Sustainability  Through Commercialization Of Alternative Fuels Kristin Macey, Assistant Director Division of Measurement S...
Alternative Fuels Goals <ul><li>Goals for alternative fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease dependence on foreign oil <...
Alternative Fuels <ul><li>Division of Measurement Standards (DMS)  role in alternative fuel development </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Alternative Fuels Authority <ul><li>Authority to regulate Weights and Measures and Fuel Products is found in Division 5 of...
Alternative Fuels Sustainability Criteria and DMS <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public education of the benefit...
Alternative Fuels Sustainability Criteria and DMS <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially viable/reliable ...
Alternative Fuels Current Alternative Fuels <ul><li>An alternative fuel used as a substitute for conventional fuel such as...
Natural Gas
Natural Gas <ul><li>Primarily comprised of methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Can be liquefied (LNG) or compressed (CNG) </li><...
Fuel Ethanol
Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>E85 is a mixture of up to 85% denatured ethanol and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume </li></ul...
Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>10 locations in California; 4 public access </li></ul><ul><li>Most ethanol used today in California i...
Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>State Laboratory Testing? No. </li></ul><ul><li>The Department has not purchased the equipment needed...
Electricity
Battery Electric <ul><li>Vehicles run on electricity stored in batteries; their only source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Battery Electric <ul><li>Electric vehicles are not Hybrids; hybrids are propelled by two or more sources of energy </li></...
Biodiesel
Biodiesel <ul><li>Is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular alternative fuel in CA toda...
Biodiesel <ul><li>The National Biodiesel Board  estimates 450 MGY produced  in 2007 by 176 plants in the  U.S. </li></ul><...
Biodiesel <ul><li>Business and Professions Code Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>● Diesel fuel (ASTM D975) </li></ul><ul><li...
Biodiesel Developmental Engine Fuel Variance <ul><li>● Pure  biodiesel and high concentration  blends usually cannot meet ...
Biodiesel Dispensers <ul><li>Variance is for fuel quality only </li></ul><ul><li>Separate type evaluation required on disp...
Biodiesel What’s Next?  Fuel Quality ● ASTM D975-08a allows up to 5% biodiesel  - Can label it DIESEL ● ASTM D7467-08 stan...
Biodiesel New Federal Biodiesel Labeling <ul><li>FTC published labeling requirements for biodiesel effective December 2008...
Hydrogen  - In The News <ul><li>“ Schwarzenegger Proposes 'Hydrogen Highways' Plan”  KCRA 3 News   </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fue...
Hydrogen - Government Mandates <ul><li>2004:  Governor signs Executive Order for “Hydrogen Highway” </li></ul><ul><li>2006...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>An alternative fuel which can be part of solution to energy problems facing California and U.S. </li...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Abundant Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Electrolysis...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><ul><li>Most major auto manufacturers have  developed prototype fuel cell (gaseous  hydrogen) vehicles f...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><ul><ul><li>BMW has introduced a car that runs on  liquid hydrogen or gasoline.  Spark ignition  engine ...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Fuel cells generate electricity by means of a chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul...
Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Current Work on Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Code for specifications and tolerances </li><...
Major Stakeholders <ul><li>California Fuel Cell Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>California Energy Commission </li></ul><ul><...
Major Stakeholders <ul><li>American Society for Testing and  Materials (ASTM) </li></ul><ul><li>International Standards Or...
Future Alternative Fuels Program <ul><li>Remember the Sustainability Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Fuels   pl...
Sustainability  Through Commercialization Of Alternative Fuels Questions? Kristin Macey, Division of Measurement Standards...
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  1. 1. Sustainability Through Commercialization Of Alternative Fuels Kristin Macey, Assistant Director Division of Measurement Standards Assistant Commissioner and Sealer Association Meeting October 9 - 10, 2008
  2. 2. Alternative Fuels Goals <ul><li>Goals for alternative fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease dependence on foreign oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create new jobs in rural America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring new technology that will save money </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Alternative Fuels <ul><li>Division of Measurement Standards (DMS) role in alternative fuel development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure Measurement Traceability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote Uniform Requirements and Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure Consumers Get What They Pay For </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level Playing Field in the Marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonize with International Standards </li></ul></ul>CDFA Responsibilities
  4. 4. Alternative Fuels Authority <ul><li>Authority to regulate Weights and Measures and Fuel Products is found in Division 5 of the Business and Professions Code: </li></ul><ul><li>● Type Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>● Device Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>● Fuel Quality </li></ul><ul><li>● Advertising and Labeling </li></ul><ul><li>● County Assistance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alternative Fuels Sustainability Criteria and DMS <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public education of the benefits – Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of benign technologies - No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of resources – No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean fuel production technology - No </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Alternative Fuels Sustainability Criteria and DMS <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially viable/reliable energy - Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of infrastructure – Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation tools – Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financing – Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academia/Industry/Government partnership – Yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road map for future implementation - Yes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Alternative Fuels Current Alternative Fuels <ul><li>An alternative fuel used as a substitute for conventional fuel such as gasoline and diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>● Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>● Fuel Ethanol (E85) </li></ul><ul><li>● Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>● Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>● Hydrogen </li></ul>
  8. 8. Natural Gas
  9. 9. Natural Gas <ul><li>Primarily comprised of methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Can be liquefied (LNG) or compressed (CNG) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 130,000 CNG vehicles in the U.S. – mostly fleet vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200 fueling sites in California </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, no action planned by the Department to establish fuel quality standards </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fuel Ethanol
  11. 11. Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>E85 is a mixture of up to 85% denatured ethanol and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons </li></ul><ul><li>6.8 million flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) are designed to run on blends up to 85% ethanol in U.S. today </li></ul><ul><li>69 MGY ethanol produced at 4 plants in CA </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>10 locations in California; 4 public access </li></ul><ul><li>Most ethanol used today in California is blended in concentrations under 10% </li></ul><ul><li>E-85 Dispensers are type approved, dispensers tested </li></ul><ul><li>Future ethanol production projects: sugar cane, various waste and residual feed stocks </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fuel Ethanol <ul><li>State Laboratory Testing? No. </li></ul><ul><li>The Department has not purchased the equipment needed to test this product due to low use in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Complaint samples are tested by an independent laboratory. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Electricity
  15. 15. Battery Electric <ul><li>Vehicles run on electricity stored in batteries; their only source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries are recharged at home or at a public charging stations. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no meter currently approved for a commercial charging station . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Battery Electric <ul><li>Electric vehicles are not Hybrids; hybrids are propelled by two or more sources of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Example: NEV vs GM Chevy Volt </li></ul><ul><li>The electricity can be produced from a number of alternative fuel sources </li></ul><ul><li>The Department does not regulate electricity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Biodiesel
  18. 18. Biodiesel <ul><li>Is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular alternative fuel in CA today </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of use: </li></ul><ul><li>● Manufactured from renewable vegetable oils or animal fats. </li></ul><ul><li>● Reduces hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>● Conventional diesel engines do not need conversion </li></ul><ul><li>● Can be blended with conventional diesel </li></ul>
  19. 19. Biodiesel <ul><li>The National Biodiesel Board estimates 450 MGY produced in 2007 by 176 plants in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>8 plants in California in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>35 MGY production capability </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50 fueling locations </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biodiesel <ul><li>Business and Professions Code Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>● Diesel fuel (ASTM D975) </li></ul><ul><li>● Biodiesel blend stock (ASTM D6751) </li></ul><ul><li>● Developmental Engine Fuel Variances </li></ul><ul><li>● Type Evaluation on Dispensers </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biodiesel Developmental Engine Fuel Variance <ul><li>● Pure biodiesel and high concentration blends usually cannot meet ASTM standards </li></ul><ul><li>● Over fifty variances granted for biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>● Fuel can only be sold to fleet type vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>● Records and Reporting requirements </li></ul>
  22. 22. Biodiesel Dispensers <ul><li>Variance is for fuel quality only </li></ul><ul><li>Separate type evaluation required on dispensers being used for fuels above B20 blends </li></ul><ul><li>Most in marketplace today have not been approved for commercial use with the fuel type </li></ul><ul><li>Why approval seals? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Biodiesel What’s Next? Fuel Quality ● ASTM D975-08a allows up to 5% biodiesel - Can label it DIESEL ● ASTM D7467-08 standard for 6 – 20% biodiesel blends ● Rulemaking to include new standards ● Variances continue for B20 - B100
  24. 24. Biodiesel New Federal Biodiesel Labeling <ul><li>FTC published labeling requirements for biodiesel effective December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Rulemaking also required </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hydrogen - In The News <ul><li>“ Schwarzenegger Proposes 'Hydrogen Highways' Plan” KCRA 3 News </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fuel Of Future' Available In Los Angeles- Hydrogen Station Opens For Cars In Calif.” FOX 12 News </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hydrogen - Government Mandates <ul><li>2004: Governor signs Executive Order for “Hydrogen Highway” </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Senate Bill 76 requires CDFA to establish standards for hydrogen fuel quality </li></ul><ul><li>2008: CDFA Fuel standards become effective </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>An alternative fuel which can be part of solution to energy problems facing California and U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros of Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everywhere! Light! Near Zero Emissions! Governor loves it! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons of Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Abundant Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Electrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Liquid Reforming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear High-Temperature Electrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photobiological (e.g., byproduct of microbes such as algae) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><ul><li>Most major auto manufacturers have developed prototype fuel cell (gaseous hydrogen) vehicles for US market: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daimler </li></ul><ul><li>Ford </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Honda </li></ul><ul><li>Hyundai </li></ul><ul><li>Nissan </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota </li></ul><ul><li>Volkswagen </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><ul><ul><li>BMW has introduced a car that runs on liquid hydrogen or gasoline. Spark ignition engine burns hydrogen directly. </li></ul></ul></ul>BMW Hydrogen 7
  31. 31. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Fuel cells generate electricity by means of a chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity is used to power an electric motor to propel the vehicle. </li></ul>How Does It Work?
  32. 32. Hydrogen Fuel <ul><li>Current Work on Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Code for specifications and tolerances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Type Evaluation Criteria for Hydrogen Measuring Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Examination Procedure Outline for Hydrogen Measuring Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and Implement Training for WM Officials and Service Companies </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Major Stakeholders <ul><li>California Fuel Cell Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>California Energy Commission </li></ul><ul><li>California Air Resources Board </li></ul><ul><li>US Dept of Commerce (NIST) </li></ul><ul><li>US Dept of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>US Dept of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>US Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Associations (WSPA, CIOMA) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Major Stakeholders <ul><li>American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) </li></ul><ul><li>International Standards Organization (ISO) </li></ul><ul><li>Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) </li></ul><ul><li>American Petroleum Institute (API) </li></ul><ul><li>Meter, Dispenser Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Auto Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>County W&M </li></ul>
  35. 35. Future Alternative Fuels Program <ul><li>Remember the Sustainability Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Fuels places a burden on existing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair to industry members who pay for oversight of conventional fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Concept and Proposal for 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>County Support and Assistance </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sustainability Through Commercialization Of Alternative Fuels Questions? Kristin Macey, Division of Measurement Standards (916) 229-3044

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