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Advantages & Disadvantages of Low-VOC Vegetable-Based Metalworking Fluids

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Volatile organic compound (VOC) restrictions implemented by California’s South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) sent the metalworking industry scrambling to get compliant by the January 1, 2012 implementation date.

Houghton experts delivered this presentation at the “Metalworking Fluids & VOC, Today and Tomorrow,” a symposium sponsored by the SCAQMD and the Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association on March 8, 2012.

The Houghton team has intimate knowledge of the test method used to determine VOCs in metalworking fluids, and we are prepared to educate manufacturers and distributors, as well as help them comply with the SCAQMD regulations

Published in: Technology, Business
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Low-VOC Vegetable-Based Metalworking Fluids

  1. 1. Advantages and Disadvantagesof Low-VOC Vegetable-BasedMetalworking Fluids John Burke, CMFS, STLE Fellow Global Director of Engineering Services Alan Cross Senior Project Engineer 1
  2. 2. Outline• Metalworking Types• Potential Areas for Use• Advantages and Disadvantages• Summary 2
  3. 3. Metalworking Fluids — Rule 1144Are•Metal Removal Fluids – Coolants, cutting oils•Metal Protecting Fluids – Rust inhibitors•Metal Forming Fluids – Stamping, drawing and forging•Metal Treating Fluids – Quench oilsAre Not•Metal Cleaning Fluids – Parts washing soaps, detergents 3
  4. 4. Natural Vegetable Oils — Manufacturing• Canola, Rapeseed• Soybean• Sunflower• Mostly triglycerides 4
  5. 5. TrigylceridesGlycerol Three Fatty Acids Three Fatty Acids Three Fatty Acids 5
  6. 6. Mineral Oil / Petroleum Oil• No fatty acids• No glycerol• Alkanes, cycloalkanes, and various aromatic hydrocarbons• Contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium• Lubricating oil = 16 carbon atoms• Paraffin wax = 25 carbon atoms• Asphalt = 35++ carbon atoms 6
  7. 7. Structures Are Different• Vegetable• MineralTherefore, performance should be different.• AND IT IS — Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other 7
  8. 8. Vegetable Oil ApplicationsMetalworking•Metal removal fluids — emulsions, straight oils•Metal protecting — low-VOC rust protectors•Metal forming — wire drawing, stampingOther•Conventional and fire-resistant hydraulic oils•Gear oils•Way oils•Spindle oils 8
  9. 9. Volatile Organic Compounds VOC expressed as grams/liter Per ASTM E1868-10 Viscosity Grade Paraffinic Oil Naphthenic Oil Vegetable Oil —cSt @ 40 degrees C Canola 4.4 400 718 NA 9.6 50 130 NA 20.5 10 64 NA 39.0 < 1* 5* < 1*** Blended, two base stocks** Food grade 9
  10. 10. Lubricity• Determined by many standard lubricity tests• Mineral oil = good• Vegetable oils = better• Note: Without additive, vegetable oils will generally outperform mineral oil in standard lubricity tests• Reference – Pin and V block – 4 ball – Tap torque – hydraulic pump/wear tests, such as ASTM D2882 and ASTM D2271 10
  11. 11. Pin and V Block• V blocks are clamped around the spinning pin, and pressure is increased until failure. 11
  12. 12. Four Ball• One ball spins on top of three under pressure to scar the surface of the three. 12
  13. 13. Tapping Torque• Measures the amount of torque required to thread a standardized part. 13
  14. 14. Hydraulic Pump / Wear Tests• ASTM D-2882 – V104C pump test 14
  15. 15. Flash Point• Mineral Oil = 300oF – 400o F (typical 390oF)• Canola Oil = 620oF - 625oF• Soybean = 605oF - 615oF• Method ASTM D92 15
  16. 16. BiodegradabilityBiodegradation is a process of chemical breakdown ortransformation of a substance caused by micro-organisms(bacteria, fungi) or their enzymes.• Mineral Oil = Considered to be slow to biodegrade• Canola, Soy = Considered readily biodegradableReferences: OECD 301 B (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) ASTM D-5864 CEC EC-L-33-A-94 (Coordinating European Council) 16
  17. 17. Biodegradable — Both Good and Bad• Triglyceride – Breaks down into free fatty acids• Fatty acids + Calcium + oil + alkali = grease – Especially problematic in wastewater treatment using acid alum treatment• Can be so thick that it can be un-pumpable• Grease has no reclaimable potential! 17
  18. 18. Aquatic Toxicity• Daphnia• Fat head minnow – LC50 > 100 mg/L – “Practically Non-toxic” – LC50 > 1,000 mg/L – “Relatively Harmless”Note: Additives make or break toxic properties of fluids. 18
  19. 19. Comment on Additives . . . . Same for Mineral .. and Vegetable Oils . Aquatic Toxicity . .. . . . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Additive Percent by Weight 19
  20. 20. Oil and Grease MeasurementEPA method 1664 and Standard Methods 5520B,F are used todetermine oil and grease and hydrocarbons in wastewater —(hexane extraction, silica gel) Product Type Dose mg/L Response Recovery % Hydrocarbon 5520B mg/L 5520F mg/L Mineral Oil 20.5 cST 109 95 87.2 79 Naphthenic Canola Oil 39 cSt 105 100 95.8 6 Food Grade 20
  21. 21. Visible Sheen• Mineral Oil = Yes• Vegetable Oil = No 21
  22. 22. Renewable Resource• Mineral Oil = No• All Vegetable Oils = Yes 22
  23. 23. Competes with Existing Food Crops• Mineral Oil = No• Vegetable Oils = Yes 23
  24. 24. Oxidative Stability• Low oxidative stability: Certain oils will oxidize further during use, becoming thick and polymerizing to a plastic-like or tar-like consistency.• Mineral Oil = Good• Vegetable Oil = Poor 24
  25. 25. Residue on Machines• No standard tests• Mineral oil = low residue, cleanable• Vegetable oils = poor oxidative stability – May form sticky residues and be very hard to clean• Some vegetable oils are more stable than others – As measured by iodine value – Monounsaturated based oils are better (75% or higher) 25
  26. 26. Hydrolytic Stability• Stability when exposed to water• Mineral Oil = Good – However, may form invert emulsions• Vegetable Oil = Poor – Breaks down to release acids 26
  27. 27. Pour Point• Cold weather stability – Not really applicable to metalworking fluids• Mineral Oil = Minus 30 F• Vegetable Oils = +5 to +25 F 27
  28. 28. Viscosity Index• Maintains viscosity at high temperature• Viscosity Index (VI) – For example: 223 for soybean oils vs. 90 to 100 for mineral oil • Higher numbers is better• Mineral Oil = Fair• Vegetable Oil = Poor 28
  29. 29. Misting from Machining Operations• Mineral Oil = Medium• Vegetable Oil = Low 29
  30. 30. Dermal Sensitivity• Likelihood to cause dermatitis• Mineral Oil = Known to cause dermatitis• Vegetable Oil = Minimal dermal issues• Additives can be irritants 30
  31. 31. Carcinogenicity Potential• Likelihood to cause cancer• Mineral Oil = Low if solvent is treated and severely hydro treated• Vegetable Oil = Naturally low 31
  32. 32. Can Be Recycled Waste Infrastructure – Mineral Oil Evaporation Incineration Loss OilyMineral Oil WasteOils Sludge Water ReclaimingComes Manufacturing WastewaterFrom a Plant Treatment Re-RefiningVarietyOfSources Loss Loss Parts Chips Treated Feed Stock For Reuse Wastewater Reuse 32
  33. 33. Can Be Recycled — Maybe Not Waste Infrastructure – Mineral Oil + vegetable oil Incineration Evaporation Loss OilyMineral Viscous WasteOils Sludge Water ReclaimingCome Manufacturing WastewaterFrom a Plant Treatment Re-RefiningVarietyOfSources+ Loss LossVegetableoils Parts Chips Treated Wastewater Feed Stock For Reuse? 33
  34. 34. What About Cost?• Base stock cost for vegetable oils generally track crude oil pricing• Vegetable oils are generally more expensive – Mineral oil require multiple refining steps – Naphthenic oils are in limited supply, thus more costly• Always exceptions to the rule• Depending on the application and additive level, finished good price will vary 34
  35. 35. Summary — Vegetable Oils• Vegetable Oils compete favorably with mineral oil – VOC, Lubricity, Dermal Sensitivity• Additives needed to correct for – Pour point, oxidative stability, hydrolytic stability – Additives increase toxicity – Additive can increase dermal sensitivity• May not be readily recycled 35
  36. 36. Comparison Chart Attributes Vegetable Mineral VOC Good Lubricity Fair Flash Point Poor Biodegradable Aquatic Toxicity Oil and Grease SCORE Petroleum Hydrocarbons Vegetable Mineral Visible Sheen Good 10 6 Renewable Resource Fair 4 7 Food Crop — Compete Poor 5 5 Oxidative Stability Machine / Part Residue Hydrolytic Stability Pour Point Viscosity Index Misting Dermal Sensitivity Carcinogenic Potential Can Be Recycled 36
  37. 37. Summary• Vegetable oils are in use right now• Can meet manufacturing demands• Disposal of residuals needs research• Costs are generally higher for vegetable oils than mineral oils 37
  38. 38. Your Global Fluid Technology PartnerWe offer your operation a global network of fluids expertsdelivering innovative technologies, chemistries,products and services with a single focuson solving your toughest challenges. 38
  39. 39. Worldwide Coverage… One Company Over 2,000 employees in 31 countries with manufacturing and research facilities in 21 locations. Houghton helps customers around the world save on overall process chemical and disposal costs while improving production and part quality. 39
  40. 40. About Houghton• World’s leading manufacturer of industrial fluids, specialty chemicals, oils and lubricants since 1865• Largest and fastest growing global supplier of metalworking fluids, specialty hydraulic fluids and services• Unrivaled scope and depth in metalworking fluids industry providing turnkey support with chemical management services• Headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, USA with global sales revenues nearing $1B 40
  41. 41. Thank YouJohn BurkeOffice 610-666-4000 x 6169Email jburke@houghtonintl.comAlan CrossOffice 610 666-4000 x 4124Email across@houghtonintl.com

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