Attacking Today’s   Vehicle Fires
Sec. #3 <ul><li>The set rules of vehicle fire fighting </li></ul><ul><li>The tools of good decision making </li></ul>
The Golden Rule Of Vehicle Fires ! <ul><li>If you see open flames upon arrival   that vehicle is already  </li></ul><ul><l...
What Defines A Total Loss ? <ul><li>In earlier cars a total loss was determined by the repair cost, as compared to the res...
Crash Sensitive Body Designs  Note Weak Spots In Sheet metal Frame And  Harden Metals  In crash zones
These Are Called Crumple Zones <ul><li>These weak spots make it possible for auto makers to predetermine where the car wil...
Why A Total Loss ? <ul><li>When metal is heated it warps, distorting it’s original shape. </li></ul><ul><li>The metal used...
$1,000 or $175,000 It is still a Total Loss Do not risk your life for a  “Junk Car”
A Good Attack Begins At The Station  <ul><li>With all the  New Technology  of today’s vehicles, we can not attack a vehicl...
You are dispatched to a vehicle fire. <ul><li>Just like any fire, a safe attack depends on a </li></ul><ul><li>Good Size-u...
A Good Size-up  Is A Four Part Process. <ul><li>1.  Dispatch Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Approaching Size-up </li></ul><...
Dispatch size-up  begins, when you roll out of the door. <ul><li>Always repeat the address back to dispatch. </li></ul><ul...
Why ask for additional information? <ul><li>If this vehicle is on the highway, we need PD  in route NOW , for traffic cont...
Remember !   We can always disregard incoming help.   <ul><li>A lot of people do not realize that some departments, especi...
Approaching Size-up  (Down the road)   <ul><li>Do I see any exposures in immediate danger </li></ul><ul><li>What is the wi...
Away Down The Road We Can Start To Refine Our Dispatch Size-up.  <ul><li>What does this area look like? Is there woods or ...
Arrival Size-up:   (Still in the truck)   <ul><li>Do I see open flames ?  </li></ul><ul><li>Is the vehicle occupied ? </li...
The Arrival Size-up Redefines The Approaching Size-up <ul><li>How much fire is there ? ( Do I need An Extinguisher or an i...
On Scene Size-up   <ul><li>Closer check for occupants ( Or escaped occupants injured ) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of...
On Scene Size-up Redefines  Your Arrival Size-up.  <ul><li>Closer check for occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of ex...
Remember ! <ul><li>Good Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>Is A </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Not A Spur Of T...
Is It Time For A Change In Training  Yet ?  <ul><li>Vehicle Fire Categories </li></ul><ul><li>While putting this class tog...
Categories <ul><li>Front end fires:  bumper to inter dash board </li></ul><ul><li>Rear end fires:   rear seat to rear bump...
Some will say, common sense would tell you that, by just looking. <ul><li>Though this may seem obvious, and silly to even ...
For Instance,   <ul><li>Rear End Fire  </li></ul><ul><li>Late model car </li></ul><ul><li>Down hill topography </li></ul><...
Or <ul><li>Fully Involved Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late Model Car </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack </li></ul><ul><li>That...
Another  <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late Model Car </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack: </li></ul><ul><li>I ...
Or <ul><li>Rear End Fire  </li></ul><ul><li>Late model car </li></ul><ul><li>Level ground </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of att...
<ul><li>By  categorizing  the fire, we can train our minds to prioritize the dangers we face in that  particular area  of ...
Example: <ul><li>Rear End Fire   </li></ul><ul><li>Gas tank  </li></ul><ul><li>Possible gas cylinders in both C post </li>...
Or <ul><li>Front End Fire   </li></ul><ul><li>Front bumper struts  </li></ul><ul><li>Hood Struts </li></ul><ul><li>Two fro...
With Manufacturers Already Producing Cars Like BMW  ( With Optional 22 Air bags ) <ul><li>Not many of us can remember  ( i...
<ul><li>A steering wheel air bag with 2 igniters  </li></ul><ul><li>A passenger air bag with 2 igniters </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>2 rear occupant air bags in the back of the front seats </li></ul><ul><li>2 air bags in the rear doors  </li></ul>...
But Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>2 front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 front tires </li>...
Or  <ul><li>Rear End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic gas tank   </li></ul><ul><li>2 rear bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>Ga...
But Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>2 front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 front tires </li>...
Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Compartment Fire </li></ul><ul><li>These kind of cars have about 45 dangers  inside the compartm...
Size-up,  Is A “Fast” Skilled Decision  <ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>Categorizing </li></ul><ul><li>Help Us ? </li></ul>
Another Important Part Of A Safe Attack : <ul><li>Apparatus Placement </li></ul>
If At All Possible ! <ul><li>The apparatus should always be positioned up wind from the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li...
Again, If At All Possible ! <ul><li>The apparatus   should always be placed up hill from the burning vehicle. </li></ul><u...
Direction of the apparatus. <ul><li>The pump panel should always face the burning vehicle.  </li></ul><ul><li>This gives t...
Positioning the apparatus  <ul><li>If the burning vehicle is on the roadway or the shoulder of the road,  the apparatus sh...
Another Important Part Of A Safe Attack  <ul><li>Water Supply  </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Streams </li><...
Water supply  <ul><li>For years some of us have used a one inch line or red line to attack a vehicle fires. </li></ul><ul>...
New Training  <ul><li>Always use at least an inch and three quarter line, and an adjustable fog nozzle to attack a vehicle...
Fire Streams An Adjustable Fog Nozzle Would Be  Our Best Choice We Have  Adjustable GPM Fog  Pressure  150 GPM at a pressu...
This is the pressure we used in all the experiments you are about to see
New Training  <ul><li>Keep in mind that the training in this class may not be the only way of  safely attacking the fire. ...
There Are Some  Rules  In Vehicle Fire Fighting That You  Never  Break <ul><li>1.  Never approach a burning vehicle withou...
<ul><li>2.  Never risk injury to save a burning car, it was already junk when you arrived on scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Reme...
<ul><li>3.   Never cross in front of the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the film were the bumper blew off. </...
<ul><li>4.  Never enter the vehicle, with any part of your body, until every part of that car has been completely cooled. ...
<ul><li>5.  Never open the hood, trunk lid, or hatch back, without first bending the edges and cooling the struts. </li></...
Expect The Unexpected In Every Vehicle Fire !! <ul><li>While putting this class together, we were dispatched to a fully in...
Just Like Old Times !! No Bumper Or  Hood Struts
No dangers, Just Play Time. No Air Bags No  Gas Canisters
Daaa !  Ya   Better check  The Back
Expect The Unexpected !! Brake fluid Acid Gas
New Training <ul><li>With Change, Come Resistance To Change. </li></ul><ul><li>New Training: Means going against everythin...
Rear End Fire Rear Seat To Rear Bumper
Rear End Fires <ul><li>Dangers:  Plastic Gas Tanks  </li></ul><ul><li>Rear Bumper Struts  </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Gas C...
<ul><li>Causes:  #1  Arson: Stolen vehicles are usually  </li></ul><ul><li>started in the rear in attempt to blow  </li></...
<ul><li>Suspicions:  Always suspect Haz-Mat or  </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Mischief in the trunk  </li></ul><ul><li>of a s...
Approaching A Rear End Fire. <ul><li>We have always been taught to approach a rear end fire diagonally, come in on one of ...
This Was Good, But You Will See In The Next Step Our Reason For Change <ul><li>We are experimenting with the idea of appro...
Diagonal To The Front Of The Fire Area Pushing The Heat Away From The Unburned Area
Step #2 <ul><li>We have always been taught to turn to a narrow fog stream, while approaching the car, doing a fast knock d...
Our Idea Step #2 <ul><li>Same fog stream, same cooling, same protection. </li></ul><ul><li>But now we are pushing the heat...
Old Training Step #3 <ul><li>When knock down was accomplished, our next priority was to cool the bumper struts. </li></ul>...
This Takes Time, And It Is A Must ! Before We Even Try To Open The Trunk Remember The Struts Blowing And At The Same  Time...
Let’s Look Back At Statistics  <ul><li>With the number one and two causes of rear end fires, whether criminal or chemical,...
New Training Step #3  <ul><li>With the back seat burning, the heat is rising, the fastest thing to burn through is the car...
C-Post Both Sides
Side Curtain Air Bags Have One. Both Sides In C Post
Rear Seat Air Bags Both sides
By Approaching The Car At This Angle. <ul><li>We can safely bust the rear door glass, and cool the C posts and air bag are...
Busting The Door Glass As In Forcible Entry Always Stand To The Side To Bust The Glass
Punch Out The Speaker Hole In The Back Dash. <ul><li>Using a pike pole we can tear out the rear dash, leaving a hole into ...
Tearing Out The Dash
Old Training Step #4 <ul><li>After thoroughly cooling the bumper struts, we proceeded to open the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li...
Back To The Hole Into The Trunk. <ul><li>By putting water through this hole,  we   cool the Base of the fire , in the firs...
The Safest Part. <ul><li>We have never opened the trunk lid. </li></ul><ul><li>We have never been in danger of the bumper ...
Old Training Step #5  <ul><li>Open the trunk lid. </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing the status of the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>...
What Are We Facing ?
New Training Step #5 <ul><li>While the steam is blanketing the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool the tire and bumper strut, on ...
New Training Step #6 <ul><li>With a halogen bar pushed into the edge of the trunk lid, bend the edges of the trunk lid up,...
New Training Step #7 <ul><li>Open Trunk Lid.  Safely </li></ul>
Notes from the experiment <ul><li>Using this method, to our surprise !   </li></ul><ul><li>Each time we opened the trunk, ...
Steam Conversion It Worked Every Time
Even more to our surprise ! <ul><li>We had put a foam rubber rear seat, and some cardboard in the trunk, and about 1 gallo...
Two Parts Of The Tetrahedron  The Water Takes Away The Heat The Steam Smothers The Oxygen
We Later Found One Problem With This Method.  <ul><li>Some after market speakers are bolted in, where the factory speakers...
You Must Hook The Corner.
Now We Have Access To The Trunk
Using This Opening We Done The Same As Before <ul><li>But each time we opened the trunk, we found a very good knock down, ...
We Tried Pushing The Seat Back Into position  <ul><li>This would close the opening after we applied the water. </li></ul><...
We Have Extinguished The Fire.  <ul><li>We faced:  2 gas canisters </li></ul><ul><li>2 Air bags </li></ul><ul><li>2 gas st...
<ul><li>Many have ask why not use a piercing nozzle to get the same effect ?   </li></ul><ul><li>We can, but in looking at...
Piercing Nozzle; Do You Have One? <ul><li>Time; It takes extra time to hook-up the nozzle. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous obs...
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  • This vehicle deployed both front and rear side airbags and the side curtain airbag. Note the design of the side curtain airbag. Inflation areas are designed where they are needed. The front section of the bag is wider than the rear section because the protection zone in the front seat area is larger due to the numerous seat position possibilities.
  • Car Fires sec #3a

    1. 1. Attacking Today’s Vehicle Fires
    2. 2. Sec. #3 <ul><li>The set rules of vehicle fire fighting </li></ul><ul><li>The tools of good decision making </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Golden Rule Of Vehicle Fires ! <ul><li>If you see open flames upon arrival that vehicle is already </li></ul><ul><li>A Total Loss </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Defines A Total Loss ? <ul><li>In earlier cars a total loss was determined by the repair cost, as compared to the resale value of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Today's vehicles are all together different. </li></ul><ul><li>In an effort to meet NHTSA’s crash safety standards, manufacturers have redesigned their frames and supports to bend in precise locations to absorb impact. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Crash Sensitive Body Designs Note Weak Spots In Sheet metal Frame And Harden Metals In crash zones
    6. 6. These Are Called Crumple Zones <ul><li>These weak spots make it possible for auto makers to predetermine where the car will bend in a crash. </li></ul><ul><li>They place these so that the occupant space will open larger, as impact is absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows for more survival space for an occupant. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why A Total Loss ? <ul><li>When metal is heated it warps, distorting it’s original shape. </li></ul><ul><li>The metal used in cars is very thin, and needs very little heat to accomplish this distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a threat to the integrity of the frame, and the safety of the occupant therefore, </li></ul><ul><li>A Total Loss </li></ul>
    8. 8. $1,000 or $175,000 It is still a Total Loss Do not risk your life for a “Junk Car”
    9. 9. A Good Attack Begins At The Station <ul><li>With all the New Technology of today’s vehicles, we can not attack a vehicle fire safely, if we do not know the Dangers we are facing. </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>It’s A Must ! </li></ul>
    10. 10. You are dispatched to a vehicle fire. <ul><li>Just like any fire, a safe attack depends on a </li></ul><ul><li>Good Size-up </li></ul>
    11. 11. A Good Size-up Is A Four Part Process. <ul><li>1. Dispatch Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>2. Approaching Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>3. Arrival Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>4. On scene Size-up </li></ul>
    12. 12. Dispatch size-up begins, when you roll out of the door. <ul><li>Always repeat the address back to dispatch. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for additional information. Is this vehicle on the road, in a driveway or in a garage ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a vehicle fire or a fire resulting from a collision ? </li></ul><ul><li>Know your area, if this is on the highway, is it a high traffic area ? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Why ask for additional information? <ul><li>If this vehicle is on the highway, we need PD in route NOW , for traffic control. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is in a driveway or garage we need engine companies in route NOW , for possible structure fire. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a result of a collision, we need ALS in route NOW, for possible injuries. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Remember ! We can always disregard incoming help. <ul><li>A lot of people do not realize that some departments, especially volunteer, may have a ten to twenty minute response time, and miles of area to cover. </li></ul><ul><li>If we wait until we arrive on scene to call for help, that help has the same or more response time. </li></ul><ul><li>We must have Good Dispatch Size-up skills </li></ul>
    15. 15. Approaching Size-up (Down the road) <ul><li>Do I see any exposures in immediate danger </li></ul><ul><li>What is the wind direction? </li></ul><ul><li>Topography; Is the vehicle on a hill? </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers to crew, Is there oncoming traffic? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the on lookers doing? (That is odd) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Away Down The Road We Can Start To Refine Our Dispatch Size-up. <ul><li>What does this area look like? Is there woods or high grass on the side of the road? ( Exposures we did not know about ?) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the wind direction? ( I need my apparatus up wind from the fire.) </li></ul><ul><li>Topography, ( Is the vehicle on a hill ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers to crew, Is there oncoming traffic? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the on lookers doing? ( Rescue ? ) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Arrival Size-up: (Still in the truck) <ul><li>Do I see open flames ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the vehicle occupied ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a late model vehicle, or an older one ? </li></ul><ul><li>What category is this fire ( front, rear, compartment ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need more help ? </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Arrival Size-up Redefines The Approaching Size-up <ul><li>How much fire is there ? ( Do I need An Extinguisher or an inch and three quarter line ? ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the vehicle occupied ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a late model vehicle, or an older one? ( I have a late model Honda Civic ) </li></ul><ul><li>What category is this fire ( Front, Rear, Compartment ? ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need more help? </li></ul>
    19. 19. On Scene Size-up <ul><li>Closer check for occupants ( Or escaped occupants injured ) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of exposures </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of vehicle </li></ul>
    20. 20. On Scene Size-up Redefines Your Arrival Size-up. <ul><li>Closer check for occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of exposures </li></ul><ul><li>Closer check of vehicle ( I have a late model Honda Civic Hybrid, 300-500 Volts ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need more help ? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Remember ! <ul><li>Good Size-up </li></ul><ul><li>Is A </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Not A Spur Of The Moment Decision </li></ul>
    22. 22. Is It Time For A Change In Training Yet ? <ul><li>Vehicle Fire Categories </li></ul><ul><li>While putting this class together, I lined up about 100 pictures of burning cars. I noticed that there was a pattern I had never seen or heard anyone teach. These pictures all fit into four categories. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Categories <ul><li>Front end fires: bumper to inter dash board </li></ul><ul><li>Rear end fires: rear seat to rear bumper </li></ul><ul><li>Compartment fires: dash to rear seat </li></ul><ul><li>Fully involved fires: bumper to bumper, or a combination of any two categories. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Some will say, common sense would tell you that, by just looking. <ul><li>Though this may seem obvious, and silly to even think about. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at the New Technology we are dealing with today. </li></ul><ul><li>By categorizing the fire in our size-up; we can initiate a safer, faster attack. </li></ul>
    25. 25. For Instance, <ul><li>Rear End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late model car </li></ul><ul><li>Down hill topography </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack: </li></ul><ul><li>In just a few minutes I am going to have a stream of burning gas running down the hill, from the plastic gas tank melting. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Or <ul><li>Fully Involved Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late Model Car </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack </li></ul><ul><li>That car has about 12 compressed gas cylinders in it, and the heat is so intense that they are going to blow, keep my people back and cool it defensively. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Another <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late Model Car </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack: </li></ul><ul><li>I can approach diagonally from the rear of the car, pushing the heat away from the compartment, where all the gas cylinders are. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Or <ul><li>Rear End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Late model car </li></ul><ul><li>Level ground </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of attack: </li></ul><ul><li>In just a few minutes I am going to have a ring of burning gas right were my firefighters will be standing, from the plastic tank melting . </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>By categorizing the fire, we can train our minds to prioritize the dangers we face in that particular area of the car. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Example: <ul><li>Rear End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Possible gas cylinders in both C post </li></ul><ul><li>Pressurized fuel lines </li></ul><ul><li>Two rear tires </li></ul><ul><li>Rear bumper struts </li></ul>
    31. 31. Or <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>Hood Struts </li></ul><ul><li>Two front tires </li></ul><ul><li>Possible gas cylinders in both A post </li></ul><ul><li>Possible magnesium </li></ul>
    32. 32. With Manufacturers Already Producing Cars Like BMW ( With Optional 22 Air bags ) <ul><li>Not many of us can remember ( in the time it takes to do a size-up ) That this car has: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 hood struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 front tires that can blow </li></ul><ul><li>2 “A” post gas canisters </li></ul><ul><li>2 Dash mounted gas canisters </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>A steering wheel air bag with 2 igniters </li></ul><ul><li>A passenger air bag with 2 igniters </li></ul><ul><li>A carpet air bag (igniter in the consol) </li></ul><ul><li>2 air bags in the front doors (with gas canisters ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 pyrotechnic seat belts in the “B” posts </li></ul><ul><li>Seat position air bag under driver seat </li></ul><ul><li>2 side curtain air bags </li></ul><ul><li>Some have 2 roll over protectors (some gas, some pyrotechnic) </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>2 rear occupant air bags in the back of the front seats </li></ul><ul><li>2 air bags in the rear doors </li></ul><ul><li>2 pyrotechnic seat belts in rear seats </li></ul><ul><li>2 gas canisters in the “C” posts </li></ul><ul><li>2 rear tires that can blow </li></ul><ul><li>2 gas struts on trunk led </li></ul><ul><li>2 gas struts on the rear bumper </li></ul><ul><li>A plastic gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic pressurized gas lines </li></ul><ul><li>And a magnesium engine </li></ul>
    35. 35. But Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>2 front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 front tires </li></ul><ul><li>2 hood struts </li></ul><ul><li>Gas canisters in the area of the dash and “A” posts </li></ul><ul><li>And magnesium motor </li></ul>
    36. 36. Or <ul><li>Rear End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>2 rear bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>Gas canisters in “C” post </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tires </li></ul>
    37. 37. But Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Front End Fire </li></ul><ul><li>2 front bumper struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 front tires </li></ul><ul><li>2 hood struts </li></ul><ul><li>Gas canisters in the area of the dash and “A” posts </li></ul><ul><li>And magnesium motor </li></ul>
    38. 38. Can We Remember ? <ul><li>Compartment Fire </li></ul><ul><li>These kind of cars have about 45 dangers inside the compartment. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the fire small enough to put out or am I going to fight it defensively ? </li></ul>
    39. 39. Size-up, Is A “Fast” Skilled Decision <ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>Categorizing </li></ul><ul><li>Help Us ? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Another Important Part Of A Safe Attack : <ul><li>Apparatus Placement </li></ul>
    41. 41. If At All Possible ! <ul><li>The apparatus should always be positioned up wind from the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s vehicles are about 40 % hydrocarbon based plastics, which put off hundreds of different toxic gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Most vehicle fires produce thick black smoke, impairing vision. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Again, If At All Possible ! <ul><li>The apparatus should always be placed up hill from the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>This has always been a part of our training, but today this is no longer an option but a MUST, with the new plastic gas tanks and pressurized plastic gas lines running all the way to the front of the car. We are going to have gas running down the hill. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Direction of the apparatus. <ul><li>The pump panel should always face the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives the engineer a clear view of the scene. </li></ul><ul><li>And on the side of the road, this gives him protection from oncoming traffic. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Positioning the apparatus <ul><li>If the burning vehicle is on the roadway or the shoulder of the road, the apparatus should be placed diagonally, blocking the lane the vehicle is in and at least the next adjacent lane. </li></ul><ul><li>This forms about an 80,000 pound wall between you and the oncoming traffic. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Another Important Part Of A Safe Attack <ul><li>Water Supply </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Streams </li></ul>
    46. 46. Water supply <ul><li>For years some of us have used a one inch line or red line to attack a vehicle fires. </li></ul><ul><li>With the New Technology we are facing today, we need a lot of water, real fast, from a long distance. </li></ul><ul><li>With plastic gas tanks, and plastic fuel lines, and dozens of gas cylinders to explode, we need a fast knock down of the fire, from a long distance. Before approaching the fire. </li></ul>
    47. 47. New Training <ul><li>Always use at least an inch and three quarter line, and an adjustable fog nozzle to attack a vehicle fire. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives us pressure to wash spillage out from under the vehicle, while cooling the tank from a safe distance. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives us more water to cool the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>And a fog stream to protect our crew when approaching the vehicle. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Fire Streams An Adjustable Fog Nozzle Would Be Our Best Choice We Have Adjustable GPM Fog Pressure 150 GPM at a pressure of 75-100 lb. Straight Stream For Long distance wash down. Then adjustable fog for approach And adjustable GPM and pressure after knock down for Water conservation and cooling.
    49. 49. This is the pressure we used in all the experiments you are about to see
    50. 50. New Training <ul><li>Keep in mind that the training in this class may not be the only way of safely attacking the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>But seeing the desperate need for change, this is some of the approaches that we have experimented with and believe will make an aggressive approach a lot safer, when facing the New Technology of today’s vehicles. </li></ul>
    51. 51. There Are Some Rules In Vehicle Fire Fighting That You Never Break <ul><li>1. Never approach a burning vehicle without full bunker gear, and SCBA. </li></ul><ul><li>The materials that today's cars are made of, put off deadly poison gases. </li></ul><ul><li>They WILL KILL you !! </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>2. Never risk injury to save a burning car, it was already junk when you arrived on scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the golden rule : If you see open flames upon arrival that vehicle is already a total loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Is your life worth $50.00 in scrap iron ? </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>3. Never cross in front of the burning vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the film were the bumper blew off. </li></ul><ul><li>Or the picture of the bumper strut still in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Or the hood strut in the mans leg. </li></ul><ul><li>Always go around the non burning end. </li></ul><ul><li>This Could Be You ! </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>4. Never enter the vehicle, with any part of your body, until every part of that car has been completely cooled. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the air bags blowing out through the roofs. </li></ul><ul><li>The gas cylinders throwing shrapnel in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>These are hand grenades with the pins already pulled ! </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>5. Never open the hood, trunk lid, or hatch back, without first bending the edges and cooling the struts. </li></ul><ul><li>These are mounted on plastic sockets that are probably melted, and the hot cylinder has built up pressure inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the mans leg ? </li></ul><ul><li>They Are For Real ! </li></ul>
    56. 56. Expect The Unexpected In Every Vehicle Fire !! <ul><li>While putting this class together, we were dispatched to a fully involved early model van fire. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a very routine type vehicle fire, none of the new technologies was involved. </li></ul><ul><li>A simple knock down, and get in there and put it out. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Just Like Old Times !! No Bumper Or Hood Struts
    58. 58. No dangers, Just Play Time. No Air Bags No Gas Canisters
    59. 59. Daaa ! Ya Better check The Back
    60. 60. Expect The Unexpected !! Brake fluid Acid Gas
    61. 61. New Training <ul><li>With Change, Come Resistance To Change. </li></ul><ul><li>New Training: Means going against everything we have been taught. </li></ul><ul><li>So Please Bare With Us </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>Look At The Whole Picture. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Rear End Fire Rear Seat To Rear Bumper
    63. 63. Rear End Fires <ul><li>Dangers: Plastic Gas Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Rear Bumper Struts </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Gas Cylinders in C/D </li></ul><ul><li>post. </li></ul><ul><li>Rear Tires </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk lid Struts </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of trunk </li></ul>
    64. 64. <ul><li>Causes: #1 Arson: Stolen vehicles are usually </li></ul><ul><li>started in the rear in attempt to blow </li></ul><ul><li>the gas tank. Or destroy evidence (Such </li></ul><ul><li>as a body in the trunk). </li></ul><ul><li>#2 Contents of trunk: Multiple chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>being hauled, spill causing chemical </li></ul><ul><li>reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>#3 Tires: Running on flat tires; Rubber </li></ul><ul><li>gets hot and ignites. </li></ul>
    65. 65. <ul><li>Suspicions: Always suspect Haz-Mat or </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Mischief in the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>of a straight rear end fire. </li></ul><ul><li>From the C/D post to the rear </li></ul><ul><li>bumper there is very little mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>that can start a fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas tanks are usually a result of a fire </li></ul><ul><li>caused by collision. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Approaching A Rear End Fire. <ul><li>We have always been taught to approach a rear end fire diagonally, come in on one of the corners. </li></ul><ul><li>#1 Washing the spillage out from under the car. With a straight stream, from a safe distance. </li></ul><ul><li>#2 Splashing water up to the gas tank area, to cool the tank. </li></ul>
    67. 67. This Was Good, But You Will See In The Next Step Our Reason For Change <ul><li>We are experimenting with the idea of approaching diagonally from the front corner of the fire area, rather than the corner of the car. </li></ul><ul><li>Same as before, wash out under the car while cooling the tank, from a safe distance. </li></ul><ul><li>This is doing the same job, and pushing the heat away from the unburned area of the car. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Diagonal To The Front Of The Fire Area Pushing The Heat Away From The Unburned Area
    69. 69. Step #2 <ul><li>We have always been taught to turn to a narrow fog stream, while approaching the car, doing a fast knock down of the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>This is basic firefighting, the fog stream takes away the heat, while providing protection for our crew. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Our Idea Step #2 <ul><li>Same fog stream, same cooling, same protection. </li></ul><ul><li>But now we are pushing the heat away from the unburned compartment area, where all the New Technology is located. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Old Training Step #3 <ul><li>When knock down was accomplished, our next priority was to cool the bumper struts. </li></ul><ul><li>Making it safer for us to work on getting the trunk lid open. </li></ul>
    72. 72. This Takes Time, And It Is A Must ! Before We Even Try To Open The Trunk Remember The Struts Blowing And At The Same Time The Seat Of The Fire Is Getting Hotter
    73. 73. Let’s Look Back At Statistics <ul><li>With the number one and two causes of rear end fires, whether criminal or chemical, the seat of the fire is based inside the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic firefighting. What is the first part of the car that is going to burn? </li></ul><ul><li>The cloth and material in the back of the seat and the cardboard rear dash. </li></ul><ul><li>Every thing else is metal, or unknown hazards of contents. </li></ul>
    74. 74. New Training Step #3 <ul><li>With the back seat burning, the heat is rising, the fastest thing to burn through is the cardboard dash, letting the fire spread into the compartment area. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s go back to our New Technology and see what our priorities are now. </li></ul>
    75. 75. C-Post Both Sides
    76. 76. Side Curtain Air Bags Have One. Both Sides In C Post
    77. 77. Rear Seat Air Bags Both sides
    78. 78. By Approaching The Car At This Angle. <ul><li>We can safely bust the rear door glass, and cool the C posts and air bag areas. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Busting The Door Glass As In Forcible Entry Always Stand To The Side To Bust The Glass
    80. 80. Punch Out The Speaker Hole In The Back Dash. <ul><li>Using a pike pole we can tear out the rear dash, leaving a hole into the trunk, without ever entering the vehicle. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Tearing Out The Dash
    82. 82. Old Training Step #4 <ul><li>After thoroughly cooling the bumper struts, we proceeded to open the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Unaware Of the status of the fire inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Unaware of the content hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Unaware of the status of the gas struts on the trunk lid. </li></ul>
    83. 83. Back To The Hole Into The Trunk. <ul><li>By putting water through this hole, we cool the Base of the fire , in the first few minutes of the attack. As compared to the time it takes to cool the bumper struts, and open the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time the steam conversion forms a blanketing affect, smothering the fire. (We are using two parts of the tetrahedron) </li></ul>
    84. 84. The Safest Part. <ul><li>We have never opened the trunk lid. </li></ul><ul><li>We have never been in danger of the bumper struts. </li></ul><ul><li>We have never been in the path of an exploding trunk lid strut. </li></ul><ul><li>And we are not going to open the trunk to an unexpected flash of fire. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Old Training Step #5 <ul><li>Open the trunk lid. </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing the status of the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing if the lid struts are going to shoot out like arrows or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing the status of the contents. </li></ul>
    86. 86. What Are We Facing ?
    87. 87. New Training Step #5 <ul><li>While the steam is blanketing the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool the tire and bumper strut, on that side of the car. </li></ul><ul><li>Never cross in front of the burning end, go around the non-burning end of the car to the other side and cool the tire and bumper strut on that side. </li></ul>
    88. 88. New Training Step #6 <ul><li>With a halogen bar pushed into the edge of the trunk lid, bend the edges of the trunk lid up, and cool the struts on both sides. </li></ul>
    89. 89. New Training Step #7 <ul><li>Open Trunk Lid. Safely </li></ul>
    90. 90. Notes from the experiment <ul><li>Using this method, to our surprise ! </li></ul><ul><li>Each time we opened the trunk, the fire was totally out. </li></ul>
    91. 91. Steam Conversion It Worked Every Time
    92. 92. Even more to our surprise ! <ul><li>We had put a foam rubber rear seat, and some cardboard in the trunk, and about 1 gallon of gas to make a very hot fire. We allowed it to burn awhile before attacking. </li></ul><ul><li>After washout, knock down, extinguishment, and total cooling of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>We had used less than ¼ of a 300 gal tank of water. ( Steam Conversion ) </li></ul>
    93. 93. Two Parts Of The Tetrahedron The Water Takes Away The Heat The Steam Smothers The Oxygen
    94. 94. We Later Found One Problem With This Method. <ul><li>Some after market speakers are bolted in, where the factory speakers just knock out. </li></ul><ul><li>So we found another way to do the same attack. </li></ul><ul><li>We tried to hook the center of the seat back and pull it out, very unsuccessful . </li></ul><ul><li>But, we hooked the seat back about 6 inches from the corner, and one small pull it was loose. </li></ul>
    95. 95. You Must Hook The Corner.
    96. 96. Now We Have Access To The Trunk
    97. 97. Using This Opening We Done The Same As Before <ul><li>But each time we opened the trunk, we found a very good knock down, but still some small amount of flame. </li></ul>
    98. 98. We Tried Pushing The Seat Back Into position <ul><li>This would close the opening after we applied the water. </li></ul><ul><li>We opened the trunk and there was no fire. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller hole retains our steam, putting out the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>This method is easier than the speaker hole But, pushing the seat back is a must. </li></ul>
    99. 99. We Have Extinguished The Fire. <ul><li>We faced: 2 gas canisters </li></ul><ul><li>2 Air bags </li></ul><ul><li>2 gas struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 Bumper Struts </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tires </li></ul><ul><li>A plastic gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown Contents </li></ul>And Not Once Did We Put Our Crew In Danger !
    100. 100. <ul><li>Many have ask why not use a piercing nozzle to get the same effect ? </li></ul><ul><li>We can, but in looking at this we found a few draw backs </li></ul>
    101. 101. Piercing Nozzle; Do You Have One? <ul><li>Time; It takes extra time to hook-up the nozzle. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous obstructions inside the trunk; some cars have batteries mounted in the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Some like the VW we seen have gas canisters mounted in the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>And as bad as it sounds we could be pushing it into a body, stopping the flow of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Also we would have to put two men in front of a gas canister to insert the nozzle. </li></ul>

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