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The Eisenhower Years


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The Eisenhower Years

  1. 1. The Eisenhower Years: 1952-1960<br />Mr. Shore<br />
  2. 2. The 50s in the Public Mind<br />Elvis Presley & Early Rock n’ Roll<br />“I Love Lucy”<br />Middle class suburbia, traditional nuclear families—”Father Knows Best”, “Leave it to Beaver”<br />Rosa Parks and black resistance to “Jim Crow” laws<br />The Cold War and the threat of global nuclear destruction<br />
  3. 3. The Election of 1952<br />Truman so unpopular he chooses not to run<br />After much internal fighting , Governor Adlai Stevenson is chosen as the Democratic candidate<br />People tired of Democratic rule<br />Republicans choose war hero, General Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower over “Mr. Conservative” Senator Bob Taft<br />Eisenhower—”I shall go to Korea.”<br />Eisenhower wins in a landslide<br />
  4. 4. Eisenhower-Nixon Ticket<br />Eisenhower chooses the rising star of Senator Richard Nixon of California<br />Nixon is a polarizing personality<br />Nixon is accused of a “slush fund”<br />Nixon famously saves his career in the “Checkers” speech<br />
  5. 5. Modern Republicanism<br />Acceptance of major New Deal social programs<br />Emphasis on fiscal prudence<br />Eastern, “establishment” Republicans and big business leaders seen as examples of running efficient bureaucracies<br />The major initiative—The Interstate Highway System (good for both commerce and defense)<br />
  6. 6. Eisenhower’s First Term<br />Steady economic growth<br />Low inflation, high employment<br />Per capita disposable income tripled<br />The US the economic model to the world<br />Extremely popular President—”I like Ike”<br />
  7. 7. Eisenhower and the Cold War<br />Eisenhower’s important Secretary of State—John Foster Dulles<br />Liberate “captive nations” in Europe and “Red China”<br />Dulles supports “brinksmanship”<br />Greater reliance on nuclear weapons and air power<br />Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)<br />
  8. 8. Proxy Wars<br />Direct US-Soviet conflict so dangerous that the competition was fought through indirect or proxy wars<br />India and Pakistan<br />Indonesia<br />Ghana<br />Indochina<br />
  9. 9. Covert Action<br />Undercover operations by the CIA<br />Helped to establish the pro-American Shah of Iran<br />Overthrow of hostile government in Guatemala<br />Famous anti-American rioting in Venezuela during VP Nixon’s trip to the region<br />
  10. 10. Asia<br />Korean Armistice in 1953. Heavy and continued US military presence<br />France surrenders Indochina—divided into Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam<br />Vietnam divided into Communist North under Ho Chi Minh; South Vietnam was anti-Communist under Ngo Dinh Diem<br />US supports South Vietnam<br />Concern about advancing Communism—The Domino Theory<br />SEATO<br />
  11. 11. The Middle East<br />Suez Crisis in 1956<br />Eisenhower Doctrine—support pro-West, anti-Communist regimes in the Middle East<br />U. S. support of Lebanon<br />Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran and Venezuela for an oil cartel—Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)<br />
  12. 12. U.S.—Soviet Relations<br />1955: Geneva Conference to establish “open skies”<br />Soviets reject the proposal<br />New Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev<br />Popular Hungarian uprising against the Communist dictatorship<br />Soviets retake Hungary by rolling tanks into the country<br />1957: Sputnik scare, the race for space<br />
  13. 13. U.S.—Soviet relations (cont)<br />Second Berlin Crisis in 1958<br />Khruschev: “We will bury capitalism” (Later: “We will bury you (US)”<br />Soviets demand the US and NATO allies pull out of West Berlin<br />US refuses<br />Camp David meeting in 1959<br />U-2 incident—the capture of US spy plane<br />Fidel Castro and Communists take over Cuba in 1959<br />
  14. 14. Civil Rights<br />Formal Segregation throughout the South—”Jim Crow”<br />1896 Supreme Court ruling, Plessy v. Ferguson establish “separate but equal” doctrine<br />1954 Supreme Court reverses itself in Brown v. Board of Education<br />Gov. Faubus uses state National Guard to prevent integration of Little Rock Central High School in 1956<br />Eisenhower calls in Federal troops to enforce federal law<br />
  15. 15. Civil Rights-Montgomery Bus Boycott<br />Rosa Parks, a black woman, refuses to move to the back of the bus<br />Blacks boycott riding city buses<br />Martin Luther King becomes spokesman for civil rights through nonviolent means<br />Supreme Court rules against state segregation laws<br />Eisenhower supports Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960<br />
  16. 16. Some Observations on Eisenhower Administration<br />Stable economic conditions <br />America engages the Communist challenge around the world<br />Eisenhower warns of a “military-industrial complex.”<br />Eisenhower supports modest reforms against segregation but declares later that the appointment of Chief Justice Earl Warren was his biggest mistake<br />
  17. 17. 1950s Culture<br />The growth of television<br />Advertising promotes brand names<br />Suburban shopping centers<br />Credit Cards<br />Mass Consumer Culture—”McDonald’s”<br />Big Business and Big Unions<br />Dr. Benjamin Spock, Baby and Child Care<br />
  18. 18. Social Criticism<br />The Lonely Crowd, David Reisman<br />The Affluent Society, John Kenneth Galbraith <br />Catcher in the Rye, J. D. Salinger<br />Catch-22, Joseph Heller<br />“Beatniks” <br />