Suffrage and civil rights


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Suffrage and civil rights

  1. 1. Suffrage and Civil Rights American Government
  2. 2. Fifteenth Amendment <ul><li>Ratified in 1870-extended suffrage to African American men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was not self-executing; meaning it could not enforce implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For approx. 90 years African Americans were kept from the polls (mostly in the South) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence, social pressure, taxes, literacy tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering -the practice of drawing electorial district lines in order to limit the voting strength of a particular group or party. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Democratic Party in the South-Civil Rights Era <ul><li>Political parties were “private sessions” in the South. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats refused to include blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only party members could vote in primary elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court will eventually outlaw private sessions for primaries and gerrymandering for racial discrimination. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Civil Rights Act of 1964 <ul><li>Outlawed discrimination in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forbids unfair voting practices </li></ul><ul><li>Injunction -is a court order that either compels or restrains the performance of some act by a private individual or by a public official. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Voting Rights Act of 1965 <ul><li>Result of the March to Selma-led by King </li></ul><ul><li>Made the 15 th Amendment effective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to all elections, state, local, and federal! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suspended the use of literacy tests. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Preclearance <ul><li>Because of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, no new election laws, and no changes in existing election laws, could go into effect in any Southern states unless first approved by the Department of Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of polling places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries of election districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlines in the election process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward, district, or at-large elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications candidates must meet in order to run </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Amendments to the Act <ul><li>1975-provisions also cover any State or county where more than 5% of the voting-age population belongs to certain “language minorities.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed in 1992 to a population of 10,000 or more minority persons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bail out: Only 8 states are still subject to the the Voting Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, S. Carolina, and Texas. </li></ul></ul>