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  2. 2. <ul><li>The dictionary defines a hybrid as something of mixed origin </li></ul><ul><li>A hybrid vehicle is one that combines a smaller-than-normal internal combustion gasoline engine with the electric motor of an electric-powered vehicle </li></ul>WHAT IS A HYBRID?
  3. 3. <ul><li>A hybrid car is a passenger vehicle that is driven by a hybrid engine, which is an engine that combines two or more sources of power, generally gasoline and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of gasoline-electric hybrids: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel hybrid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series hybrid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Both use gasoline-electric hybrid technology, but in radically different ways </li></ul><ul><li>Both have small gasoline engines </li></ul><ul><li>Both produce much less pollution than standard gasoline cars </li></ul><ul><li>Both produce much less power – generally between 60-90hp (the average gasoline engine produces double that) </li></ul>HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Both are constructed of ultra lightweight materials like carbon fiber or aluminum to overcome the power gap </li></ul><ul><li>Both are generally designed to be more aerodynamic than most cars, allowing them to “slice” through the air instead of pushing it out of the way </li></ul>HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Both use a process called regenerative braking to store the kinetic energy generated by brake use in the batteries, which in turn will power the electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>Both use electric power at starts and stops, low speeds (generally below 15mph) </li></ul><ul><li>Both use the gasoline engine at cruising or highway speeds </li></ul>HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Gasoline engine and electric motor work together to move the car forward </li></ul>HOW PARALLEL HYBRID CARS WORK
  8. 8. <ul><li>Gasoline engine either directly powers an electric motor that powers the vehicle, or charges batteries that will power the battery </li></ul>HOW SERIES HYBRID CARS WORK
  9. 9. <ul><li>Full Hybrid : Can move solely on electric power </li></ul><ul><li>Mild Hybrid: Requires at least some gasoline to power the transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Stop-Start Hybrids: Use electric power only while idling or during vehicle deceleration </li></ul>OTHER HYBRID TERMINOLOGY
  10. 10. <ul><li>Did you know that the following voltages are currently used in North American passenger vehicles? </li></ul><ul><li>12 Volt – ALL vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>36 Volts – Saturn Vue </li></ul><ul><li>42 Volt – some conventional and hybrid models </li></ul><ul><li>72 Volt – NEVs </li></ul><ul><li>144 Volt – ALL Honda hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>300 Volt – Toyota first generation Prius hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>500 Volt – Toyota Prius (second generation) </li></ul><ul><li>650 Volt – Toyota Highlander SUV, Lexus RX 400h and GS 450h hybrid </li></ul>HYBRID VOLTAGE
  11. 11. <ul><li>Anyone know why some of the voltages on the previous slide are listed in red? </li></ul>HYBRID VOLTAGE
  12. 12. <ul><li>60 Volts can kill you! </li></ul><ul><li>20 Volts can be deadly if your skin is wet or your standing in water! </li></ul>HYBRID VOLTAGE
  13. 13. Truth About Hybrids HYBRID MYTH BUSTERS
  14. 14. <ul><li>With the recent releases of hybrids in the 2006 and 2007 model year cars, perhaps the question should be, “Who doesn’t manufacture and sell hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles?”! </li></ul><ul><li>The following slides show a majority of the manufacturers and the hybrid models they offer. Many more are due out in 2008 such as a hybrid Cadillac Escalade. </li></ul>WHO MANUFACTURES AND SELLS HYBRID GASOLINE/ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE USA?
  15. 15. 2006 Ford Escape Hybrid Compact SUV MSRP $26,000 - $28,000 City: 33 – 36mpg Hwy: 29-31mpg
  16. 16. 2006 Honda Accord Midsize Sedan MSRP $18,225 - $32,990 City: 20-25mpg Hwy: 29-34mpg
  17. 17. 2006 Honda Civic Compact Sedan MSRP $14,760-$23,650 City: 30-49mpg Hwy: 40-51mpg
  18. 18. 2006 Honda Insight Compact Coupe MSRP $19,330-$21,530 City: 57mpg Hwy: 56mpg
  19. 19. 2006 Lexus RX 400h Midsize SUV MSRP $44,660-$46,060 City: 31-33mpg Hwy: 27-28mpg
  20. 20. 2006 Mercury Mariner Hybrid Compact SUV MSRP $29,225 City:33mpg Hwy: 29mpg
  21. 21. 2006 Toyota Camry Midsize Sedan MSRP $18,270 - $27,520 City:24-43mpg Hwy: 31-37mpg
  22. 22. 2006 Toyota Highlander Hybrid Midsize MSRP $33,030-39,290 City:31-33mpg Hwy: 27-28mpg
  23. 23. 2006 Toyota Prius Compact Sedan MSRP $21,725 City:60mpg Hwy: 51mpg
  24. 24. 2007 Nissan Altima 2.5 MSRP $17,750 City:? Hwy: ?
  25. 25. 2007 Lexus GS 450h Hybrid Car MSRP $54,900 City:25mpg Hwy: 28mpg
  26. 26. 2007 Saturn Vue MSRP $23,000 City:23mpg Hwy: 29mpg
  27. 27. 2007 Toyota Sienna Hybrid Minivan MSRP $? City:? Hwy: ?
  28. 28. 2007 Chevrolet Tahoe/Yukon Hybrid MSRP $? City:? Hwy: ?
  29. 29. 2007 Honda Fit Hybrid MSRP $15,000 Hwy/City:60mpg
  30. 30. 2007 Dodge Durango Hybrid MSRP $? City:? Hwy:?
  31. 31. 2007 Hyundai Accent Hybrid MSRP $15,000 Hwy/City:45mpg
  32. 32. 2007 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid MSRP $? City:24mpg Hwy: 35mpg
  33. 33. <ul><li>Many manufactures offer on-site training/familiarization through local dealers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most offer informational booklets or on-line information geared for emergency procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>This technology is changing so rapidly, with no standardization of the location of the batteries and power cables that it is imperative we as rescuers make this knowledge a priority! </li></ul><ul><li>Following is an on-line presentation found on the GM site. This presentation was developed to educate emergency workers. </li></ul>HOW DO WE LEARN ABOUT THESE HYBRIDS?
  34. 34. <ul><li>GM Hybrid Trucks </li></ul>Link to a Large 7MB file. Be Patient.
  35. 35. <ul><li>Quickest and easiest way for emergency responders : All hybrid vehicles have badge plates located on the sides and/or rear of the vehicle </li></ul>HOW TO IDENTIFY A HYBRID VEHICLE
  36. 36. HOW TO IDENTIFY A HYBRID VEHICLE <ul><li>In place of a tachometer, a power meter showing kW output is used </li></ul><ul><li>Do you notice orange (high voltage) or blue (intermediate voltage) loom under hood or running under vehicle? </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid tag on motor </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Power Output Operation button on dash or 120VAC plugs noted in bed of pickup </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: </li></ul><ul><li>A hybrid characteristic we MUST be aware of. Normally on a scene we can hear a vehicle's engine running or see its exhaust. Because a hybrid’s gas engine shuts down when the car stops, rescuers can be fooled into thinking the car is off. A rescuer or victim could accidentally hit the gas pedal, causing the car to move and possible injure other rescuers or bystanders. </li></ul>HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS
  38. 38. <ul><li>The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : Put hybrids in park, remove the key to shut down the system and chock the wheels before you do anything! </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Some vehicles feature only an electric button or switch to place vehicle in park </li></ul>HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS
  39. 39. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS <ul><li>The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no key, the start/stop button should be located somewhere on the dash and the patient should have a key fob. (manufacturers aren’t making the task of shutting off the vehicles any easier!) </li></ul>
  40. 40. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS <ul><li>The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: </li></ul>Toyota Prius Dash Parking Brake Button Key Fob Receiver Power Button for Engine Start/Stop
  41. 41. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Gas-Electric systems use a technology that disconnects the battery power if a difference in voltage is detected. Should the vehicle detect a voltage change, it will disconnect the power feed to and from the high voltage battery.
  42. 42. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Example: If the vehicle ends up in water, such as a drainage ditch, the vehicle’s computer automatically shuts down the high-voltage system. Remember: 20 Volts and wet skin are deadly!
  43. 43. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Important : High-voltage systems also disable or disconnect when air bags have been deployed. Note : We need to start paying more attention to whether or not air bags have deployed. Not only can an air bag decapitate an unwary rescuer, now they can lead to the electrocution of the rescuer!
  44. 44. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology If the high-voltage cables running under the front of the vehicle were damaged as in a severe crash or fully involved vehicle fire, the high-voltage battery would short-circuit. This would de-energize the entire high-voltage battery circuit.
  45. 45. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS HIGH VOLTAGE LINES Avoid cutting high-voltage wires during vehicle rescue. MOST hybrids’ high voltage lines run closer to the center of the vehicle and down toward the rear, where the battery is located. High voltage lines are wrapped in orange loom .
  46. 46. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS GM Hybrid Pick-up Cutaway 120v 42v Electric Starter/ Generator
  47. 47. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS INTERMEDIATE VOLTAGE LINES Saturn introduced its Vue for the 2007 model year. The hybrid uses a 36V system. The engineers explain that the vehicle’s 36V system is not considered high voltage, the term used is Intermediate Voltage and the lines are wrapped in blue loom , instead of the orange loom that is standard for high voltage lines in gas/electric hybrids
  48. 48. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS After disabling the vehicle, power is maintained for 90 seconds in the SRS system and 5 minutes in the high voltage electrical system. If unable to perform the recommended disabling procedures, found in the following slides, proceed with caution as there is no assurance that the high voltage electrical system, SRS or fuel pump are disabled!
  49. 49. HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS <ul><li>If you are unable to perform the recommended disabling procedures, found in the following slides, proceed with caution as there is no assurance that the high voltage electrical system, SRS or fuel pump are disabled! </li></ul>
  50. 50. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Extrication Chock the wheels first! <ul><li>Turn off ignition switch and remove key (if so equipped). This turns off the engine and the motor, which prevents electric current from flowing into the cables from the motor or high-voltage battery, and, turns off power to the airbags and the seatbelt pre-tensioner. </li></ul><ul><li>After turning off the ignition switch, it is recommended that emergency responders remove the key (if so equipped) so the car cannot be inadvertently restarted. To let everyone at the crash scene know the key is removed, give the key to the I/C, who will make a general announcement regarding the key. At this point, the high-voltage system has been isolated. This improves responder safety in and around the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step is to shut down the 12V electrical system on the hybrid just as we typically do on any conventional vehicle involve din an MVA. </li></ul>
  51. 51. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Extrication 5) Locate the 12V battery. It may or may not be under the hood. In the Toyota Prius it is located inside the driver’s rear wheelwell within the trunk. Either disconnect or double cut first the negative and then the positive cable. This disables the high-voltage battery controller, which prevents electric current from flowing into the orange cables and the high-voltage battery. 6) With the ignition key turned off and removed and the 12V battery disabled, the hybrid vehicle is safe to work on for vehicle rescue. High-voltage electricity still exists, but it is isolated to the battery pack, generally in the trunk of cars or under the rear passenger seat in pick-ups. 7) An alternative to disabling the 12V battery is to remove the HEV fuse, generally located in the engine compartment junction box. When in doubt pull all fuses in this box. 8) Stabilize the vehicle. Crib at four points directly under the front and rear pillars. Do not place cribbing under high-voltage power cables, exhaust system or fuel system.
  52. 52. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Extrication 9) At this point conventional rescue techniques may be used, including cutting of door hinges, modified dash roll, steering wheel displacement, etc. However caution must be used at all times to avoid cutting any high or intermediate-voltage lines. 10) Should a hybrid be involved in a rollover, end up on its roof, this may prevent access to the engine compartment and disabling of the 12V battery may not be possible. This poses a serious threat. If access to the 12V battery is not hindered, extrication can be handled as in any conventional vehicle rollover. 11) The removal of the roof of hybrids such as the Toyota Prius may be easily accomplished by opening the hatch to gain access for cutting of the pillars. The hatch will need to be opened manually with pry tools because 12V power is needed to open the hatch.
  53. 53. <ul><li>12) Hybrid identification tags are located in the rear and/or sides of the vehicle. Severe impacts in these areas could destroy or hide the identification tags. You must be sure to look for other hybrid identifications, make sure you are aware of the models on the road, and when in doubt assume the vehicle is a hybrid until proven otherwise. </li></ul>HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
  54. 54. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Extrication Are Special Tools Needed? Depends on who you listen to. Most manufacturers don’t recommend any special equipment or PPE. Certified Electric Lineman’s gloves are recommended to be worn by technicians servicing the vehicle. Some departments are refusing to extinguish fires in hybrids due to the possible dangers. There was even an extensive number of articles regarding a department refusing to do extrication without special PPE. Most departments acknowledge the need for awareness and caution and understand that extrication and fire suppression can be handled with very little change from the normal approach used with conventional vehicles. But for that added safety involving extrication from an electric/gas hybrid check out the following:
  55. 56. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FIRE <ul><li>A fire involving a hybrid vehicle can be handled by following normal vehicle firefighting procedures. In a typical vehicle fire incident, the engine compartment, interior of vehicle or trunk area are burning. By following generally accepted fire suppression guidelines, crews attack the fire with an adequate water flow rate, working from a safe position of approach. </li></ul><ul><li>SCBA is worn throughout the incident. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial fire attack should be a fast and aggressive attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire crews may not be able to identify a hybrid until the fire has been knocked down and overhaul operations have commenced. </li></ul><ul><li>The wheels should be chocked as soon as safely possible. </li></ul><ul><li>During overhaul, the same steps defined in the extrication module should be used to disable the high-voltage system. (shut down power, disable 12V system) </li></ul>
  56. 57. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FIRE <ul><li>Fire suppression crews will not be shocked or electrocuted during attack on a hybrid vehicle fire, even if flames are impinging on the battery pack itself. </li></ul><ul><li>There are potential, unique problems involving fire situations with hybrid vehicles. Any fire where there is direct flame impingement on the high-voltage battery pack would be an example. A fire that has originated within the battery pack itself or an electrical fire that begins somewhere within the high-voltage electrical system would also require special precautions. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant heat could cause the modules inside the high-voltage battery to melt just as any plastic material would exposed to high temperatures. If heated sufficiently, it is possible the plastic casings could melt down, exposing the inner components of the high-voltage battery. </li></ul><ul><li>Copious amounts of water should be used quickly to eliminate radiant heat to the battery box and begin cooling the plastic battery cell modules in the high-voltage battery pack itself. </li></ul>
  57. 58. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FIRE 11) Should a fire in the Ni-MH HV battery pack occur, the I/C will have to decide whether to pursue an offensive or defensive. 12) If a melted nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery is encountered, the I/C may want the nearest dealer of the vehicle notified to send a designated battery recovery specialist to the scene to deal with the damaged battery. 13) In the Ni-MH Product Safety Data Sheet, responders are advised that virtually all fires involving Ni-MH batteries can be controlled with water. The information sheet also recommends “In case of fire where nickel metal batteries are present, apply a smothering agent such as METL-X, sand, dry ground dolomite, soda ash, or flood the area with water. A smothering agent will extinguish burning nickel metal hydride batteries.” 14) Class D extinguishers are the recommended extinguisher to use with Ni-MH batteries. But…….
  58. 59. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FIRE 15) Not all Class D extinguishers are equal. Some contain particles of metal such as copper. Copper, for example, is one metal that may actually cause an adverse reaction with the high-voltage battery and generate hydrogen gas. In a small space, such as a trunk, this could cause an explosion. 16) Large amounts of water will not be able to directly attack a fire burning inside the battery pack unit itself. The metal cover of the pack prevents a direct attack on the internal cells of the battery. The water application, however, will cool the adjacent battery cells. Burning Ni-MH batteries will burn themselves out. Applying sufficient amounts of water will cool the metal housing of the battery pack and control the fire until the battery modules that are actually on fire burn themselves out. DO NOT EVER REMOVE THE COVER OF THE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY PACK!
  59. 60. HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FIRE 17) When water is used to extinguish Ni-MH battery fires, some hydrogen gas may evolve. In this situation ventilation will be needed to prevent a build up of the gas. Leaving the trunk, hatchback or battery compartment cover open is advised to ensure ventilation of the gas. If there is a concern that hydrogen gas is present, and ventilation is not possible, fire smothering agents are recommended. 18) A battery fire WILL produce toxic fumes, including oxides of nickel cobalt, aluminum, manganese, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. Because of this, SCBA must be worn throughout the fire attack and during overhaul. 18) In addition, keep the “hot zone” clear of unnecessary personnel. Keep all “hot zone” personnel fully protected with structural clothing that addresses Level 3 hazmat personal protective clothing criteria and SCBA.
  60. 61. Hybrid concept car THE FUTURE OF HYBRID CAR TECHNOLOGY
  61. 62. BMW’s BRIGHT IDEA BMW has emerged onto the hybrid gas-electric vehicle scene with its X3 SUV that features super capacitors instead of batteries to store energy. The “super caps” are located in the rocker panel area of the X3 to give it a low center of gravity. According to the X3 design engineers, “The energy stored in these capacitors should be completely dissipated by the time rescuers arrive on scene to remove a patient from a vehicle” As in other hybrids, these vehicles disable, or in this case dissipate, the energy stored upon collision, but the capacitors don’t retain a charge like battery-powered systems.
  62. 63. DO HYBRID CARS SCARE YOU? LOOK AT THE NEWEST FUEL HYBRID TECHNOLOGY Know what these are? Found in Ford E450 Commuter vans at many airports. Found in buses in Germany since 1998 with tanks stored on top .
  63. 64. Reminder! STEPS TO SECRURING HYBRID VEHICLE 1. Chock wheels 2. Remove/Find Key 3. Give key to I/C 4. I/C makes general announcement regarding key 5. Locate power button/Shut off power 6. Engage emergency brake 7. Cut negative 12V cable 8. Cut positive 12V cable 9. Do not touch or cut any orange or blue loom! 10. Wait 5 minutes before making any cuts for extrication!