2 h. relation & intr-pers skill -ob-23


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2 h. relation & intr-pers skill -ob-23

  1. 1. <ul><li>Human Relations </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skill </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>People have varieties of needs irrespective of one’s status, age, achievements </li></ul><ul><li>In order to fulfill their needs they have learnt to organize themselves into group. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly organization has many objectives to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize profit </li></ul><ul><li>Quality product and service </li></ul><ul><li>Compete with other industries </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure employees’ welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Lets look at various angles to Human Relations. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with the interaction of people in a work situation that helps to generate team spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>It explains behavior of individuals in the working system. </li></ul><ul><li>It sets effective group working to satisfy both organizational goals and personal needs. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes people work together effectively. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historical Development of Human Relations and Organizational Behavior. <ul><li>Prior to Industrial revolution, people worked in small groups and had simple work relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>They were however subjected to unhealthy working condition, and scarcity of resource, so that they hardly had any job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>During early industrial revolution; no sign of improvement, but gradually led to job satisfaction and improvement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A. Scientific management movement: (1900s) – (Frederick W. Taylor) </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to bring about; </li></ul><ul><li>* improvement in working condition, </li></ul><ul><li>* enhancing productivity, </li></ul><ul><li>* sound mgmt practices, </li></ul><ul><li>* division of labor, </li></ul><ul><li>* worker training, </li></ul><ul><li>* different piece rate system. </li></ul><ul><li>(First attempt to improve working condition) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>B. Research Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>* (1920s and 30s) many industrial experiment done. </li></ul><ul><li>* (1940s and 50s) number of research project, conducted to understand human behavior at work. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Inter-disciplinary Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>* Various research studied carried out on human relations. (the idea was to understand social and psychological problems of industrial workers- because human recourse is instrumental in improving organizational performance). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>D. The Mature Outlook: </li></ul><ul><li>* The study on OB took in-depth attention to add maturity to organizational practice. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Emergence of Human Relation & OB: </li></ul><ul><li>* Many theories of human behavior were tested in real life situation under controlled experimental condition. </li></ul><ul><li>* The attempt was made on human behavior to solve complex organizational problems. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Contribution of other disciplines to Human Relations and Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Most significant contributors are; </li></ul><ul><li>a. Psychology: It helps explain, measure and remodel human behavior. (psychologists study individual human behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Social Psychology: This field provide insight in; </li></ul><ul><li>> attitude change, </li></ul><ul><li>> communication pattern, </li></ul><ul><li>> group processes, </li></ul><ul><li>> group decision making. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>c. Industrial Psychology: It has contributed to OB by providing a better understanding of; </li></ul><ul><li>> individual difference </li></ul><ul><li>> various process of selection & placement </li></ul><ul><li>> influence of physical environment on human performance </li></ul><ul><li>> accident and safety </li></ul><ul><li>> Morale </li></ul><ul><li>> Mental health </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>d. Sociology: Study on society and social behavior. Major contribution to; </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Work teams </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Formal org structure </li></ul><ul><li>Org culture </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Power, conflict and inter-group behavior. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>e. Anthropology: (study of mankind) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of cultural factor on OB </li></ul><ul><li>Org culture & environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior of people from different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative norms </li></ul><ul><li>f. Economics: (study of suitable option, policies that affect the economic growth of a firm) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and consumption of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of decision and choice </li></ul><ul><li>g. Political science: (involves the study of group behavior within a particular political environment) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1 – Behavioural Science Contribution Unit of analysis Output Psychology Individual Sociology Group Dynamics, Work Teams, Power Communication, Conflict, Intergroupk Behaviour Formal organization theory Organizational Technology Organizational change and culture Behavioural change, Attitude change, Communication, Group Processes Group Decision making Comparative values Comparative attitudes Cross-cultural analysis Organizational culture Organizational environment Learning Motivation Personality Perception Training Leadership Effectiveness Job Satisfaction Attitude measurement Employee selection Work design Work stress Conflict Intraorganizational Politics Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science Group Organization System Study of Organiza- Tional Behavi- our
  13. 13. <ul><li>Significance of Human Relations </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Behavior </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A. Development of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid change in business environment </li></ul><ul><li>More work stress and frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skill acquirement </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing ability </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for training </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and provision for opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of inter-personal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement of greater managerial skills </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>B. Organizational Performance: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge x Skill = Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude x Situation = Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability x Motivation = Potential Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Human performance x Resources = Organizational performance </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>C. Research Foundation For OB: </li></ul><ul><li>Various research studies conducted that create a strong base and served as landmark in the field of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Hawthorne Studies: Case examples (exhibit- OB case) </li></ul><ul><li>i. Illumination experiments </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Relay assembly room experiments </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Bank wiring observation room experiments </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. Theory “X and Theory “Y”: (Douglas McGregor) </li></ul>Theory X * Work is inherently distasteful to most people * Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed * Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems * Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels * Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives Theory Y * Work is as natural as play if the conditions are favorable * Self-control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals * The capacity for creativity is spread throughout organizations * Motivation occurs at affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization levels, not just security, physiological levels * People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated
  18. 18. <ul><li>3. Theory “Z”: (William Ouchi) combination of American and Japanese mgmt practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Practices : </li></ul><ul><li>> Believe in providing lifetime employment </li></ul><ul><li>> Don’t fire unless crime committed </li></ul><ul><li>> More time give to understand co’s functioning before promoted </li></ul><ul><li>> Therefore promotions are slow </li></ul><ul><li>> Employees are trained in all aspects of org functioning </li></ul><ul><li>> They believe in taking collective decision and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>> Better relationships between org and employees, suppliers and creditors based on trust / goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>> Mgmt’ concerns for family & much facilities extended to them </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>American Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term employment is more common </li></ul><ul><li>Co tend to downsize if downturn in economy or employees’ performance is dissatisfactory. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in going fast track </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit control process and system </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined rules and policies to regulate employee behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual </li></ul><ul><li>Manager takes decision for entire group </li></ul><ul><li>Americans are only concerned about employee’s work and professional life. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>William Ouchi recommended American companies to make changes in HR Mgmt. </li></ul><ul><li>They should offer more secure and better career prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>They should involve employees in decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>They should emphasize team sprit </li></ul><ul><li>They should recognize individual’s contribution to team effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and their subordinates should have mutual respect for each other. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Other prominent studies are: </li></ul><ul><li>Lippitt and White Leadership Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The coach and French Study. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ahmedabad Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Study </li></ul><ul><li>(Annexure – OB studies) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Trend and prospects in OB <ul><li>Reduction in number of middle mgmt personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing use of computer & Information Tech. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry of women & minority in the workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between mgmt and unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative work approaches special needs of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>i. change in composition of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Spread of globalization </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Change in workplace values and ethics </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Change in employee-employer relationship. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Reading and references </li></ul>