Subject matter- needs to be knowledgeableabout teaching.
The change in behavior as a result of experience is measurable and can be assessed. Assessment of learning is a complex process and it is important to be clear about the purpose of the assessment.
As an aviation instructor we have added responsibilities that we need to uphold.
Review Multiple intelligences
Development is the main part of the lesson.
Lectures are used to introduce new subjects, summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice and reemphasizing main points. The lecturer needs to be flexible to match the audience. Discussion method, the instructor will provide a short lecture, usually no more than 20 minutes. Look at Problem-based learning
Success with cooperative or group learning depends on conditions and controls set in place. Pairstudents with same knowledge level or with varying knowledge level
Demonstration-performance is best used for the mastery of mental or physical skills that require practice
The Teaching Process, Fundamentals of Instruction
Flight Instructor ASE
Ground Training Course
Ground Lesson 4
What is Teaching
Teaching is to instruct or train someone, or the profession
of someone who teaches. To be a teacher implies one has
completed some type of formal training, has specialized
knowledge, has been certified or validated in some way,
and adheres to a set of standards of performance.
Defining a “good instructor” has proven more elusive, but
in The Essence of Good Teaching (1985), psychologist
Stanford C. Ericksen wrote “good teachers select and
organize worthwhile course material, lead students to
encode and integrate this material in memorable form,
ensure competence in the procedures and methods of a
discipline, sustain intellectual curiosity, and promote how
to learn independently.”
Essential Teaching Skills
The ability to interact, talk, understand, empathize, and
connect with people
Technical knowledge is useless if the instructor fails to
There is a two-way process for communication
Subject Matter Expertise
Must possess a high level of expertise, knowledge, or
skill in a particular area.
Essential Teaching Skills
The ability to plan, organize, lead and supervise. These
skills are reflected in the ability to plan, organize and
carry out a lesson.
The ability to understand what can be realistically
achieved within the allotted time and makes the best
use of time.
Ability to effectively assess the students abilities
Instructors Code of Conduct
An Aviation Instructor needs to remember
Make Safety the number one priority
Develop and exercise good judgment in making
Recognize and manage risk effectively
Be accountable for your actions
Act with responsibility and courtesy
Adhere to prudent operating practices and personal
Adhere to applicable laws and regulations
Instructor Code of Conduct
Instructors also need to remember
Seek proficiency in control of the aircraft
Use flight deck technology in a safe and appropriate way
Be confident in a wide variety of flight situations
Be respectful of the privilege of flight
The Teaching Process
The teaching process consist of four steps
Course of Training is a complete series of studies leading to
attainment of a specific goal
Curriculum is a set of courses in an area of specialization
offered by an educational institute
Syllabus is a summary or outline of a course of study that
generally contains a description of each lesson, including
objectives and completion standards.
A determination of objectives and standards is
necessary before any important instruction can be
presented. Although some schools and independent
instructors may develop their own syllabus, in
practice, many instructors use a commercially
developed syllabus that already has been selected by a
school for use in their aviation training program. For
the aviation instructor, the objectives listed in the
syllabus are a beginning point for instruction.
Training Objectives and Standards
Aviation training involves two types of objectives:
performance based and decision based. Performance-based
objectives are essential in defining exactly what needs to be
done and how it is done during each lesson. As the student
progresses through higher levels of performance and
understanding, the instructor should shift the training focus
to decision-based training objectives. Decision-based training
objectives allow for a more dynamic training environment
and are ideally suited to scenario type training. The instructor
uses decision-based training objectives to teach aviation
students critical thinking skills, such as risk management and
aeronautical decision-making (ADM).
Performance-based objectives are used to set
measurable, reasonable standards that describe the
desired performance of the student. This usually
involves the term behavioral objective, although it may
be referred to as a performance, instructional, or
educational objective. All refer to the same thing, the
behavior of the student.
Decision-based objectives are designed specifically to
develop pilot judgment and ADM skills. Improper pilot
decisions cause a significant percentage of all accidents,
and the majority of fatal accidents in light single- and
twin-engine aircraft. Often combined with traditional
task and maneuver training within a given scenario,
decision-based objectives facilitate a higher level of
learning and application. By using dynamic and
meaningful scenarios, the instructor teaches the student
how to gather information and make informed, safe, and
The Teaching Process
Importance of the PTS
PTS hold an important position in aviation training
curricula because they supply the instructor with
specific performance objectives based on the standards
that must be met for the issuance of a particular aviation
certificate or rating. It is a widely accepted belief in the
aviation community that test items included as part of a
test or evaluation should be both content valid and
criterion valid. Content validity means that a particular
maneuver or procedure closely mimics what is required.
Criterion validity means that the completion standards
for the test are reflective of acceptable standards.
Presentation of a Lesson
Research into how people learn has led many experts
to recommend ways to present lessons that keep the
attention of a class. The steps in the diagram on the
next slide form a guideline for lesson presentation.
Many of them can be combined during the actual
presentation. For example, consider a video
presentation given during the weight and balance
lecture. The video adds a multimedia element to the
lecture, is a good attention getter, and can be used to
visually demonstrate the learning objective.
Organization of Material
Even the most knowledgeable instructor must properly
organize the material. Once a determination of
objectives and standards has been made, an instructor
formulates a plan of action to lead students through
the course in a logical manner toward the desired goal.
Organization of Material
Attention- focus the students attention on the lesson
Motivation- offer the student specific reasons why the
lesson content is important.
Overview- an overview tells the students what is to be
covered during the period.
Organization of Material
Past to Present- the subject matter is arranged
Simple to Complex- begin with simple facts and work up
Known to Unknown- begin with something the student
Most Frequently Used to Least Used Conclusion
The review and wrap-up of ideas will reinforce student
learning and improves retention
The instructor delivers his knowledge via lecture to students
are more or less silent participants
The instructor provides a short lecture to give the basic
knowledge, then will lead a discussion of the material.
Discussion relies on the exchanging of information between
Lessons are structured in such a way as to confront students
with problems encountered in real life that forces them to
reach real world solutions.
Students learn the material through the use of
Cooperative or Group Learning Method
Organize students into groups who can work together to
maximize their own and each other’s learning
Drill and Practice Method
Promotes learning through repetition because those
things most often repeated are best remembered
Students observe the instructor demonstrate and then
try to reproduce the skill. It is based on the principle
that people learn by doing.
Application of Lesson
Application is student use of the instructor’s presented
material. If it is a classroom presentation, the student
may be asked to explain the new material. If it is a new
flight maneuver, the student may be asked to perform
the maneuver that has just been demonstrated. In
most instructional situations, the instructor’s
explanation and demonstration activities are
alternated with student performance efforts.
Assessment of Lesson
Before the end of the instructional period, the
instructor should review what has been covered during
the lesson and require the students to demonstrate
how well the lesson objectives have been met. Review
and assessment are integral parts of each classroom,
and/or flight lesson. The instructor’s assessment may
be informal and recorded only for the instructor’s own
use in planning the next lesson for the students, or it
may be formal.
Instructional Aids and Training
Instructional Aids are devices that assist an instructor
in the teaching-learning process.
Instructional aids help students remember important
information, gain and hold a students attention