Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?

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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?

  1. 1. Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Electric vs. Internal Combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline for Hybrid technology development </li></ul><ul><li>The Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Study: Insight vs. Prius </li></ul><ul><li>The Future </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Combustion vs. Electric ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm ) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel vs. Series Hybrid ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda Insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toyota Prius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Mild Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop/Start Hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug-in Hybrid </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electric Motor <ul><li>Lots of torque </li></ul><ul><li>Zero emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>No transmission needed </li></ul><ul><li>Starts more efficiently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can turn off motor when you stop </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gasoline <ul><li>Higher energy density than batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cheaper initial cost for car </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrids are $3500-5000 more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliable, more history </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas
  7. 7. Timeline <ul><li>1839: First electric vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>1886: Electric powered taxicab in England </li></ul><ul><li>1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) </li></ul><ul><li>1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid </li></ul>
  8. 8. Timeline <ul><li>1900: Pieper introduced hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>1905: Gas-Electric car </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi </li></ul><ul><li>1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine </li></ul><ul><li>1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery </li></ul>
  9. 9. Timeline <ul><li>1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) </li></ul><ul><li>2000: Toyota Prius available in US </li></ul><ul><li>2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Batteries Behind It All <ul><li>Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick Arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( http:// www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prismatic Ni-MH <ul><li>15% pack volume reduction </li></ul><ul><li>25% pack weight reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Less battery module per pack number </li></ul>http:// www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kaku.html
  12. 12. Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH <ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14% less volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% higher cooling </li></ul></ul>( http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html )
  13. 13. ECU <ul><li>Electronic Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates temperature and state of charge </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures safe and reliable driving </li></ul>http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_bms.html
  14. 14. Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight <ul><li>Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius </li></ul>
  15. 15. Charge, Discharge and SOC <ul><li>http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/31306.pdf </li></ul>
  16. 16. Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures
  17. 17. Hybrid Cars Today <ul><li>Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in Production </li></ul><ul><li>DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov-00 2004 (Limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 (Limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec-99 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-00 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-00 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov-02 2003 (Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only </li></ul><ul><li>Planned for Production </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan-05 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2005/06 (Korea) </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-04 2005 (limited) </li></ul><ul><li>2006 (full) </li></ul><ul><li>Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun-04 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline 2003 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>1 Integrated motor assist. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Belt alternator starter. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) </li></ul><ul><li>Table from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/37777.pdf </li></ul>
  18. 18. Future of Hybrid <ul><li>Hybrid buses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~1,000 in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax Break Increase </li></ul>
  19. 19. Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Electric vs. Internal Combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline for Hybrid technology development </li></ul><ul><li>The Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Study: Insight vs. Prius </li></ul><ul><li>The Future </li></ul>

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