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Quenching – Mastering the Process D. Scott MacKenzie, PhD, FASM November 2011 Quenching Oil Selection
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Real loads are complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to meet properties and re...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Mechanism of Quenching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching occurs in three stages </...
Quenching – Mastering the Process Vapor Phase Nucleate Boiling Phase Convection Phase
Quenching – Mastering the Process
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Metallurgical Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Content and Hardenability </l...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Quenching Mediums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Quench Oil Composition - Overview <ul><li>Composition governed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Quench Oils Composition - Overview <ul><li>Composition affects quenching performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight minera...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Selection of proper quench oil is dependant of many factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Divided By operational temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cold” Oils (80° - 200...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>“ Cold” Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Martempering Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching workpiece into quenchant maint...
Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Quench Oil Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex mixture of constituents </l...
Quench Oils Composition - Overview <ul><li>Naphthenic Grades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit inferior cooling characteristic...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Base oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Hydro-treated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Double Hydrotreated Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Refined Paraffinic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common used base oil </...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Refined Napthenic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Re-refined Paraffinic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils are recovered and pa...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Reclaimed Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils recovered from many sources </li></ul...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Vegetable and Ester-based Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul>...
Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Desired results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High thermal and oxidative stabil...
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Additive packages have two functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed improv...
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Speed improvers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching rates increase with inc...
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Thermal and Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by addit...
Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from build-up of organic acids ...
Oil Degradation <ul><li>Quench oils degrade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Oil Degradation The presence of calcium and sulfur in the stain shows that the material is baked on quench oil. Oil is nea...
Quenching Products from Houghton Cold Quenching Oils Houghto-Quench K Houghto-Quench G Houghto-Quench 3440 Houghto-Quench ...
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Heat Treating: Selecting the Right Quenching Oil

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Quenching is a vital part of the heat treating process in manufacturing. Knowing what quenching oil to choose for your heat treating application is just as important. Scott Mackenzie, PhD, FASM, from Houghton International shares what you need to know when selecting quenching oils for your heat treating operations.

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Heat Treating: Selecting the Right Quenching Oil

  1. 1. Quenching – Mastering the Process D. Scott MacKenzie, PhD, FASM November 2011 Quenching Oil Selection
  2. 2. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Real loads are complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to meet properties and reduce distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No quantitative method to understand interaction of fluid flow and part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often understanding is “Trial and Error” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience trims the Heuristic tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer mechanism is complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple heat transfer regimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time and Temperature dependent phase transformations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Mechanism of Quenching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching occurs in three stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vapor Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of vapor film around the part </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer is slow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer occurs primarily through radiation and conduction through vapor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleate Boiling Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High heat extraction rates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat removal by bubble formation and contact of cool quenchant on part surface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convection Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at below boiling temperature of quenchant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow heat transfer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governs Properties and Distortion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Quenching – Mastering the Process Vapor Phase Nucleate Boiling Phase Convection Phase
  5. 5. Quenching – Mastering the Process
  6. 6. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Metallurgical Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Content and Hardenability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the nose or knee of the TTT curve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling rate depends on hardenability of steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum hardness attainable is dependant on % Carbon present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling rate is limited by thickness of part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by thermal diffusivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive cooling rates may cause cracking or distortion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher cooling rates yield higher thermal gradients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Quenching Mediums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caustic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molten Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Quench Oil Composition - Overview <ul><li>Composition governed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quenching performance governed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable flash temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low sludge forming tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal and oxidation stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate heat transfer charectoristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best quench oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum cooling rate to achieve maximum hardness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal deposition of sludge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum thermal and oxidation stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presently favors mineral oils </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quench Oils Composition - Overview <ul><li>Composition affects quenching performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight mineral oils exhibit wide variation in quenching performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulated oils can produce even wider range of cooling rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volatility of quench oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases as average molecular size increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inversely proportional to flash point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quench severity directly related to “wettability” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wettability is measured by contact angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As viscosity increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As contact angle decreases Cooling rate is decreased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additive packages also change wettability characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Selection of proper quench oil is dependant of many factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alloy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry and section size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgical Properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Furnace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of Quenching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long Term Costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-out </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Divided By operational temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cold” Oils (80° - 200°F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martempering Oils (200° - 450°F) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Cold” Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically three different speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast (7-9 GMQS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium (10-13 GMQS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal (14-16+ GMQS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Martempering Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to high alloy, or carburized distortion prone parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower than Cold Oils (Typically 20+ GMQS) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>“ Cold” Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low rates of cooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to high hardenability steels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tool and High-Alloyed Steels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate quenching characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium to high hardenability requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to widest variety of steels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to low hardenability steels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carburized or Carbo-nitrided </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large cross-sections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Martempering Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching workpiece into quenchant maintained at about 100°-200°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part maintained in quenchant until thermal equilibrium is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantially reduces distortion by reducing thermal gradients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Formulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special Base Stocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High oxidation resistance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High thermal stability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High flash points </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large variety of viscosities (200-2500 SUS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex anti-oxidant packages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Quench Oil Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex mixture of constituents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraffinic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naphthenic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-chain and Cyclic Derivatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur hetrocycles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen hetrocycles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen hetrocycles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific composition depends on source of crude (Western U.S., Eastern U.S., Middle East, North Sea, Venezuela, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compositional variation affects quenching performance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Quench Oils Composition - Overview <ul><li>Naphthenic Grades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit inferior cooling characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater deposit-forming tendency (staining) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High sludging tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidize at faster rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower thermal stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower flash points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraffinic Grades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior cooling curves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower staining tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidize at slower rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased thermal stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher flash temperatures </li></ul></ul>References: R-J Windgassen, Metalworking Fluids Today, Society of Tribologist and Lubrication Engineers, Feb 1989 G.E. Totton, C.E. Bates and N.A. Clinton, Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology, ASM International, 1993
  16. 16. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Base oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Hydro-treated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refined Paraffinic Mineral Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refined Napthenic Mineral Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-refined mineral Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclaimed Mineral Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable and Ester-based Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All are used in commercial quenchants </li></ul>
  17. 17. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Double Hydrotreated Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher flash point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infers longer life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marginal improvement in cooling curves for same viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil color not indicative of staining </li></ul>
  18. 18. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Refined Paraffinic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common used base oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better flash points than Napthenic oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range of viscosities available (70-2500 SUS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower staining (imparts light gray color – depends on additive package) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better splitting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water displacing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to global demand </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local refinery shut-downs due to maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Refined Napthenic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readily available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety of viscosities available (100-2500 SUS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower flash point temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower life and quicker degradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophillic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsifying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not split well </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad for quench oil due to water absorption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost advantage decreasing due to global demand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Re-refined Paraffinic Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils are recovered and passed thru cracker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific viscosities are recovered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulled from narrow heights from column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All advantages of paraffinic base oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on supplier/source and quality of re-refiner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally less expensive than virgin base oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited source of supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High demand due to “eco-friendly” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling reduces supply and availability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on supplier/source and quality of re-refiner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited viscosity range (generally ± 100 SUS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost advantage narrowing because of demand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Reclaimed Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils recovered from many sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coolants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtered and blended to give specific viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You get what you pay for…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of heavy metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source unknown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple grades (including used motor oil, coolants, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different mix of light and heavy ends </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity is usually only requirement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of process repeatability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precursors to oxidation present (free radicals) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture of blended products </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall process cost increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More cleaning required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher drag-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced life </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils <ul><li>Vegetable and Ester-based Base Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eco-Friendly” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used at wide range of temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent cooling curve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable vapor phase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High nucleate boiling rates and temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curves often superior to mineral oils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High flash temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-fuels and cyclic availability (crop production) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning requires specialized cleaners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different smell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Quench Oil Composition – Base Oils
  24. 24. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Desired results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low sludge and staining tendency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of organic acids minimized as oil ages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low viscosity to minimize drag-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling curve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High cooling rates to achieve maximum hardness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable vapor phase to achieve high cooling rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid formation of upper transformation products </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature transition between nucleate boiling and convection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize distortion and residual stresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve wetting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function of the additive package </li></ul>
  25. 25. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Additive packages have two functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed improvers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal and oxidative stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additives have dramatic effect on quenchant properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude of effect is dependent on additive package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packages usually proprietary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not appropriate to mix additive packages from different quenchant suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some additives prone to selective drag-out after quenching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May degrade during use, depending on robustness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Speed improvers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching rates increase with increasing wettability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additives that increase wettability improve quench speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of additives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common is sulfonate-type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barium sulfonate was most common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older quench tanks may still contain Barium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now Sodium and Potassium sulfonates used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good speed improvers and oxidation stabilizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in high-end quenchants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robust </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages
  28. 28. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Thermal and Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by additive package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces production of sludge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes formation of organic acids upon aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additive package usually chosen to act as both speed improver and thermal stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be consumed over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil generally dumped because of staining </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Quench Oil Composition – Additive Packages <ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from build-up of organic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by several methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Acid Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sludge Content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes cooling curve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased vapor phase stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased staining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additive package minimizes changes </li></ul>
  30. 30. Oil Degradation <ul><li>Quench oils degrade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggravated by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residues on parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washer residues from reclaimed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High watt density heaters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive peak temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust additive packages prolong quenchant life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exhibited by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part staining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quench rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Oil Degradation The presence of calcium and sulfur in the stain shows that the material is baked on quench oil. Oil is near end of life.
  32. 32. Quenching Products from Houghton Cold Quenching Oils Houghto-Quench K Houghto-Quench G Houghto-Quench 3440 Houghto-Quench 3430 Dasco Quench LPA 15 Dasco Quench LBA 15 Aqueous Quenchants Aqua-Quench 140 Aqua-Quench 145 Aqua-Quench 245 Aqua-Quench 251 Aqua-Quench 260 Aqua-Quench 3699 Aqua-Quench C Email cfaulkner@houghtonintl.com for more information. Hot Quenching Oils Mar-Temp 355 Dasco Quench MPA 60 Below is a sampling of Houghton quenchants. However, you should consult a Houghton expert for the right product for your application.
  33. 33. Your Global Fluid Technology Partner <ul><li>We offer your operation a global network of fluids experts delivering innovative technologies, chemistries, products and services with a single focus on solving your toughest challenges. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Worldwide Coverage… One Company Over 2,000 employees in 31 countries with manufacturing and research facilities in 21 locations. Houghton helps customers around the world save on overall process chemical and disposal costs while improving production and part quality.
  35. 35. About Houghton <ul><li>World ’s leading manufacturer of industrial fluids, specialty chemicals, oils and lubricants since 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest and fastest growing global supplier of metalworking fluids, specialty hydraulic fluids and services </li></ul><ul><li>Unrivaled scope and depth in metalworking fluids industry providing turnkey support with chemical management services </li></ul><ul><li>Headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, USA with global sales revenues nearing $1B </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thank You

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