Vad trafiken i stockholm kan lära dig om din utvecklingsprocess best ofdevsum 2011 11-14

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Denna session lär dig grunderna om köteori och Theory of Constraints. Du får lära dig hur du kan använda dessa för att inkrementellt och kontinuerligt förbättra din utvecklingsprocess. Genom att visa verkliga exempel från olika trafiksituationer i Stockholm, illustration och exempel från Kanban tavlor så kommer du att få se dess likheter.

Du kommer att lära dig hur du kan använda Theory of Constraints fokusera och lösa upp flaskhalsarna i din utvecklingsprocess.

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  • Every process has at least oneOne is always a number oneWhen you break it number two will take it’s place
  • Identify the constraint
  • Very busy, all the timeWork piles up in front of themPeople downstream idle
  • There are two different types of bottlenecks: - Capacity contraint resource - a resource limited by capacity, like a bottle - non instantly available resource - a resource that is not available all the time
  • There are two different types of bottlenecks: - Capacity contraint resource - a resource limited by capacity, like a bottle - non instantly available resource - a resource that is not available all the time
  • Exploit the constraint
  • No task switchingNo idle timeOnly work on highest priority itemsOnly value-adding workNo wasted effortBest working conditions.
  • Subordinate to the constraint
  • Only high quality inputDon’twastevaluecreated by bottleneckDrum-buffer-ropeSubordinates need slackShare work.
  • Training and toolsCoaching and mentoringTeam retrospectivesIndividual improvementWorkspaceimprovementProcess improvementPairingMore resources
  • Vad trafiken i stockholm kan lära dig om din utvecklingsprocess best ofdevsum 2011 11-14

    1. 1. Vad trafiken i kan lära dig om dinutvecklingsprocess Håkan Forss - hakan.forss@avegagroup.se - @hakanforss
    2. 2. Håkan Forss Lean/Agile Coach Håkan Forss - hakan.forss@avegagroup.se - @hakanforss
    3. 3. Little’s Law Work-in-ProcessCycle Time = Throughput
    4. 4. Little’s Law 121 min = 12 / min
    5. 5. Little’s Law 60,5 min= 12 / min
    6. 6. Little’s Law 242 min = 12 / min
    7. 7. 20 sec 40 sec• With less Work-In-Process – Shorter cycle time • Better time to market • Faster feedback – Makes problems visible faster – Are we working on the right things
    8. 8. Theory of Constraints
    9. 9. Improve
    10. 10. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    11. 11. Capacity = 6 Capacity = 4 Capacity = 6 Throughput = 4• You can never go faster than your bottleneck – The capacity at the bottleneck will dictate the capacity of the complete process
    12. 12. Capacity >= 4 Capacity = 4 Capacity = 6 Throughput = 4• You can never go faster than your bottleneck – As long as capacity in front of the bottleneck is equal to or grater than the bottleneck you will go as fast as your bottleneck – Full use of a higher capacity in front of the bottleneck will make cycle time go up
    13. 13. Capacity = 6 Capacity = 4 Capacity >= 4 Throughput = 4• You can never go faster than your bottleneck – As long as capacity is equal to or greater after the bottleneck you will go as fast as your bottleneck – Higher capacity after the bottleneck than at the bottleneck will not improve throughput over time
    14. 14. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    15. 15. • Bottleneck at the end of the process – Work is backing up – Slowing down the process – Cycle times goes up
    16. 16. • Bottleneck at the beginning/middle of the process – Work is drying up at the end of the process making workers idle
    17. 17. • Non-instant availability resource – Looks like a bottleneck
    18. 18. • Non-instant availability resource – A resource that is not available all the time – Has required capacity but is not instantly available
    19. 19. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    20. 20. • Exploit your bottleneck – Bottlenecks should only work on bottleneck activities – Do whatever you can to make your bottleneck 100% utilized – Try your hardest to avoid problems at you bottleneck – Time lost at the bottleneck is time forever lost for the process
    21. 21. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    22. 22. • Subordinate to your bottleneck – Do what you can to always have work for the bottleneck – Do what you can to avoid passing defects on to the bottleneck – Sub optimal performance for non bottlenecks can be accepted
    23. 23. • Subordinate to your bottleneck – Try to use you over capacity to alleviate the bottleneck of non bottleneck work – Sub optimal performance for non bottlenecks can be accepted
    24. 24. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    25. 25. • Elevate your bottleneck – Expand the capacity at the bottleneck – Expensive as it usually will use bottleneck resources
    26. 26. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    27. 27. 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 5. If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, Go back to step 1Don’t allow inertia to cause a system constraint.
    28. 28. Balance demand to flow
    29. 29. Wishful thinking Demand = 6 Capacity = 4• Balance demand to flow – Capacity at the bottleneck will dictate the capacity of the process – Balance your demand to a continuous flow through the bottleneck – Higher demand than capacity will increase cycle time
    30. 30. • Balance demand to flow – An even flow can stabilize the process – Low work-in-process • Keeps cycle time down • Makes bottlenecks visible faster
    31. 31. • Slow down to go faster – Slowing down can stabilize the process flow – A stable process can go faster
    32. 32. Classes of Service
    33. 33. • Classify work in different classes of service – Use for prioritization of work – Help manage flow – Common classes: Standard, Expedite, Fixed Delivery Date, Intangible
    34. 34. Keep work-in-progress low• Keeps cycle time down• Makes bottlenecks visible fasterUse Theory of Constraints to improve• Use five focusing steps to improve• Eliminate one bottleneck at a timeBalance demand to flow• You can’t go faster than the bottleneck• Use work-in-progress limitsClassify work in different classes of service• Use for prioritization of work• Help to manage flow
    35. 35. Håkan ForssMail: hakan.forss@avegagroup.seTwitter: @hakanforssBlog: http://hakanforss.wordpress.com/
    36. 36. Recommended reading Håkan Forss - hakan.forss@avegagroup.se - @hakanforss

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