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Climate Change


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Climate Change

Armi Sutandi

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Climate Change

  1. 1. Tackling Climate Change in Indonesia Dr. Armi Susandi, MT. Head of Meteorology Department, ITB National Council on Climate Change Training for Enhancing Reporting Skills in Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction (CCDRR) and Climate Change for Journalist in Indonesia Bandung - Indonesia, 28 - 31 July 2009
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Climate Change • Impacts of Climate Change in Indonesia • Climate Change Vulnerability in Indonesia • Tackling Climate Change • National Council on Climate Change • International Climate Change Convention • Submission to UNFCCC
  3. 3. Climate change impacts are alreadyClimate change impacts are already occurring and more are inevitableoccurring and more are inevitable The risk of serious irreversible impacts increases strongly as temperatures increase
  4. 4. Impact of Climate Change on Indonesia
  5. 5. Climate Change Vulnerability Flood Drought Forest Fires Flood Flood
  6. 6. Basic Concept (IPCC, 2001) CLIMATE CHANGE Including Variability Human Interference MITIGATION Of Climate Change via GHG Sources and Sinks Exposure Initial Impacts Of Effects Autonomous Adaptations Residual or Net Impacts Planned ADAPTATION To the Impacts and Vulnerability Policy Responses IMPACTS VULNERABILITIES
  8. 8. Adaptation to Climate Change • Dynamical Model • Visual Observation • Statistical Model
  9. 9. Weather Prediction Weather Prediction Rainfall Wind Direction and Speed Temperature Warm/Cold Wave Gas Emission
  10. 10. Result of Weather Projection and Prediction
  11. 11. Rainfall Variable Topography Constant Vegetation Variable Land-use Change Variable Hydrology Constant Technology Capacity Variable Population Distribution Variable Source : Susandi et al., 2009
  12. 12. Model of Climate Prediction for Developing Policy
  13. 13. Index of Climate Change Vulnerability 0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1 (Susandi et. al, 2009) 2035 Sea Wall 100 % of the distance Sample of Adaptation Option in Climate Change Vulnerable Area Development: 1. Water Resource 2. Water Collector 3. Polder 4. Networking Pipes 5. More Pipes & Polder
  14. 14. Mitigation to Climate Change • Renewable Energy • Forestry • Ocean
  15. 15. Wind Energy Solar Energy Biomass Energy Geothermal Energy Coal Energy Source: Susandi, et al., 2008 Renewable Energy
  16. 16. Forestry
  17. 17. Scenario-based simulation to assess the impacts of reforestation over Indonesia on climatic parameters
  18. 18. Carbon Uptake Scenario-based simulation to assess the impacts of reforestation over Indonesia on climatic parameters
  19. 19. Kyoto Protocol 2008 – 2012 Post Kyoto 2013 on COP 14 COP 15 COP 16 COP 17 COP 18 Indonesia Forestry– SUSTAIN -ABLE FOREST MGNT
  20. 20. OCEAN
  21. 21. The Net Flux of CO2 Net Flux of CO2 in moles m-2 yr-1(Source: H. Kettle and C. J. Merchant, 2005)
  22. 22. The Net Flux of CO2 SST (o C) Wind speed (ms-1 ) Net Flux of CO2 in moles m-2 yr-1 January (West Monsoon and Southwest Monsoon)
  23. 23. The Net Flux of CO2 SST (o C) Wind speed (ms-1 ) Net Flux of CO2 in moles m-2 yr-1 April (Transition I)
  24. 24. The Net Flux of CO2 SST (o C) Wind speed (ms-1 ) Net Flux of CO2 in moles m-2 yr-1 July (East Monsoon and Northwest Monsoon)
  25. 25. The Net Flux of CO2 SST (o C) Wind speed (ms-1 ) Net Flux of CO2 in moles m-2 yr-1 September (transition II)
  26. 26. NCCC (National Council on Climate Change) DNPI (Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim)
  27. 27. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim (DNPI)Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim (DNPI) Perpres 46 /2008Perpres 46 /2008 Head : President Vice : Menko EKON Menko KESRA ORGANIZATION MANDATE
  28. 28. NCCC (National Council on Climate Change) 1. Mainstreaming mitigation and adaptation policy on climate change in sector and district. 2. Arrange Strategy of Low-Emission Sustainable Development (Energy, Industry, Forestry, and Agriculture) 3. Enhance Information, assessment and mechanism on arrangement and carbon market. 4. Programming communication, information, and education regarding to climate change in Indonesia 5. Monitoring and evaluating on implementation of DNPI policy 6. Utilize Bali Road Map in various International negotiations 7. Enhance Clean Development Mechanism Commission
  29. 29. The Climate Change Convention
  30. 30. UNFCCC : Global Agreement on Climate Change • Objective: Stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system • Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to : • to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change • to ensure that food production is not threatened, and • to enable economic development and to proceed in a sustainable manner • Principles: Parties to the Convention should protect the climate systems on the basis of : • Equity • Common but differentiated responsibility • Respective capabilities
  31. 31. Convention under UNFCCC: • COP = Conference of the Parties; • COP/MOP : Conference of the Parties/ Meeting of the Parties; • SBSTA = Subsidiary Body for Scientific, Technical, and Advice; • SBI = Subsidiary Body for Implementation; • In-sessional workshop; • Inter-sessional workshop;
  32. 32. COP • Conference of the Parties is highest convention institution • Main mission is promoting and reviewing implementation of convention result • This convention has been held for 14 times.
  33. 33. Subsidiary Bodies • Two organization in helping COP • The Subsidiary Body for Scientific & Technological Advice provide information and suggestion in Sciences and Technology • The subsidiary Body for Implementation help to COP in evaluate and reviewing implementation from COP
  34. 34. Toward UNFCCC Enhanced Action on Adaptation and its Means of Implementation Enhanced Action on Mitigation Enhanced Action on Financing, Technology and Capacity Building
  35. 35. Adaptation Workgroup Proposed to UNFCCC • Exchange information and knowledge at the local, regional, and international level. • Enhance data collection and availability to inform adaptation planning. • Build capacity for enabling environments in a manner that leads to progress on adaptation • Enhance coherence and facilitate linkages with organization
  36. 36. • Stabilization of forest cover, thereby forest carbon stocks • Conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks due to sustainable management forest • Reduction in deforestation rates • Reduction in forest degradation • Enhancement of forest carbon stocks REDD Workgroup Proposed to UNFCCC
  38. 38. Adaptation • Enhance scientific monitoring activities to develop ways and means to adapt to the effects of climate change on the ocean. • Exchange lessons learned and best practices, and enhance assessment of the vulnerability of oceans and coasts to the effects of climate change in order to facilitate the implementation of adaptation measures
  39. 39. Technology Transfer Improved understanding on the role of oceans on climate change and vice-versa, and its effects on marine ecosystems, marine biodiversity and coastal communities, especially in developing countries and small island states; including marine scientific research and sustained integrated ocean observation systems.
  40. 40. Capacity Building Promote gathering and exchange of information related to climate change impacts on marine ecosystems, communities, fisheries and other industries; emergency preparedness, monitoring, and forecasting climate change and ocean variability; and improving public awareness of early warning system capacity.
  41. 41. Thank YouThank You