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Assessment- Fundamentals of Instruction


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Assessment- Fundamentals of Instruction

  1. 1. Flight Instructor ASEL Ground Training Course Ground Lesson 5 6/28/2013 1
  2. 2. Assessment  Assessment is an essential and continuous component of the teaching and learning processes.  Assessment- a process of gathering measurable information to meet evaluation needs. Assessment involves both judgment by the instructor and collaboration with the student during the evaluation stage.  Two types of Assessments  Traditional  Authentic 6/28/2013 2
  3. 3. Purpose  An effective assessment provides critical information to both the instructor and the student. A good assessment provides practical and specific feedback to students, including direction and guidance on how to increase their level of performance.  It shows the instructor where more emphasis is needed by highlighting the areas in which a student’s performance is incorrect or inadequate. 6/28/2013 3
  4. 4. Effective Critique  Objective  The Assessment focuses on the students performance and not personal opinions. Base your critique off the lesson completion standards or the PTS  Flexible  The Assessment must fit the tone, technique, and content to the occasion. We need to learn what to say and when to say it. 6/28/2013 4
  5. 5. Effective Critique  Acceptable  The student must accept the instructor in order to accept your assessment willingly. The student needs to have confidence in your qualifications, teaching ability, sincerity, competence and authority.  Comprehensive  A comprehensive assessment is not necessarily a long one, nor does it touch every aspect of the flight in detail. It covers what is important for that particular lesson. 6/28/2013 5
  6. 6. Effective Critique  Constructive  An assessment is pointless unless the student benefits from it. Praise can be very effective in reinforcing and capitalizing on things that are done well. Instructors need to give positive guidance for correction on a mistake or weakness. Negative comments that don’t help improve the situation should be avoided.  Organized  The assessment needs be logical and make sense to the student. An effective organizational pattern might be the sequence of performance itself. 6/28/2013 6
  7. 7. Effective Critique  Thoughtful  The assessment reflects the instructor’s thoughtfulness towards the student’s need for self-esteem, recognition, and approval. While being straightforward and honest, the instructor should always respect the student’s personal feelings.  Specific  The comments and recommendations should be specific. The student needs to know specifically what to work on, and where to make improvements. 6/28/2013 7
  8. 8. Traditional Assessment  Traditional assessment generally refers to written examination; such as multiple choice, matching, true/false, fill in the blank, etc. The assessment or test assumes that all students should learn the same thing, and relies on rote memorization of facts.  Traditional assessment approaches are generally instructor centered, and that they measure performance against an empirical standard. Fairly simple grading matrices are used for these types of assessments 6/28/2013 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Good Written Assessment  Reliable  The test results are consistent with repeated measures. Does the test give consistent measurement to a particular individual or group.  Valid  Does the test measure what it is suppose to measure. Is the test relative to the subject  Usable  Is the test easy to give, are the instructions clear and concise. Is it easy to read the questions and answers 6/28/2013 9
  10. 10. Characteristics of Good Written Assessment  Objective  The instructors knowledge and experience, writing style or grammar should not affect the grade of the test  Comprehensive  The ability of the test to measure overall objectives. The test must sample a cross-section of the objectives being assessed.  Discrimination  Does the test have the ability to show differences between students. A test constructed to identify the differences in achievement has: a wide range of scores, all levels of difficulty and items to distinguish students with varying levels of knowledge. 6/28/2013 10
  11. 11. Authentic Assessment  Authentic Assessment is a type of assessment in which the student is asked to perform real-world tasks and demonstrate a meaningful application of skill and competencies.  The student must generate responses from skills and concepts rather than from predetermined responses.  The purpose of authentic assessments is to stimulate growth in the student’s thought process and behaviors 6/28/2013 11
  12. 12. Collaborative Assessment  The instructor will use open-ended questions to guide the student through a self-assessment.  Replay- have the student verbally replay the flight or procedure and listen for differences. Discuss the differences.  Reconstruct-have the student reconstruct the flight and think about things they would have done, should have done or could have done differently during the flight  Reflect-What did the student learn from the flight today  Redirect-Help the student relate this lesson to what was previous learned 6/28/2013 12
  13. 13. Assessing Flight Maneuvers 6/28/2013 13
  14. 14. SRM Grades  Explain- the student can verbally identify, describe, and understand the risks inherent in the flight scenario, but needs to be prompted to identify risks and make decisions  Practice- the student is able to identify, understand and apply SRM principles to the actual flight situation. Minor input from the instructor is required  Manage-Decide- the student can correctly gather the most important data available both inside and outside the flight deck, identify possible courses of actions, evaluate the risk and choose the appropriate decision. 6/28/2013 14
  15. 15. Choosing an Effective Assessment  Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives  The objectives should measure one of the learning levels of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.  What are we trying to assess the student on?  List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behaviors  List indicators or samples of behaviors that give the best indication of the achievement of the objective.  The test must be comprehensive enough to give a true representation of the learning to be measured 6/28/2013 15
  16. 16. Choosing an Effective Assessment  Establish Criterion Objectives  Need to establish performance based objectives for the assessment  Develop Criterion-Reference Assessment Items  6/28/2013 Need to develop the appropriate assessment to measure the behaviors or performance described in the criterion objectives. 16
  17. 17. Critique and Oral Assessment  A critique is an Oral assessment between the student and instructor.  A critique may be oral, written or both. The critique should occur immediately after a student’s performance  Oral Assessment is the most common means of assessment by instructors. Questions can be fact questions or HOTS questions 6/28/2013 17
  18. 18. Ways to Conduct a Critique  Instructor/Student Critique  Student-Led Critique  Small Group Critique  Student-Student Critique  Self Critique  Written Critique 6/28/2013 18
  19. 19. Characteristics of Effective Questions  Effective Questions must:  Apply to the subject of instruction  Be brief and concise and clear and definite  Be adapted to the ability, experience and stage of training  Center on only one idea  Present a challenge to the student 6/28/2013 19
  20. 20. Characteristics of Effective Questions  Questions to Avoid  Puzzle  Oversize  Toss-up  Bewilderment  Trick Questions  Irrelevant Questions 6/28/2013 20