05974812

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05974812

  1. 1. Study of Wormhole Attack Detecting Based on Local Connectivity Information in Wireless Sensor Networks Binxiao Yu and Tongqiang Li College of Information & Electronic and Engneering Zhejiang Gongshang University Hangzhou, ChinaAbstract—Wormhole attack is a severe security threat to wirelesssensor networks, and it is commonly considered challenging to Hu [1]detect and prevent because of its independence of MAC protocolsand immunity to cryptology techniques. Nearly all the existingdefenses have impractical requirements on the network, such asdirectional antenna, specialized GPS unit, or even tight timesynchronization, which means previous approaches may not haveperfect applicability in practice. In this paper, we present our Wang Zhangprimary research for the effect of wormhole attack on networktopology, or local connectivity information, and develop both [2][3]centralized and distributed algorithms for detecting wormhole Huattack in wireless sensor networks. The approaches proposed in [4]this work not only require neither global topology information Khalil LiteWorpnor specialized hardware, but also can minimize wormholerelated security risk by discriminating normal neighbors from [5]illusive ones and removing the latter from neighbor lists. As onlyabnormal nodes get involved in detection procedures, comparedwith other approaches, sensor nodes in our schemes consume W.much less energy and algorithm complexity get further reduced.We present simulation results for models with different Wang B. Bhargavaparameters, and show that the algorithms are able to detectwormhole attacks with a 100% detection and 0% false alarmprobabilities using proper parameters. [6] Maheshwari UDGKeywords-sensor networks; security; wormhole attack; connectivity [7]information UDG UDG Dezun Dong I. [8] 100% 0% MAC 978-1-4244-9763-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 3585
  2. 2. II. SZ (S X S Y ) = (S Z S E1 ) S E2 = SZ Z X Y S E2 ⊂ SA. Z - III.B. K ab D K ab πr 2 N / AD r N A X Y A. 0 ≤ SX SY ≤ D SX SY [9] X Y 2r SX SY ≈ 0 1) E1 E2 T = {v S v > K ab D, v ∈ S } S X E1 X 2) E2 SX = SX SE2 Ti = {v v ∈ T ∧ ∃w ∈ T ∧ (v, w) ∈ C}, i = 1,2,..., m Ti > K ab D C T SX = SX S E2 ≥ S X SX = 2SX 3) Ti Pw = {v w ∈ Ti ∧ v ∈ S w ∧ S v < K ab D} X Y Ti Pw W SX S Y = (S X S E2 ) (S Y S E1 ) = S X SY ≈ 2D 4) Ti W V SV SW X Y 5) SV SW < K ab D SX S Y = (S X S E2 ) (S Y S E 2 ) = (S X SY ) S E2 Ti D ≤ S E2 ≤ S S ≤ D + S E2 3 X Y SV SW V W D D 6) Ti X SV SW ⊂ S X X Y 2r SX SY = Φ S X − (S V SW ) = S X SX S Y = (S X SY ) S E2 = S E2 SX (S V SW ) = S X 7) 3 ZX Y S − (S Z X S Y ) = (S Z S E2 ) − S E2 = SZ 2 Ti Z X Y 3586
  3. 3. B. 3) ZR ZR1) a) Z R ZI S ZR S ZI S ZR S ZI < K ab Da) S ZR − (S ZR S ZI ) = S ZR ZR Rnab) Rna {ID ZI , IDZR , S ZR S ZI } Rna Rna b) X ID ID X ∈ S ZR S ZI X ZI ZR {ID, Rna } Rna S X (S ZR S ZI )= S X {ID,0} X S X − (S ZR S ZI )= S X Rna ID ZI S ZR S ZI = S E E ZI ZR S ZR S ZI ≈02) S ZR S ZI ≤ K ab D ZI ZR 2ra) Z I {ID ZI , S ZI , ID R , S ZI SR } R ZI IV. ZI ZIb) ZI S ZI SR ID R K abc) ZI X Rna 10m 25m 8 3 ZI S ZI SX 1 S ZI SR ID X {ID ZI , S ZI , ID X , S ZI SX }d) X Rna S ZI S R ID R ZI ID ZR 1. 3587
  4. 4. 0 100% 6 1.8 100% 0 [3 4] 2 V. 2. REFERENCES 4 [1] Y. Hu, A. Perrig and D. Johnson. “Packet leashes: A defense against 100% 0 wormhole attacks in wireless networks,” In Proceedings of the Twenty- Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Pittsburgh, PA, USA: IEEE, vol.3, 2003, pp. 1976-1986. [2] W. Wang, B. Bhargava, Y. Lu, and X. Wu, “Defending against 100% wormhole attacks in mobile ad hoc networks,” WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 3 483-503. [3] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, W. Lou, and Y. Fang, “Location-based compromise- tolerant security mechanisms for wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, 2006, pp. 247- 260. [4] L. Hu and D. Evans, “Using directional antennas to prevent wormhole attacks,” In Proceedings of the Eleventh Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, 2004, pp. 131-141. [5] I. Khalil, S. Bagchi, and N. B. Shroff, “LITEWORP: A Lightweight Countermeasure for the Wormhole attack in multihop wireless network,” In International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2005, pp. 612-621. [6] W. Wang and B. Bhargava, “Visualization of wormholes in sensor networks,” In Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Wireless Security, Philadelphia, PA, USA: ACM Press, 2004, pp. 51-60. [7] Ritesh Maheshwari, Jie Gao, Samir R. Das, “Detecting Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks Using Connectivity Information,” In Proc. of the 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM07). Anchorage, AK, 2007, pp. 107-115. 3. [8] Dezun Dong, Mo Li, Yunhao Liu, Xiang-yang Li, and Xiangke Liao, "Topological Detection on Wormholes in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (IEEE ICNP), Princeton, New Jersey, USA, October 3 2009, pp. 314-323. [9] Yu Binxiao, Xu Gang, and Li Tongqiang, “Logic topology based method for wormhole attack detection,” Journal of Southeast University (Natural Science Edition), Sept. 2008. Vol.38 Sup(I), pp. 73-76 (In 100% Chinese).[3 6] 100% 3588

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