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The Creation of New Governments

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The Creation of New Governments

  1. 1. The Creation of New Governments AP U.S. History Unit 2
  2. 2. State Constitutions <ul><li>After the collapse of British control in 1775ish, the colonies formed their own state constitutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some kept colonial charters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the idea that a constitution should be created by a special convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make constitution superior to legislature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many states already included bills of rights </li></ul><ul><li>These states did not have unified governments </li></ul>
  3. 3. Articles of Confederation <ul><li>John Dickinson played a leading role in developing this document. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted a strong national government, but by the time Congress finished revising them, they went to the opposite extreme of preserving the sovereignty of the states and created a very weak national government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created a unicameral Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives one vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unanimous consent of each state was required to amend the Articles. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Good, Bad, and the Ugly/almost destroying everything we fought for!!! <ul><li>The Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles government was empowered to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine troops and money needed for war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settle state disputes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admit new states to the Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad/Ugly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles government was NOT empowered to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Levy taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate commerce (trade) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it possible for government to function without these powers?! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Problems with the Articles <ul><li>Ratification was delayed by a disagreement over the future status of the lands that lay to the west of the original 13 states. </li></ul><ul><li>Country suffered from deep financial trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress printed off large amounts of paper money to finance the Revolution-Continentals (led to inflation). </li></ul><ul><li>Took loans from France and the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>A plan to give the Articles the power to tax was stopped by one vote! (Rhode Island) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Newburgh Conspiracy <ul><li>Horatio Gates led movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to use the army to force the states to surrender more power to the national government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington stopped this </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Trans-Appalachian West and the Northwest Ordinance <ul><li>Daniel Boone opened the “Wilderness Road” to Kentucky and Tennessee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of violent death by Natives and British who did not leave their military posts after the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied Natives with weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance of 1784 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territory to statehood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance of 1785 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Townships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Northwest Ordinance of 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided a bill of rights for settlers and forbade slavery north of the Ohio River. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations <ul><li>Economic depression followed the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay (U.S. secretary of foreign affairs) negotiated with Spanish minister Gardoqui for a treaty that would have grated lucrative commercial privileges in exchange for U.S. acceptance of Spain’s closure of the Mississippi River as an outlet for agricultural goods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West and South were angered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost broke up the union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty never passed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Shay’s Rebellion <ul><li>1786 </li></ul><ul><li>Hard times + high taxes intended to pay off the state’s war debt drove Massachusetts farmers into rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Daniel Shay, they shut down courts to prevent judges from seizing property or condemning people to debtors’ prison for failing to pay taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Created panic-many will feel that a stronger government was needed to control such violent acts. </li></ul>

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