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Harnessing Hydrogen for Power: Hydrogen Cars


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Harnessing Hydrogen for Power: Hydrogen Cars

  1. 1. Harnessing Hydrogen for Power: Hydrogen Cars Marisa Katz Hannah Lobingier
  2. 2. What exactly is a Hydrogen Car <ul><li>In a hydrogen car, its primary source of power is from breaking down hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of hydrogen usually happens by two methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen can be burned much like the combustion reaction that takes place in the gas powered cars seen today. This is called a internal hydrogen combustion engine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen can be set up to react with oxygen to produce water and electricity. This is called a fuel cell. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hydrogen Cars and Fuel Cells <ul><li>Major car companies today are focusing on using fuel cells, instead of hydrogen internal combustion engines because it is thought that fuel cells will be more efficient and produce power in even cleaner ways. Instead of burning fuel in an engine, fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices. Fuel cells convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, and along the way produces electricity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ways of Getting Hydrogen <ul><li>Water is covalently bonded so energy is necessary to break this molecule apart into hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolysis (separating water by using electric currents) </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O + electricity -> H 2 + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ex.) battery, electrical outlet with a source of fossil fuels or renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Thermolysis (heat used to break up a substance) </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O + heat -> H 2 + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ex.) solar panels </li></ul><ul><li>Other molecules with hydrogen can be broken up into their components with added energy </li></ul><ul><li>Biological sources </li></ul><ul><li>Algae deprived of sulfur will produce hydrogen in a bioreactor </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen comes from crude oil </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fuel Cells: A Brief History <ul><li>In 1839 Sir William Grove invented the first fuel cell called a gas voltaic battery </li></ul><ul><li>50 years later Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer coined the term “fuel cell” </li></ul>Picture of Modern Day Fuel Cell
  6. 6. How Fuel Cells Work <ul><li>Fuel Cells are like batteries </li></ul><ul><li>The type of fuel cell highlighted today uses a constant flow of hydrogen to produce energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A reaction takes place between the hydrogen and oxygen that converts the energy released into useable electrical energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common fuel cell is one that runs off of proton exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This exchange takes place in the Proton Exchange Membrane, or PEM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Functions of Fuel Cells
  8. 8. How Energy is Made <ul><li>1. Hydrogen gas is pumped to the anode </li></ul><ul><li>2.The platinum anode acts as a catalyst to a reaction that ionizes the gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ionization reaction breaks hydrogen atoms into hydrogen protons(+) and electrons(-) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.Ions are attracted to the cathode but have two ways of getting to it </li></ul><ul><li>4.Protons pass through the membrane </li></ul><ul><li>5.Electrons are forced around the membrane thus releasing energy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hydrogen to Water <ul><li>In the cathode O 2 is ionized to O 2- . </li></ul><ul><li>In the anode H 2 is ionized to 2H + </li></ul><ul><li>2H + + O 2- = H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>When these elements combine energy is given off in electron form and gives off power to run an engine and water is also produced </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fuel Cell: Energy and Clean Bi-Products <ul><li>On the cathode side of the cell, oxygen is being fed where it is then converted to oxygen ions </li></ul><ul><li>When the hydrogen protons and electrons reach the cathode, new products are formed due to the bonding of the ions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “waste products” are water and heat </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages <ul><li>Zero emissions (pure water is produced) </li></ul><ul><li>No dependence on foreign oil </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to harvest solar and renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Not many moving parts in a vehicle (more mileage before things start breaking) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen weighs less than gasoline (vehicles would not need as much energy to move) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Price Tag: Drawbacks to Hydrogen Car <ul><li>Hydrogen Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this time there are very few stations that supply hydrogen cylinders to power a car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, the price for hydrogen is comparable to gas; however it takes two or three times as much to power a car. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As of now it is very expensive to equip a car with a hydrogen fuel cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is expensive to make, store, and transport </li></ul><ul><li>As of now, in a fuel cell the center is a platinum plate which is very expensive </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comparable Efficiencies <ul><li>Hydrogen Fuel cells at over 50% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel powered car at 10% - 20% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid powered cars have 30% - 35% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol is less efficient than fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>- ethanol gets 20% less mpg than fossil fuels </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Hydrogen Car Forefront <ul><li>In 2003, President Bush instated a national program called the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to “develop hydrogen, fuel cell and infrastructure technologies to make fuel-cell vehicles practical and cost-effective by 2020.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US has put over 1 billion dollars to date in hydrogen car research </li></ul>
  15. 15. Companies Getting Involved <ul><li>Ford </li></ul><ul><li>- P2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Honda </li></ul><ul><li>- FCX </li></ul><ul><li>BMW (within 2 years) </li></ul><ul><li>- Hydrogen 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Mazda </li></ul><ul><li>- Wankel motor </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>- Sequel </li></ul>
  16. 16. California: Goes Green <ul><li>California has around 13 pilot stations and plans some 170 commercial ones by 2010. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arnold Swarchenegger has pledged to turn one of his existing Hummers into a hydrogen powered car </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Thank you <ul><li>We would like to thank Dr. Skip Rochefort for being so generous with his time. The hydrogen car and fuel cell were both lent to us to better demonstrate the hydrogen car. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Skip Rochefort </li></ul>