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Community Building als Aufgabe von Bibliotheken

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Vortrag an der HTW Chur im Seminar "Aktuelle Trends in Bibliothekswissenschaft und -praxis am 3. März 2017 (Standort Zürich). Warum sprechen wir und viele andere Disziplinen z.Zt. von Gemeinschaft und Communities und was die mit Bibliotheken zu tun hat.

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Community Building als Aufgabe von Bibliotheken

  1. 1. Community Building als Aufgabe von Bibliotheken Hans-Christoph Hobohm
 Fachhochschule Potsdam www.hobohm.info Twitter: @hobohm www.linkedin.com/in/hanschristophhobohm/ Aktuelle Trends in Bibliothekswissenschaft und –praxis
 Zürich, 3. März 2017
  2. 2. Hobohm: Community Building 2 Die Mission einer Bibliothek ist die Verbesserung der Gesellschaft durch die Förderung vonWissensgenerierung in der Community.
  3. 3. Hobohm: Community Building Definition von Bibliothek (Umstätter) „Wir sollten daher bei der Definition der Bibliothek verdeutlichend hinzufügen: Die Bibliothek ist eine Einrichtung, die unter archivarischen, ökonomischen und synoptischen Gesichtspunkten publizierte Information für die Benutzer sammelt, ordnet und verfügbar macht, um die Schöpfung neuen Wissens zu erleichtern („facilitating knowledge creation“). Es geht dabei nicht nur um die Leseförderung, sondern um “enlightenment”, also das was man in Deutschland seit Kant, Goethe, Schiller etc.Aufklärung nennt – Sapere Aude.Auf der Basis dieses Leitbildes („mission statement“) sollte es einen Konsens bei den Bibliotheken dieser Welt geben, ganz im Sinne der NewYork Public Library: “The mission of The NewYork Public Library is to inspire lifelong learning, advance knowledge, and strengthen our communities.” Hier wird also nicht das Rad neu erfunden, aber für deutsche Leser neu beflügelt.“ 3 W.UmstätterinInetBibam23.Januar2017
  4. 4. Hobohm: Community Building Was sind Communities? • Schreiben Sie auf Karten, welche Communities Ihnen einfallen. • Jeder drei. 4
  5. 5. Hobohm: Community Building KartenabfrageinderKlasse
  6. 6. Hobohm: Community Building „Gemeinschaft“ scheint ein Bedürfnis zu sein. Zunehmend.
  7. 7. Hobohm: Community Building Zeitdiagnose? • Beschleunigung. DieVeränderung der Zeitstrukturen in der Moderne. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2005 • Resonanz. Eine Soziologie der Weltbeziehung. Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2016 7 2016 Hartmut Rosa
 Photo: Uni Jena
  8. 8. Hobohm: Community Building Kultur der Digitalität • Referenzialität • Gemeinschaftlichkeit • Algorithmizität 8 2016 Felix Stalder 
 (Foto: Ziko van Dijk, 
 CC BY-SA 3.0)
  9. 9. Hobohm: Community Building Evans,Philip;Forth,Patrick(2015):NavigatingaWorldofDigital Disruption.Borges'Map.Boston:TheBostonConsultingGroup.
  10. 10. Hobohm: Community Building Andrew Carnegie 
 (1835 – 1919) “There is not such a cradle of democracy upon the earth as the Free Public Library, this republic of letters, where neither rank, office, nor wealth receives the slightest consideration.” 10
  11. 11. Hobohm: Community Building
  12. 12. Hobohm: Community Building
  13. 13. Hobohm: Community Building The Mission of Librarians is to Improve Society through Facilitating Knowledge Creation in their Communities Knowledge is Created through Conversation Conversants LanguageAgreements Memory Entailment Mesh Cataloging Relationships Scapes Reference Extract Artifacts Source Amnesia L1 L0 Boundary Issues Pressure for Participation Free Library of Philadelphia Department of Justice Importance of a Worldview Importance of Theory and Deep Concepts Longitude Example Core Skills Ambiguity is Essential for Professional Work LIS Education Importance of Action and Activism Service Leadership Obligation of Leadership Innovation versus Entrepreneurship Means of Facilitation AccessKnowledge Environment Motivation ExtrinsicIntrinsic Massive Scale Evolution of Systems System View User-Based Design User Systems Gaming Service is not Invisibility Core Values Ethics Openness Learning Intellectual Freedom and Safety Intellectually Honest not Unbiased Internet Model Example User Credibility Information Services Web 2.0 Application Builders Open Source Infrastructure Providers TCP-IPEntrepreneuriumWriting CenterMusic Center Publisher of Community True Facilitation Means Shared Ownership Invest in Tools of Creation over Collection of Artifacts Shift in Innovation from Academy to Ubiquity Recognize a School as a Participatory Network From School to School of Thought Co-Learning Increase Friction in the Process Every Course has Symposia and Practica Curriculum of Communication and Change over Traditional Ideas of Leadership Need to Expand the Educational Ladder Bachelor of Information and Instructional Design Need for an Executive Doctorate Institute for Advanced Librarianship Idea Avoiding the Florentine Dilemma Vital Roles of Mentors Evolution of Integrated Library Systems Democracy and Openness Overshadowed by Technology Different Communities Librarians Serve Public Academic Government Special School Growing Importance of Two Way Infrastructure School Information Management Systems Archives Conversation Theory Sense-Making Motivation Theories Dialectic Theories Learning Theory Transition of Traditional Skills Reference Information Organization Administration Information Seeking Collection Development Community as Collection Issues of Institutional Repositories Scholarly Communications Go to the Conversation Embedded Librarians Digital Environments Physical Environments Hybrid Environments Policy Assessment Mapping Conversations Annotations Limitations of Tagging Library Instruction Selective Dissemination of Information Meeting Spaces Topical Centers with Curriculum Postmodernism Constructivism Public Service Members not Patrons or Users Shared Shelves with the Community From Authority to Reliability Authoritative vs Authoritarian Truly Distributed Digital Library Need for an Expanded Definition of Literacy Social Literacy Libraries are in the Knowledge Business therefore the Conversation Business Creating an Agenda Risks of Data Death of Documents Ability to Work in Interdisciplinary Teams Relation to other Domains Communications Computer Science Humanities Information Science Getting Past the L v I Debate Creating a New Social Compact Evolution of the Social Compact Social Justice Issues Innovation Warehousing Functions ShelvingCirculation Para- professionals Importance of Technical Skills Social Network Sites exemplifiedas Education A B C D E F G H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mission librarians improvesociety facilitating knowledge creation communities such as iscomposedof iscomposedof iscomposedof iscomposedof iscomposedof iscomposedof conversantsareequal,therefore adangeris managingtwo-wayinformationflowsbecomescomplex needsamethod highlightstheimportanceof anexamplecaseis anexamplecaseis anexamplecaseis akeyissueinschoolsis thishasanimpactin dealswith demonstratedtheconceptof createdconceptfor createdconceptfor will be influenced by astrategyis suchas such as such as such as areservedby such as createdconceptfor asseenin asseenin has asseenin as seen in anexamplecaseis iscomposedof is composed of iscomposedof iscomposedof results in resultsin resultsin resultsin resultsin hasanaspectof demonstrates a key theory is arelevanttheoryis arelevanttheoryis arelevantareais a relevant area is arelevantareais therefore defines SystemsaregoingtohavetoallowmultipleL1's demonstrate needsystemtocapturemeshes Now can search on meshes Thenaturemeans susceptibleto influencedby willinfluence willinfluencecanberepresentedin leadsto meansknowledgeof redefines therefore willbetranslatedas however,mustavoid suchas comeswithan ispartof a relevant area is arelevantareais will influence iscomposedof is composed of is composed of iscomposedof isseenin suchas suchas tofrom to influenced by influencedby canbecome resultsin asseenin hasatype hasatype is composed of iscomposedof is composed of iscomposedof resultsin canbedonethrough redefines canbedonethrough canbedonethrough suchas such as suchas suchas such as suchas suchas suchas suchas requiresknowledgeof includes includes requires requires includes requires changesbecause requires requires leadsto includes involves involves requires requires anexampleis anexampleis anexampleis anexampleis means knowledge of involves meansknowledgeof resultsinhelpsdefine isinfluencedby willinfluence willinfluence mustchange thefieldmust must comesfrom exampleis willbeinfluencedby includes includes is related to canbeachievedby influences includes includes includes explains includes explainedinhelpsdefine isenabledby basedon might become Example isfurtherdefinedby suchas The Atlas of New LIBRARIANSHIPR. David Lankes Facilitating Knowledge Creation Mission Communities Librarians Improve Society Agreement AgreementRelationship THREADS
  14. 14. Hobohm: Community Building The Mission of Librarians is to Improve Society through Facilitating Knowledge Creation in their Communities Knowledge is Created through Conversation Boundary Issues Pressure for Participation Importance of a Worldview Importance of Theory and Deep Concepts Longitude ExampleMeans of Facilitation AccessKnowledge Internet Model Example True Facilitation Means Shared Ownership Different Communities Librarians Serve Public Government Special SchoolArchives Conversation Theory Sense-Making Motivation Theories Dialectic Theories Learning Theory Transition of Traditional Skills Go to the Conversation Digital Environments Physical Environments Hybrid Environments Topical Centers with Curriculum Libraries are in the Knowledge Business therefore the Conversation Business mission librarians improvesociety facilitating knowledge creation communities such as anexa astrategyis suchas such as such as such as areservedby such as asseenin asseenin has asseenin as seen in anexamplecaseis a key theory is arelevanttheoryis arelevanttheoryis arelevantareais a relevant area is therefore defines is composed of iscomp is composed of iscomposedof resultsin leadsto comesfrom exampleis explainedin
  15. 15. Hobohm: Community Building Boundary Issues Pressure for Participation Department of Justice view Core Skills Ambiguity is Essential for Professional Work LIS Education Importance of Action and Activism Internet Model Example User Information Services Application Builders Infrastructure Providers Shift in Innovation from Academy to Ubiquity Recognize a School as a Participatory Network From School to School of Thought Co-Learning Increase Friction in the Process Every Course has Symposia and Practica Curriculum of Communication and Change over Traditional Ideas of Leadership Need to Expand the Educational Ladder Bachelor of Information and Instructional Design Need for an Executive Doctorate Institute for Advanced Librarianship Idea Different Communities Librarians Serve Public Academic Government Special School Growing Importance of Two Way Infrastructure Transition of Traditional Skills Administration Information Seeking Go to the Conversation Embedded Librarians Digital Environments Physical Environments Hybrid Environments Truly Distributed Digital Library Ability to Work in Interdisciplinary Teams Relation to other Domains Communications Computer Science Humanities Information Science Para- professionals Importance of Technical Skills Education mission librarians improvesociety communities such as ceof anexamplecaseis akeyissueinschoolsis thishasanimpactin dealswith astrategyis suchas such as such as such as areservedby such as asseenin asseenin has asseenin as seen in anexamplecaseis iscomposedof is composed of iscomposedof iscomposedof resultsin resultsin resultsin leadsto a relevant area is areleva such as suchas suchas suchas suchas suchas suchas requiresknowledgeof includes includes requires requires includes requires changesbecause requires requires leadsto includes requires requires anexampleis anexampleis anexampleis must includes includes canbeachievedby suchas
  16. 16. Hobohm: Community Building
  17. 17. Hobohm: Community Building
  18. 18. Hobohm: Community Building
  19. 19. Hobohm: Community Building our potential is in the communities’ dreams • Bibliothekare sind nicht Lehrer, Journalisten oder Wissenschaftler, sondern Ermöglicher • Zugang: (access): • Zusammenbringen von Gesprächspartnern mit dem Ziel der Wissensbildung • Wissen: • Wissensaufbau (=Lernen) durch Gespräch/Austausch = Konversation • Möglichkeit der Teilnahme,Verstehen • Wissensaufbau nur durch Struktur = Curriculum • Umgebung: • eigene Umgebung der Communities • Vertrautheit (Zugang) und Zugehörigkeit (ownership) • Motivation: • intrinsisch (Unterstützung) • extrinsisch (Angebote) 19
  20. 20. Hobohm: Community Building Der Begriff „Community“ • Hype • Herkunft • Polarisierung • Charakteristika 20
  21. 21. Hobohm: Community Building González-Teruel,Aurora;González-Alcaide,Gregorio;Barrios,Maite;Abad- Garcia,María-Francisca(2015):Mappingrecentinformationbehavior research.Ananalysisofco-authorshipandco-citationnetworks.In: Scientometrics103(2),S.687–705.DOI:10.1007/s11192-015-1548-z.
  22. 22. Hobohm: Community Building Pirolli,Peter(2007):Informationforagingtheory.Adaptiveinteractionwith information.Oxford,NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress(Oxfordseriesin human-technologyinteraction).
  23. 23. Hobohm: Community Building Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft • Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936) • „Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft" (1881 ff) • Urszene der Soziologie • „Wiederentdeckung“ 2012 • „etwas organisch gewachsenes“ • moderne Gesellschaft: „gesetzmäßig-normaler Prozess des Zerfall der Gemeinschaft“ (quasiVorgriff auf: Adorno/Horkheimer: Dialektik der Aufklärung. 1944) 23 Tönnies,Ferdinand(2012):GemeinschaftundGesellschaft[1931].In: FerdinandTönnies:StudienzuGemeinschaftundGesellschaft.Hg.v. KlausLichtblau.Wiesbaden:SpringerVS(Klassikerder Sozialwissenschaften),S.231–255.
  24. 24. Hobohm: Community Building Soziale Systeme • Niklas Luhmann: Selektionsmechanismen von Kommunikation: • Information —> hat die Funktion, soziale Systeme zu höherer Komplexität und Interdependenz zu führen • Chance des Anschlusses • Realisierung (Ausdruck) 24 Veinot,TiffanyC.;Williams,Kate(2012):Followingthe"community"threadfrom sociologytoinformationbehaviorandinformatics.Uncoveringtheoretical continuitiesandresearchopportunities.In:JournaloftheAmericanSocietyfor InformationScienceandTechnology63(5),S.847–864.DOI:10.1002/asi.21653.
  25. 25. Hobohm: Community Building spatial turn / practice turn • Henri Lefèbvre: La Production de l’Espace, 1974 • Stadtplanung: der dritte Ort: (Ray Oldenburg/Edward Soja) • Philosophie: Michel Foucaults Heterotopien • Michel de Certeau: Die Kunst des Handelns, 1980 • Soziologie:Anthony Giddens, Pierre Bourdieu: Lebensstil / Lebenswelt • Psychologie/Pädagogik: Herbert Mead, Harold Garfinkel, LewVygotski, Yrjö Engeström: activity theory • Wissenschaftssoziologie: Karin Knorr-Cetina; Bruno Latour:Actor Network Theory 25 Huizing,Ard;Cavanagh,Mary(2011):Plantingcontemporarypracticetheoryin thegardenofinformationscience.In:InformationResearch16(4).Online verfügbarunterhttp://informationr.net/ir/16-4/paper497.html.
  26. 26. Hobohm: Community Building Communities of practice Jean Lave + Etienne Wenger (1991) „Situiertes Lernen“ • Domain (Wissensbereich): • Experten und Neulinge, Interessenkern, mit dem sich 
 die Mitglieder identifizieren, dynamische Wissensgestaltung • Community (Gemeinschaft): • keine Hierarchien, flexible Steuerung aber „Moderation“ nötig, persönliche und institutionelle Beziehungen und Begegnungen, Bindungen, Interaktionen und Entwicklung der individuellen und kollektiven Identitäten, Herausbildung eigenen Kommunikationsregeln • Practice (Praxis): • gemeinsam erarbeitetes Wissen zur Aufgabenbewältigung, wie z.B. Normen, Standards, Instrumente, Geschichten, Erfahrungen, Dokumente etc. Mitglieder praktizieren, verdeutlichen und teilen hier ihr Wissen um die Domain, Übertragung des impliziten Wissens durch aktive Teilnahme und Erzählen aus dem Wissensschatz 26 Wenger,Etienne(2000):Communitiesofpractice.Thekeytoknowledge strategy.In:EricL.Lesser,MichaelA.FontaineundJasonA.Slusher(Hg.): KnowledgeandCommunities.Boston:Butterworth-Heinemann,S.3–51. Quelle: InfoWiss Wiki
  27. 27. Hobohm: Community Building Communities • + / - räumlich gebunden • gründen auf Kommunikation • regeln Zugehörigkeit: InKlusion, Exklusion • definieren Bedeutung (Sinn) • gestalten Situationen • haben eigene Symbole, Regeln • sind erreichbar über „Boundary Objects“ • man kann in mehreren Communities leben • „peer group“, small worlds 27 Erwing Goffman:Wir alle spielen Theater (1959) Elreda Chatman: Life in a round (1999) Paul Jaeger, Gary Burnett: Information worlds (2010)
  28. 28. Hobohm: Community Building Informationsumgebungen • information grounds (Pettigrew/Fisher) (Orte) • information environments: ICT führen zu Inklusion und Exklusion (Gruppenbildung) (L.A. Lievrouw) (ICT + space) • information ecologies (Bonni Nardi) (Praktiken,Technologien) • informationelle cities (Manuel Castells) (spaces of flows vs place) 28
  29. 29. Hobohm: Community Building Bibliothek in der Kommune 29 Skot-Hansen,Dorte;HvenegaardRasmussen,Casper;Jochumsen, Henrik(2013):Theroleofpubliclibrariesinculture-ledurban regeneration.In:NewLibraryWorld114(1),S.7–19.
  30. 30. Hobohm: Community Building TU Delft
  31. 31. Hobohm: Community Building BnF, Paris
  32. 32. Hobohm: Community Building Jochumsen,Henrik;Skot-Hansen,Dorte;HvenegaardRasmussen,Casper(2014): Erlebnis,Empowerment,BeteiligungundInnovation:DieneueÖffentliche Bibliothek.In:OlafEigenbrodtundRichardStang(Hg.):Formierungenvon Wissensräumen.OptionendesZugangszuInformationundBildung.Berlin:De GruyterSaur(Ageofaccess?-GrundfragenderInformationsgesellschaft,3),S.67– 80,S.70
  33. 33. Hobohm: Community Building Pédauque,RogerT.(2006):Ledocumentàlalumièredunumérique. Caen:C&Féditions.
  34. 34. Hobohm: Community Building Funktion Art Austausch Modell Interface Vu Kreation materiell, rivalisierend Gut, Aneignung Verlag Autor, Leser Lu Gedächtnis immateriell, nicht- rivalisierend Zugang, Öffentliches Gut Bibliothek Gemein- schaft, Leser (pl.) Su Vermittlung immateriell, rivalisierend Aufmerk- samkeit, Raum-Zeit Spektakel (Dialog) Ankündiger, Zuschauer Salaün,Jean-Michel(2012):Vu,lu,su.Lesarchitectesdel'informationfaceà l'oligopoleduWeb.Paris:laDécouverte(Cahierslibres).
  35. 35. Hobohm: Community Building Boisot,Max(2000):IsThereaComplexityBeyondtheReachofStrategy? In:Emergence2(1),S.114–134.
  36. 36. Hobohm: Community Building LIS = tribe? • Godin, Seth (2008):Tribes.We need you to lead us. London: Penguin Books. • Helga Schwarz (2017): Das Deutsche Bibliotheksinstitut. Berlin: Simon • insuläre Bibliotheks-Welt? • unsere Boundary Objects ? 36
  37. 37. Hobohm: Community Building Methoden des „Outreach“?? • mobile Bibliothek • liaison librarian • embedded librarian • rent a librarian • Scouts? • Partizipation • …. ? 37
  38. 38. Hobohm: Community Building Community „Services“?? • Filialen (IGS) • Plattform (Geek@Cologne) • Co-Working Spaces? • Lebende Bücher?? • eigener Raum (Biblio Toyn) 38
  39. 39. Hobohm: Community Building Erfolgsfaktoren • Ganzheitliche Strategie • Kollaboration und Partizipation - Fokus auf den Menschen • Medienangebote bleiben zentraler Baustein! • auch Mitarbeiter mitnehmen: Bereitschaft zu neuem Denken fördern • Blick über den Tellerrand notwendig 39 Mittrowan, Andreas (2017): „From Collections to Connections“. Die öffentliche Bibliothek als Knotenpunkt der Kommune. 
 In: Bibliotheksdienst 51 (2), S. 169–180. DOI: 10.1515/bd-2017-0017.
  40. 40. Hobohm: Community Building Referenzen • Al-Aufi,Ali Saif (2015): Information Grounds Theory (1999, 2004). In: Mohammed Nasser Al-Suqri und Ali Saif Al-Aufi (Hg.): Information Seeking Behavior and Technology Adoption: 
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