Wastes recycling industry,
Examples of 4R(reduce,recycle,reuse,replace)
Cheung Wan Ming(3)
Yip Kit Yu (16)
Why the wastes recycling isWhy the wastes recycling is
important to Hong Kong?important to Hong Kong?
Hong Kong ‘s waste problem
• Hong Kong, like many developed places, has
seen its waste loads grow as its economy has
grown. Municipal waste loads have increased
an average of about three per cent per year
• The per capita level of domestic waste has
risen from 0.95 kilograms per person per
day in 1990, to 1.11 kilograms in 2002.
•About 6million ton of waste dumped in landfills
– 55% (3.4million ton) municipal solid waste
–38% construction and demolition waste
– 7% other wastes (sludge, animal carcass)
•The 3 Strategic Landfills (Nim Wan, Tseung
Kwan O and Ta Kwu Ling ) are filling up fast
– Remaining capacity: around 110million tonnes
– Expected to last another 10-15 years
– Annual operating cost = HK$420 Million
• The continued growth in waste loads means
Hong Kong is running out of landfill space far
earlier than expected.
• The remaining landfill space will last only for 7
to 11 years if waste levels continue to increase
at current levels.
• We will face a crisis in the next decade of
having nowhere to put the thousands of tonnes
of waste thrown away each day.
* Thus, Hong Kong needs
to regenerate several
different types of waste
in order to reduce the
Solid waste transfer & disposal in Hong Kong
What is recycling?What is recycling?
• It includes recovery and utilization
• The collection of waste materials that can be
• The processing of diverted waste into new and
useful materials and products
The importance of recycling of
• Reduce the rate of depletion of
• Reduce the air pollution
• Reduce the needs for landfill sites
• Save energy used in some process
Waste recycling industry in
• According to the Environmental
Protection Department ,there
are about 300 active waste
collectors and 50 waste
recyclers in Hong Kong.
Waste recycling industry in HK
1)Recycling of Municipal solid waste
• comprises solid waste from households,
commercial and industrial sources.
• (eg: plastic, paper, aluminium)
– 2.38million tonnes (36 % of the total
generated) were recovered
– 9 % recycled locally
– 91 % exported to the Mainland & other
• The waste recycling
industry of the solid
wastesin HK is small.
Recycling of paper
• In 2002,about 58% of the waste paper
generated in Hong Kong Was recovered.
• They were either recycled locally or exported
to China for recycling.
• 18 % of the wastes are recycled locally
82 % of them are exported to the Mainland
or other countries
• In Hong Kong, there were about 156 private
waste paper collectors and 2 paper recyclers
Recycling of metals
• Metal wastes are classified into 2 types:
ferrous metals (eg: alloy steel scrap)
non ferrous metal ( eg:aluminium ,lead)
In 2002, about 91% of the ferrous metal
wastes and 76%of the non-ferrous metals
wastes were recovered.
There are about 137 ferrous and 177 non-
ferrous wastes metal dealers in Hong Kong.
Recycling of plastics
• In 2002 ,only 38% of the plastic wastes
because there is very limited re-
processing of post-consumer plastics due
to the complicated processing
• 3 % of the wastes are recycled locally
• 97 % of them are exported to the
Mainland or other countries
• An internationally recognized coding
system of plastics has been adopted
to facilitate separation and
treatments of plastic wastes.
Types & quantities of Municipal solid waste
recycled by the waste recycling industry in
HK in 2003
Statistics of Municipal Solid Waste Recovered
Key players in MSW
recovery in HK
EPD; green groups;
Medium or small
Example: The Process for Municipal Solid Waste
2)Recycling of construction and demolition waste
． Materials arising from construction,
-Inert materials: rock, debris, rubble,
excavated soil, concrete, etc
-Non-inert substances :bamboo, timber, paper,
vegetation, packaging waste, organics, etc.
． Recyclable C&D Material
-Reusable / Recyclable Materials
-eg: soil, concrete, rock, asphalt, etc.
Alternative Uses of C&D Materials
• road sub-base
• drainage works
• for energy
• fibre board
Solid Waste (eg: construction and demolition
waste) Disposal in 1998-2002
Government measures to enhance the waste reduction
• the government has established a Waste Reduction
Committee which works out measures for reduction
of waste production.
• The food and Environmental Hygiene Department has
provided recycling bins for different types of wastes
in around 200public areas
• The Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation
Department has provided 300 recycling bins for
BBQ forks in over 100 recreational sites
• supports the local waste recycling industry
(B) Difficulties faced by recycling
- No incentive for building constructors to
separate and recycle waste
- The public awareness of the importance of
environment protection is low
- Small flat sizes in Hong Kong restrict waste
separation and storage
- Relatively small-scale recycling enterprises
discourages investment on advanced waste
• What can we do to reduce the solid wastes?
Reduce ,recycle ,reuse and replace
* Reduce *
• Simplify your life as much as
possible. Only keep belongings that
you use/enjoy on a regular basis. By
making the effort to reduce what
you own, you will naturally purchase
less/create less waste in the future.
• Use less paper.
• Reduce the use of over-bleached tissue paper which may
contain dioxins. .
• Cut down on gift wrapping paper.
• Separate waste paper at home and in office for paper
• Use less plastic bags and use durable bags or baskets.
Plastic bags take years to decompose.
• Encourage the use of reusable dishes and utensils in fast
• Minimize the number of document copies.
• Use blank side of used paper to make note pads.
• Reuse envelopes.
• Use pencils for drafting rather than ball pens.
• Reduce the use of fluorescent pens. You can always
underline your text.
• Bring your own mug to office. Avoid using paper cups
* Recycle *
• To reduce the amount of raw
materials used to make products
and the amount of wastes that
needs to be landfilled.
• Waste Paper Recycling Program in offices and
- White office paper:
- offset paper, scratch paper, copy paper ,
Coloured paper ,Photo copies
-Computer printout paper
-Standard business cards
-Brochures and Newsletters (if not on glossy
• Waste Recycling Program in residential
plastic, glass, aluminium
Other wastes can also be recycled:
tin cans, scrap metal,
* Reuse *
• Just don’t throw the wastes away without
• Save reusable decoration e.g. plastic Christmas
treesetc. for next year
• Donate unwanted gifts to needy
• reuse the paper which has been used on one side only for
• Donate your old clothes and other products to charity
• Pick up books from your local library or used book store
• Donate your old computer equipment
* Replace *
• New materials are used to replace the
-Replace your newspaper and magazines with
the online news (save the papers)
-Replace durable utensils with disposable
foam-blow plastic containers, polystyrene
utensils, paper cups and disposable wooden
-Use handkerchiefs to replace the tissues
• Advanced-level Biology for Hong Kong 2