November 9, 2005

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November 9, 2005

  1. 1. Sociology of Environment 11-9-05 Week 11B Energy
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Welcome </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Next Meeting: Battle over ANWR </li></ul>
  3. 3. Energy & Society <ul><li>To begin….with Humor: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.markfiore.com/animation.html </li></ul>
  4. 4. US Energy Policy 2001 <ul><li>US government Policy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/energy/ </li></ul>
  5. 5. US Energy Policy 2001 <ul><li>Ease Restrictions of oil/gas development on Public Lands, e.g. ANWR </li></ul><ul><li>Ease Permitting process for refinery expansion and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Support Geothermal/ hydropower </li></ul>
  6. 6. US Energy Policy 2001 <ul><li>Streamline approval process for siting power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Tax breaks for clean coal technologies/ Nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>Ease regulatory barriers for utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Some tax credits for renewable energy/ hybrids </li></ul>
  7. 7. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre Agricultural Revolution – 2 sources of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human muscle power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre Agricultural Revolution – 2 sources of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human muscle power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short periods – Man – 800 watts [1 horse power] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over several days – Man on avg. 0.3 HP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Major Leap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses, oxen, mules, camels and elephants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians 3500 BC captured Wind with Sails </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Egyptian Sailing Vessels
  11. 11. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 400 BC – an important invention? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Important Invention
  13. 13. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 400 BC – an important invention? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Horseshoe!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed for agricultural work in fields </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Middle Ages 500AD to 1500AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind and water regularly used to provide energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windmills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterwheels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ancient Windmills
  16. 16. Ancient Windmills
  17. 17. Ancient Water Wheels
  18. 18. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the Industrial Revolution – Britain – ENERGY SHORTAGE [timber] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Watt – inventor of the steam engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution – took off </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Human Use of Energy – Population Growth
  20. 20. Human Use of Energy <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Industrial Use of Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy Mix (Fossil Fuel +) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Total Energy Use
  22. 22. Total Energy Use & Pollution <ul><li>http://www.elpc.org/polCalc/index.htm </li></ul>
  23. 23. Energy form the Earth’s Crust
  24. 24. Sources of Energy <ul><li>First US Oil well </li></ul><ul><li>1859 in Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Total Oil Worldwide 6% of the energy found in Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Special Liquid Properties </li></ul>
  25. 25. Energy Consumption by Fuel Quadrillion Btu
  26. 26. Energy Consumption by Fuel <ul><li>Relative Proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US – Normalized/ units per capita </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Curve 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates Pattern of Replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Oil & Gas coming to an end ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Next Source? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Global Energy Use Patterns   North America Worldwide
  28. 28. Growth World Energy Consumption
  29. 29. Growth World Energy Consumption
  30. 30. Global Energy Use Patterns
  31. 31. Global Energy Use Patterns
  32. 32. US Dependence on Foreign Oil
  33. 33. Where Does the Energy Go US?
  34. 34. Relative Consumption Annual per capita Commercial Energy Consumption (UNEP 2000)
  35. 35. US Sources Energy Production <ul><li>Fossil Fuels 86% </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear  8% </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Farms 0.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Solar 0.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels 3.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Source: US Department of Energy </li></ul>
  36. 36. Wealth & Energy Use
  37. 37. Energy Use Prospects <ul><li>Reserves vs. Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserves = Proven, existing supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources = Total amount in nature [ discovered yet or not] </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Location of Resources - Global
  39. 39. Location of Coal Resources - US
  40. 40. Peak Oil <ul><li>Oil will not just &quot;run out&quot; because all oil production follows a bell curve. This is true whether we're talking about an individual field, a country, or on the planet as a whole.  </li></ul>
  41. 41. Peak Oil <ul><li>World Oil Consumption – long view </li></ul>
  42. 42. US Gas Prices
  43. 43. US Gas Prices & Autos <ul><li>Is the big SUV dying? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News Items from MSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best Selling Ford Explorer – 58% sales drop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>September 2005 compared to September 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ford Expedition [14 miles/gallon] 61% sales drop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ford stopped selling its Excursion – August 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. US Gas Prices & Autos <ul><li>Is the big SUV dying? Cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News Items from MSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GM’s full sized SUVs, - to be replaced by more fuel-efficient models – fell 56% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hummer H2 Sales – were off 31% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Hummer H3 – off to a brisk start [16mph/ city] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. US Gas Prices & Autos <ul><li>Is the big SUV dying? Cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News Items from MSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toyota 46% few of its large Sequoia SUV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales of smaller SUV down sharply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honda – SUV Pilot – off 26% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nissan – Armadas [13mph] – down 20% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toyota’s Prius – 90% increase </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Trans Alaskan Pipeline <ul><li>http://www.solcomhouse.com/pipeline.htm </li></ul>
  47. 47. Exxon Valdez <ul><li>March 24, 1989 – Oil Tanker – Exxon Valdez – hit Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound </li></ul><ul><li>The Sound – one of the most pristine and productive estuaries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Oil Spill in US History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 million barrels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$4 billion in legal damages </li></ul>
  48. 48. Exxon Valdez <ul><li>Exxon Valdez disaster is estimated to have killed 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbour seals, 250 bald eagles, up to 22 killer whales, and an unknown number of salmon and herring. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Exxon Valdez <ul><li>Path of the Tanker </li></ul>
  50. 50. Exxon Valdez
  51. 51. Exxon Valdez
  52. 52. Exxon Valdez
  53. 53. Exxon Valdez
  54. 54. Exxon Valdez
  55. 55. Exxon Valdez
  56. 56. ANWR
  57. 57. ANWR Controversy <ul><li>ANWR Information </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.anwr.org/ </li></ul>
  58. 58. ANWR Controversy <ul><li>Reaction Paper #1: ANWAR – Due Monday November 14 [bring paper to class] </li></ul><ul><li>Position: Pro Drilling or Con; What should happen to ANWR and why? What would be gained and what would be lost? </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance is HIGHLY encouraged. </li></ul>

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