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Politics of Uzbekistan


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Published in: Travel, News & Politics

Politics of Uzbekistan

  1. 1. Benedict (Viktor) Gombocz
  2. 2. Geography of Uzbekistan Location: Central Asia, between Afghanistanand Kazakhstan Area: Total: 447,400 sq km Country comparison to the world: 57 Land: 425,400 sq km Water: 22,000 sq km Area – comparative: Slightly bigger thanCalifornia Land boundaries: Total: 6,221 km Border countries: Afghanistan 137 km,Kazakhstan 2, 203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km,Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked – note:Uzbekistan comprises the southern part ofthe Aral Sea, with which it shares a 420 kmshoreline)
  3. 3. Physical Map of Uzbekistan
  4. 4. Religion in Uzbekistan Islam is Uzbekistan‟s biggest religion;in 2009, 96.3% of the populationidentified themselves as Muslims.
  5. 5. Religion statistics Muslim (majority Sunni) 88% Eastern Orthodox 9% Other 3%
  6. 6. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Overview Uzbekistan‟s politics function in the structure of a presidential republic; the President of Uzbekistanserves as both head of state and head of government. The government exercises executive power; legislative power is vested in both the government andthe two parliament chambers: the Legislative Chamber and Senate. Positions in the Uzbek government are mostly reliant on clan membership and politics, instead of onparty membership. The movement to economic improvement in Uzbekistan has not been in line with movement topolitical improvement; instead, the government of Uzbekistan has increased its hold sinceindependence (25 December 1991), increasingly attacking opposition groups. Whereas the names have changed, the institutes of government are still similar to those that existedbefore the Soviet Union fell. The government has defended its control of public assembly, opposition parties, and the media byhighlighting the need for stability and a steady measure to change in the transitional period, citing theconflict and chaos in the other ex-Soviet states (most realistically, neighboring Tajikistan); thismeasure has found credibility among a large share of the Uzbek population, but such a positionmay, in the long run, not be sustainable. In spite of the trappings of institutional reform, the early years of independence saw more resistancethan tolerance of the institutional reforms needed for democratic change to begin. Whatever initial movement toward democracy existed in Uzbekistan in its first days of independenceappears to have been overcome by the inertia of the remaining Soviet-like strong centralizedleadership.
  7. 7. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Government Capital (and largest city): Tashkent Official languages: Uzbek Recognized regional languages:Karakalpak Demonym: Uzbek Government: Unitary presidentialstate President: Islam Karimov Prime Minister: Shavkat Mirziyoyev Legislature: Supreme Assembly Upper house: Senate Lower house: Legislative Chamber
  8. 8. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Executive branchMain office holders Electing the President Office: President Name: Islam Karimov Party:○ Communist Party of the Uzbek SSR (1990-1991)○ People‟s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan(1991-2007)○ Uzbekistan Liberal Democratic Party (2007-present) Since: 24 March 1990 Office: Prime Minister Name: Shavkat Mirziyoyev Party: Uzbekistan National RevivalDemocratic Party Since: 11 December 2003 The president is elected through popular vote for a seven-year term in elections that cannot be seen as free; FreedomHouse ranks Uzbekistan as absolutely not free in bothpolitical institutes and civil society. The president nominates the PM and deputy ministers;consequently, the executive branch exercises almost allauthority. The judiciary has no independence and the legislature onlyconvenes a few days per year; it has almost no power toshape laws. The president chooses and replaces regional governors. President Islam Karimov‟s first term was extended under theterms of a December 1995 referendum. On 27 January 2002, another referendum took place toextend Karimov‟s term again; the referendum passed and histerm was extended, by act of the parliament, to December2007. Most global spectators declined to take part in the procedureand did not recognize the results, rejecting them as fallingshort of basic standards. In the 2007 presidential election, Karimov had himself re-elected for a theoretically unlawful third term.
  9. 9. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Legislative branch The Supreme Assembly (also the NationalAssembly), or the Oliy Majlis, is made up of150 members (elected to a five-year term) inthe Legislative Chamber, and 100 Senatemembers (of whom 84 are elected at thesessions of district, regional, and citydelegates; the president nominates the other16).
  10. 10. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Parliamentary parties Uzbekistan Liberal Democratic Party People‟s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan National Revival DemocraticParty Justice Social Democratic Party Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan
  11. 11. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Banned parties Unity Erk/Liberty Democratic Party Hizb ut-Tahrir Birdamlik (Solidarity) Democratic Movement
  12. 12. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Former parties Communist Party of Uzbekistan Erk
  13. 13. Uzbekistan‟s political system:Administrative divisions Uzbekistan is split into 12 viloyatlar (singular– viloyat), one self-governing republic*(respublikasi) and one city** (shahri): Andijon Viloyati (Andijan) Buxoro Viloyati (Bukhara) Farg‟ona Viloyati (Fergana) Jizzax Viloyati (Jizzakh) Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch) Namangan Viloyati (Namangan) Navoiy Viloyati (Navoi) Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi) Qaraqalpagstan Respublikasi* (Nukus) Samarqand Viloyati (Samarkand) Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston) Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz) Toshkent Shahri** (Tashkent) Toshkent Viloyati note: administrative divisions have the samenames as their administrative centers(exclusions and alternate spellings have theadministrative center name following inparentheses)
  14. 14. Islam Karimov Born in Samarkand on 30 January 1938. 1st and current President of Uzbekistan; assumed office on 24 March1990. Was the leader of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan from 23 June1989-29 December 1991. Was placed in an orphanage in Samarkand when he was an infant;grew up to study economics and engineering at school. Became an official in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, andthe party‟s First Secretary in Uzbekistan in 1989. Became President of the Uzbek SSR on 24 March 1990; his electionto the Uzbek branch of the CPSU was a result of the failure of hispredecessor, Rafik Nishanov, to put down inter-ethnic conflicts andinstability in the Fergana region. Declared Uzbekistan‟s independence on 31 August 1991;subsequently won the first presidential election on 29 December1991, with 86% of the vote. The election was believed to be unfair, with state-run propagandaand an inaccurate vote count, despite participation from the opposingnominee and leader of the Erk (Freedom) Party, Muhammad Salih. Allowed the involvement of the opposition groups Birlik (“Unity”) andthe Islamic Renaissance Party until his attempts to strengthen powerover Shukrullo Mirsaidov, an ex-elite of the Communist Party whoinitially backed Karimov‟s rise to the Party presidency. The period of political thaw was short-lived; Karimov began toobscure the registration procedure of opposition parties duringelections. As Birlik grew in strength as a “popular movement”, it was forbiddenthe ability to register as a “political party” without the needed 60,000signatures. The Karimov government permitted Birlik one day to collect thesesignatures, of which 25,000 they denied. Permanently resorted to authoritarian approaches to prevent anysignificant opposition.
  15. 15. Shavkat Mirziyoyev Born in Jizzakh Province on 30December 1957. 3rd and current PM of Uzbekistansince 11 December 2003; replacedthe dismissed PM, O‟tkir Sultonov. Ergash Shoismatov is his deputy. Was governor (Hakim) of JizzakhProvince from 1996-2001, andgovernor of Samarqand Province2001 until he was nominated asPM.
  16. 16. Uzbekistan Liberal DemocraticParty Political party in Uzbekistan; considered a left ofcentre party. Won 41/120 seats in the 2004-2005 legislativeelection, and 55/150 seats in the 2009-2010Uzbekistani parliamentary election. Announced on 4 October 2007 that that itproposed nominating President Islam Karimov asits nominee in the 2007 presidential election,even though many believed Karimov was by lawineligible to run for another term. Karimov was unanimously selected as theLiberal Democratic Party‟s presidential nomineeat a party convention in Tashkent on November6; he accepted the nomination.
  17. 17. People‟s Democratic Party ofUzbekistan Political party in Uzbekistan; founded on 1November 1991 after the Communist Party ofUzbekistan chose to sever its relations with theCommunist Party of the Soviet Union, changingits name to its current name. Was led by President Islam Karimov from 1991-2007. Won 28/120 seats in the 24 December 2004 and9 January 2005 legislative elections.
  18. 18. National Revival Democratic Party Right of centre political party in Uzbekistan. One of Uzbekistan‟s four „officially sanctioned‟ parties,together with the People‟s Democratic Party ofUzbekistan, the Uzbekistan Liberal Democratic Party,and the Justice Social Democratic Party. Was founded in 1995 with a mostly intellectualmembership; has a relatively big amount of femalemembers. Supports a strong sense of Uzbek culture and desiresa cultural renewal, at the same time looking toestablish closer ties with other Central Asian states. Opposes Russia‟s influence in Central Asia; attackedthe establishment of the Eurasian EconomicCommunity on this basis. Took 11/120 seats during the 24 December 2004 and9 January 2005 legislative election; their runner for the2007 presidential election was HushedDustmuhammad. Declared its objective of merging with the Self-Sacrifice National Democratic Party in 2008 as the twoparties shared mutual ambitions; the new group haspreserved the National Revival Democratic Partyname.
  19. 19. Tashkent
  20. 20. Samarkand
  21. 21. The End