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  1. 1. DESIGN AND TESTING OF A LOW-COST LEAD-CARBON REPLACEMENT BATTERY PACK FOR A HONDA CIVIC D. Karner, T. Grey, R. Newnham Work Conducted for the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium And The U.S. Department of Energy
  2. 2. Project Overview <ul><li>Furukawa Ultra Battery has shown promise in mild HEV applications </li></ul><ul><li>East Penn Manufacturing has licensed Ultra Battery technology for US production </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Energy and ALABC are interested in evaluating the East Penn Ultra Battery in a mild HEV application </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Transportation Applications has been engaged to evaluate the East Penn Ultra Battery in a Honda Civic HEV </li></ul>
  3. 3. Project Objectives <ul><li>Convert a Honda Civic HEV to operate using an Ultra Battery manufactured by East Penn </li></ul><ul><li>Retain an 800 pound vehicle payload </li></ul><ul><li>Provide packaging favorable to battery life </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain vehicle fuel economy performance </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain vehicle emissions performance </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain an &quot;Experimental Vehicle&quot; permit </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain vehicle FMVSS certification </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate vehicle performance/durability </li></ul>
  4. 4. Progress <ul><li>Development and testing of Simulated Honda Civic HEV profile (HCHEVP) </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization of Ultra Batteries from Furakawa (FUB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity at various rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge resistance at various SOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of FUB and standard lead-acid (STLA) under HEV screening test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full HPPC analysis of FUB and STLA </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Progress <ul><li>Preliminary optimization of HCHEVP </li></ul><ul><li>Operation of FUB under HCHEVP </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of battery compartment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of vehicle safety features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Battery Management Syst em </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analog/Digital/Analog converter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emulation software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Honda Civic
  7. 7. East Penn Ultra Battery Pack Preliminary packaging with extension, but without thermal management
  8. 8. Development and Testing of HCHEVP <ul><li>Battery data logged during field and dyno (UDDS, HWFET) operation </li></ul><ul><li>Information obtained on affects of air conditioning, hill climbing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Profile based on one pass through UDDS and HWFET schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Data from five individual passes through both profiles used to obtain an average </li></ul><ul><li>UDDS schedule = 1380 s, 7.5 miles, 19.5 mph </li></ul><ul><li>HWFET schedule = 760 s, 10.2 miles, 48.5 mph </li></ul>Development of simulated profile
  9. 9. Development and Testing of HCHEVP Battery current and vehicle speed on dyno. HCHEVP – one pass through UDDS followed by one pass through HWFET
  10. 10. Development and Testing of HCHEVP Battery voltage (STLA) over seven passes and one pass through the HCHEVP
  11. 11. Development and Testing of HCHEVP Battery current (STLA) over seven passes and one pass through the HCHEVP
  12. 12. Development and Testing of HCHEVP <ul><li>3 months of cycling provides >64,000 miles of simulated HEV driving </li></ul><ul><li>Energy/power levels of profile equivalent to that experienced in the field and on dyno </li></ul><ul><li>One pass through the HCHEVS – battery delivers and accepts 2.89 Ah. Over the design life of the vehicle (160,000 miles), the battery would deliver 26,000 Ah, the equivalent of 4,000, 100% cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative calculations performed for a Toyota Prius battery pack indicate the delivery of almost 6,000, 100% cycles over the same distance. </li></ul>Application of simulated profile
  13. 13. FUB Characterization - Capacity
  14. 14. FUB Characterization – Discharge Resistance
  15. 15. FUB Characterization – HEV Screening <ul><li>Discharge at 1C for 30 min (to ~ 50% SOC nominal) </li></ul><ul><li>Rest for 10 s </li></ul><ul><li>Charge at 2C for 60 s (to ~ 53% SOC nominal) terminate test if voltage hits 17.5 V; </li></ul><ul><li>Rest for 10s </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge at 2C for 60 s (to ~ 50% SOC nominal). </li></ul><ul><li>If voltage during (v) drops to 11.5 V (~ 40% SOC), then recharge an additional 5% SOC over the next 100 cycles. </li></ul>
  16. 16. STLA Characterization - HEV Screening
  17. 17. FUB Characterization - HEV Screening
  18. 18. STLA Characterization - HPPC Testing
  19. 19. FUB Characterization - HPPC Testing
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Simulated HCHEVP complete and validated </li></ul><ul><li>Furakawa has been characterized </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary vehicle design complete – continuing work on thermal management </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterize EPUB modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle full EPUB pack under HCHEVP for 3 months (64 000 miles equivalent) </li></ul></ul>