separate Hauds for separate activities. • One for bathing, one for washing utensils and one for storing drinking water. Haud
  18. 18. Hrishi Desai 0813 • All the staircases were places in 4ft thick walls. • This was done so that when the women moved around in the house they wouldn't be seen from the outside. • This way the privacy of the house was maintained. • All the external walls of the Wada were 4ft thick. • This helped to keep the interior of the wall cool in summers.
  19. 19. Other Details External wall section Ring in the courtyard to tie horse Niche in the wall Wooden Door Frame Wooden battens supporting Upper Floor Stone base supporting wooden pillar
  20. 20. Text Hrishi Desai 0813 Fort Architecture
  21. 21. Hrishi Desai 0813 Introduction Forts were a primary defence mechanism in Maharashtra against enemy invasions since the ancient times and are known in the local language as ‘Killa’ (Qila in urdu). They were naturally and artificially protected human settlements, guarded by elements like the hills, the forests, the desert, the sea, and the man made stone structures that formed a armour around them.
  22. 22. Hrishi Desai 0813 Types of Forts Hill Forts : These forts were constructed on the high hills and made from stone cut out from those very mountains. The high altitudes and the steep walls made these forts daunting for the enemy. In the vernacular  Marathi language they were called as ‘Giri Durg’ (‘Giri’ means the mountain and ‘Durg’ is the term for a fort).They were considered the most reliable in comparison to land forts Land Forts : These forts were created on the plains. In Marathi they were called ‘Bhuikot’ (Durg) Forest Forts : These forts were created amidst a dense jungle, protected by the trees, the reptiles and wild animals. They were the ‘Vana Durg’
  23. 23. Hrishi Desai 0813 Sea Forts : These forts were created  in the middle of the sea (at a shallow point with a solid foundation base) and protected by its vicious waves. In Marathi they were called ‘Jal Durg’ . Shivaji was quick to realise the importance of sea forts. They provided an efficient base for controlling sea traffic and trade. e.g Janjeera  (the fort of Janjeera was considered virtually impregnable and was held by the Siddis, enabling them to withstand the most extreme of enemy pressures) Human forts : human war formations , encampments often resembled forts. These were the ‘Nar durg’.Nar Types of Forts
  24. 24. Hrishi Desai 0813 Land Fort (Technical Terms)
  25. 25. Hrishi Desai 0813 Hill Fort Forts in Maratha times were often a combination of land and sea forts. They weren’t as picturesque or aesthetic as their northern counterparts but were most practical under the circumstances. The Hill Forts were most common in Maharashtra and scattered all around the Sahyadri Mountains. They are located at short distances from each other and were accessed by crossing a couple of mountains. This helped the king and his officials escape from one fort to other in case the earlier fort was captured by the enemy.
  26. 26. Hrishi Desai 0813 Construction The hill forts were constructed from stones carved out from the very mountains and joined (as per the design) with the help of lime, rubble, gravel, stones, bricks (used mainly in land forts/smaller forts), molten metal and sand. Lime/mortar was ground on the fort itself (in what were called the 'Chunyaachya ghaani'. Chuna being the term for lime) with the help of a roller passing though a circular channel. The stones formed the outer layer of the fort. Stone layers were often sandwiched between earth, rubble and mortar.
  27. 27. Hrishi Desai 0813
  28. 28. Hrishi Desai 0813
  29. 29. Hrishi Desai 0813 Work so hard that one day, your Signature shall be called An Autograph Thank You

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