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energy powerpoint

  1. 1. Energy - Introduction - Non-renewable - Renewables - Transportation
  2. 2. Energy trivia… <ul><li>USA has 4.5% of the world’s population </li></ul><ul><li>25% of world’s commercial energy </li></ul><ul><li>India: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16.4% of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3% of world’s commercial energy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. United States
  4. 4. Energy Sources for Total US Energy Use <ul><li>40% Oil </li></ul><ul><li>22% Coal </li></ul><ul><li>22% Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>7% Nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>5% Hydropower, Geothermal, Solar </li></ul><ul><li>4% Biomass </li></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Sources for Transportation Sector <ul><li>98% Oil </li></ul><ul><li>2% Natural Gas and Electricity (from a variety of sources) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electricity Energy Source http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec2_2.pdf
  7. 7. Nonrenewable and renewable <ul><li>Nonrenewables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Oil <ul><li>Refining through distillation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Oil: Availability <ul><li>Peak of oil production expected 2010-2030. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say it has already occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World oil economic depletion 2035-84 (27 to 76 years from now) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: Oil use is growing </li></ul><ul><li>(18% from 1990-2003) </li></ul>
  10. 10. United States production and consumption 56% imports in 2003
  11. 11. Proven oil reserves at end 2004 <ul><li>~2/3 of world’s reserves in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of world’s reserves in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>3% in United States </li></ul>
  12. 12. Oil: Maintaining Production? <ul><li>New Oil Field Finds? </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Shale (or, heavy oil) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs 75% more than pumped oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mining waste, low net energy yield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tar Sands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>severe environmental problems, low net energy yield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Technology to Exact more Oil from Existing Sites? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some already in place now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: world production has increased <10% in the last two decades </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Oil: Consequences Heidi Snell Oil spill off the Galapagos Islands 2001
  14. 14. Oil: Evaluation <ul><li>Availability and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Still available and cheap (sort of) and will be for short-term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>probably not for mid-term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>definitely not for long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and other costs </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution (air and water) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide, NO x , SO x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political dependence </li></ul>
  15. 15. COAL http://www.ohvec.org/galleries/mountaintop_removal/007/43.html
  16. 16. Coal: What is it? <ul><li>Remains of buried swamp plants that have been pressurized over eons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely carbon, with varying amounts of water and sulfur: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignite (brown coal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low heat, low sulfur content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bituminous coal (soft coal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high heat, usually high sulfur content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthracite (hard coal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high heat, low sulfur content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PA electricity generation
  18. 18. Energy use in Ohio
  19. 19. Coal: Supply Expectations <ul><li>Identified coal reserves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>last 220 yrs at current rate of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>last only 65 yrs if rate rises 2% per yr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unidentified coal reserves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>last 900 yrs at current rate of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>last 149 yrs if rate rises 2% per yr </li></ul></ul><ul><li> MOST ABUNDANT FOSSIL FUEL </li></ul>
  20. 20. Proved coal reserves at end 2004 <ul><li>66% world’s known reserves in : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States (24%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>former Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US anthracite: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 2% of total </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. United States
  22. 22. Coal: Cost <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many old coal-burning facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45% of cost of new plant is environmental compliance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Coal: Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Dirtiest fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Mining effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion Effects: </li></ul>
  24. 24. Coal: evaluation <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap without environmental controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting more expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Clean coal?? Integrated gasification combined cycle
  26. 26. Natural Gas
  27. 27. Conventional vs Unconventional NG vs Biogas <ul><li>found with oil deposits = conventional </li></ul><ul><li>found by itself = unconventional </li></ul><ul><li>gas from biomass of recent origin = biogas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>landfills, cows, termites, decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methane </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Proven natural gas reserves at end 2004 <ul><ul><li>40% of known reserves in former Soviet republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% of known reserves in US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2003 net imports of natural gas were ~15% of gas consumed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Other uses of natural gas <ul><li>Chemical industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedstock for ammonia, methanol, ethylene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul>California energy usage <ul><li>“ US Government policy has somehow concluded that natural gas should be the burned fuel of choice. That is something the equivalent of burning rare mahogany rather than common pine.” </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Liveris </li></ul><ul><li>CEO Dow Chemical </li></ul>
  30. 31. Natural Gas: Availability <ul><li>At PRESENT rate of use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US conventional supplies: 65-80 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World conventional supplies: 125 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconventional supplies: >200 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rates increasing 2% per year </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 200 year supply becomes 80 year supply </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Natural Gas: Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Cleanest of all fossil fuels </li></ul>
  32. 33. Natural Gas: <ul><li>Availability: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Going up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Env effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean for a fossil fuel, but still many issues </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Nuclear power
  34. 35. Nuclear fission: how it works
  35. 36. Nuclear power: how it works
  36. 37. Structure of a Nuclear Reactor
  37. 38. Nuclear Fission: Non-Renewable? <ul><li>Conventional Nuclear Reactors: Splits uranium-235 </li></ul><ul><li>U-235 is just 0.7% of total U supply </li></ul><ul><li>U-238 is >99% of world’s U </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of U-235: 100-200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Other potential nuclear fission reactors: breeders reactors: could use U-238 </li></ul>
  38. 39. Nuclear power consumption and production
  39. 40. The evolution of nuclear power <ul><li>1961: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1969: 25 </li></ul><ul><li>1975: 31 </li></ul><ul><li>1979: 20 </li></ul><ul><li>1985: 14 </li></ul><ul><li>1990: 3 </li></ul>No new plants licensed since 1978 April 9, 1979
  40. 41. Chernobyl, 1986 www.spaceman.ca /gallery/ chernobyl/CHERNOBYL_002
  41. 42. Can nuclear power ever be safe? http://www.angelfire.com/extreme4/kiddofspeed/chapter11.html
  42. 43. Nuclear waste <ul><li>Low level waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-500 y </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High level waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 – 240,000 y </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who has responsibility for waste in US?? </li></ul>
  43. 44. Yucca Mountain
  44. 45. Environmental impact
  45. 46. Nuclear energy - evaluation <ul><li>Availability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly renewable in long term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High, though promoted as cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No known safe storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul>
  46. 47. Energy: Renewables
  47. 48. Solar: types <ul><li>Solar heating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul>If in northern hemisphere, South >>
  48. 49. Raystown Field Station
  49. 50. SOLAR: types <ul><ul><li>Photovoltaics </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Solar consumption in USA
  51. 52. PV: past and future <ul><li>Global production increasing: 32% from 2003-2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Highly encouraged and supported by government in Japan and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Why not USA? </li></ul><ul><li>Future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PV roof arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV shingles </li></ul></ul>OLYMPIC SIZE Site of the 1996 Olympic swimming competitions, Georgia Tech's Aquatic Center is powered by one of the world's largest grid-connected rooftop solar arrays (blue and gray structure). GEORGIA TECH PHOTO These roof shingles are coated with PV cells made of amorphous silicon. When installation is complete, the PV shingles look much like ordinary roofing shingles, but they generate electricity. http://www.eere.energy.gov/solar/photovoltaics.html
  52. 53. SOLAR: Evaluation <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul>
  53. 54. SOLAR: Evaluation (cont.) <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul>
  54. 55. Wind http://www.vma.cape.com/~relweb/Wind%20Power.htm http://www.friendsofbruce.ca/images/calif_wind_farm.jpg California Wind Farm Proposed off shore wind farm in Cape Cod
  55. 56. Wind: current status
  56. 57. Wind: current status <ul><li>Increased 27% in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Still only 0.4 % US total energy </li></ul><ul><li>Significant in some countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark, Northern Germany, parts of Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-40% of electrical loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still reliable energy grid with no backup system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Wind: Evaluation <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul>
  58. 59. Wind: Evaluation <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences </li></ul>http://www.microclimetrics.com/public.cfm Great Plains, USA
  59. 60. Biomass: How it works Solid Biomass Gas Liquid Biogas (methane) Alcohols (methanol, ethanol) Used for transportation (gasohol) New: Biodiesel Convert Burn
  60. 61. Consumption of biofuel: USA
  61. 62. Biomass: Evaluation <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>* No net increase in CO 2 </li></ul>
  62. 63. Geothermal: how it works http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/oise/pictures/energy/geothermal/
  63. 64. Geothermal consumption: USA
  64. 65. Geothermal <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences </li></ul>Geothermal electricity plant, Imperial Valley, CA http://www.nrel.gov/clean_energy/geoelectricity.html
  65. 66. Hydropower
  66. 67. Hydropower consumption in USA
  67. 68. Hydropower: DAMS <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences </li></ul>Glen Canyon Dam
  68. 69. Tidal and wave power Artist's conception of a wave farm of 750-kW Pelamis wave converters, one of which is being installed off the coast of Scotland by maker Ocean Power Delivery Ltd. OCEAN POWER DELIVERY LTD. PHOTO A 125-kW Ocean Power Technologies energy buoy off the coast of Hawaii supplies electricity to a Navy installation. OCEAN POWER TECHNOLOGIES PHOTO EAST RIVER Six Verdant Power 36-kW tidal turbines are being installed in New York City's East River in a pilot program the company hopes will grow to 300 units. VERDANT POWER PHOTO TIDAL POWER A 300-kW turbine prototype, developed by Marine Current Turbines Ltd., was installed over a year ago in Britain's Bristol Channel to take advantage of the 5-knot tidal flow. MARINE CURRENT TURBINES LTD. PHOTO                                                                                                                                                                                          
  69. 70. Other Energy Choices???
  70. 71. Conservation <ul><li>1. Availability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences </li></ul>
  71. 72. Electricity: YOU have a choice! http://www.green-e.org /
  72. 74. http://www.resource-solutions.org/lib/librarypdfs/Purchasing_Guide_for_Web.pdf
  73. 75. Average house = $15/mo extra
  74. 76. Fueling our vehicles <ul><li>Ethanol and biodiesel? </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids? </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen? </li></ul>City of San Diego
  75. 77. Ethanol: a renewable biofuel <ul><li>Energy legislation requires refiners to blend 7.5 million gal ethanol into gas by 2012 (nearly double current amount) </li></ul><ul><li>Displace >2 billion barrels of imported crude oil </li></ul><ul><li>Distilled from corn or other vegetative material </li></ul><ul><li>Net energy efficiency??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>takes 29% more energy to make then ethanol provides (Patzek – oil background) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67% energy gain (USDA – corn biased?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35% energy gain (Energy Department) </li></ul></ul>
  76. 78. Biodeisel <ul><li>Biodiesel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated from soybeans or oilseed plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be blended with regular diesel and run in any engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still costs more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use is growing, but still less than ethanol </li></ul></ul>
  77. 79. Hybrid cars <ul><li>Hybrid of gas and electric </li></ul><ul><li>Why better gas mileage? </li></ul><ul><li>How much better? </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Civic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid: 46 city, 51 highway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal: 32 city, 38 highway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honda Insight 60 city, 66 highway </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Prius 60 City, 51 highway </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Escape SUV, 4 WD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid: 33 City, 29 highway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal: 21 city, 24 highway </li></ul></ul>
  78. 80. Hydrogen

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