Overview of Slovenia’s political system Politics of Slovenia are exercised in a frame of parliamentary representative democratic republic, by which PM of Slovenia is head of government and also head of multi-party system. Executive power is practiced by Government of Slovenia. Legislative power is significant part of Slovenia’s national assembly, with minor part in National Council. Judiciary of Slovenia is free from executive and legislature. Slovenia has little political instability. According to France Bučar, one of the founding fathers of Slovenian democracy and independence, democracy in Slovenia is not very strong, with power laying in the hands of a few people, as in the time of Socialist Republic of Slovenia prior to 1991; the Parliament is only an official institution.
Constitution of Slovenia Adopted 23 December 1991, following independence; became effective same day.
Executive branch President is elected through popular vote for term of five years. After National Assembly elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is normally nominated for post of PM by president and elected by National Assembly. Council of Ministers is appointed by PM and elected by National Assembly.
Legislative branch Slovenia’s National Assembly (Državni zbor) is composed of 90 members, all of whom are elected to term of four years; 88 members are elected through proportional representation using D’Hondt formula, while two members are elected by ethnic minorities using Borda count. President of National Assembly of Slovenia is elected by deputies, requiring 46 votes for election; this position is currently held by Gregor Virant, who defeated his opponent Maša Kociper with 52 votes against Kociper’s 38. Virant was backed by Slovenian Democratic Party, Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia, New Slovenia – Christian People’s Party, Slovenian People’s Party and his own party, Gregor Virant’s Civic List.
Government of Slovenia Capital (and largest city): Ljubljana Official language(s): Slovene* Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic President: Danilo Türk Prime Minister: Janez Janša Legislature: Parliament Upper house: National Council Lower house: National Assembly *Italian and Hungarian are recognized as official languages in residential areas of Italian or Hungarian ethnic minorities.
Danilo Türk Born 19 February 1952 in Maribor, Yugoslavia (now Slovenia). President of Slovenia since 23 December 2007. Also a lawyer and diplomat. Born in lower-middle-class family; his father died when Türk was young. Attended prestigious II. Gymnasium High School in Maribor. Enrolled in University of Ljubljana in 1971, studying law; earned M.A. with thesis on minority rights from University of Belgrade’s Law School. Became teaching aid at Faculty of Law in Ljubljana in 1978. Received his Ph.D. with thesis on principle of non- intervention in international law in 1982. Became director of Institute for International Law of University of Ljubljana in 1983. Focused on minority rights in subsequent years and worked with Amnesty International, reporting on human rights issues in Yugoslavia. Served as UN Special Rapporteur on Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights between 1986-1992. Returned to Slovenia in 1990 as member of Constitutional Commission of Slovenian National Assembly led by France Bučar and Peter Jambrek. Co-authored chapter of human rights in Slovenia’s constitution.
Janez Janša Born 17 September 1958 (birth name is Ivan Janša). PM of Slovenia since 10 February 2012. Also served as PM from 2004-2008. Leader of Slovenian Democratic Party since 1993. Was also Minister of Defense from 1990- 1994, holding that position during Slovenian War of Independence (June/July 1991). Born to Roman Catholic working-class family of Grosuplje; was named Janez (John) since his childhood. His father was a member of Slovenian Home Guard from Dobrova near Ljubljana and who fled Communist retaliation, due to his young age. Graduated from University of Ljubljana with degree in Defence Studies in 1982; became trainee in Defence Secretariate of Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Was also a member of League of Communists (Communist Party of Slovenia) and one of the leaders of its youth wing. Became president of Committee for Basic People’s Defence and Social Self-Protection of Alliance of Socialist Youth of Slovenia (ZSMS).
Parliament parties Positive Slovenia (Pozitivna Slovenija, PS) Slovenian Democratic Party (Slovenska demokratska stranka, SDS) Social Democrats (Socialni demokrati, SD) Civic List (Državljanska lista, DL) Slovenian People’s Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka, SLS) Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia (Demokratična stranka upokojencev Slovenije, DeSUS) New Slovenia – Christian People’s Party (Nova Slovenija – krščanska ljudska stranka, NSi)
Non-parliament parties (2011 election participants) Slovenian National Party (Slovenska nacionalna stranka, SNS) Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, LDS) Party for Sustainable Development of Slovenia (Stranka za trajnostni razvoj Slovenije, TRS) Youth Party – European Greens (Stranka mladih - Zeleni Evrope, SMS-Zeleni) Democratic Labour Party (Demokratična stranka dela, DSD) Zares Greens of Slovenia (Zeleni Slovenije) Movement for Slovenia (Gibanje za Slovenijo) Slovenian Party of Equal Opportunities (Stranka enakih možnosti Slovenije, SEM-Si) Forward Slovenia (Naprej Slovenija, NPS) Party of the Slovenian Nation (Stranka slovenskega naroda, SSN) Humana Party (Stranka Humana) Akacija
Non-parliament parties (2011 election non-participants) Union for the Will of the People (Zveza za voljo ljudstva, ZZVL) Slovenian Pirate Party (Piratska stranka Slovenije, PSS) Slovenia is Ours (Slovenija je naša, SJN) Christian Democratic Party (Krščansko-demokratska stranka, KDS) Christian Socialist Party (Krščanski socialisti Slovenije, KSS) Linden Tree (Lipa)
Former parties Active Slovenia (Aktivna Slovenija) League of Communists of Slovenia (Zveza komunistov Slovenije), better known as Communist Party of Slovenia (Komunistična partija Slovenije)
Positive Slovenia Centre-left political party, led by Zoran Janković. Founded 22 October 2011 under the name Zoran Jankovićs List – Positive Slovenia. Renamed Positive Slovenia during its second congress, held 21 January 2012. On 11 October 2011, Janković, mayor of Ljubljana at the time, announced that he would take part in the early parliamentary election, after fall of PM Borut Pahor’s government. The charter of the new party was created on 22 October 2011, where Janković unanimously was elected president. Among the party’s supporters were National Assembly members Mata Zanoškar, Cveta Zalokar Oražem, and Renata Brunskole. Milan Kučan (first president of Slovenia) also voiced his endorsement, mentioning Janković’s work as chairman of retailing chain, Mercator, and as mayor of Ljubljana. Among the objectives of the party that Janković stressed were a safe, social and effective state with 4% GDP growth rate and fewer than 3% budget deficit; Janković said that his objective was placing Slovenia among most successful nations in the world. Gained 28.51% of the vote, winning 28 parliamentary seats in early Slovenian parliamentary election of 2011, the largest of all participating political parties. Janković was most favored choice for PM as well as for Positive Slovenia-led coalition negotiations, mostly with Social Democrats (SD), Gregor Virant’s Civic List (LGV), and DeSUS. Original coalition agreement was achieved, but LGV left two days later and supported Slovenian Democratic Party-led centre-right government; Positive Slovenia was accordingly left in opposition.
Slovenian Democratic Party Conservative political party; known until 2003 as Social Democratic Party of Slovenia. Founded 16 February 1989. Led by Janez Janša, PM of Slovenia; currently Slovenia’s biggest coalition party. Acquired 26.19% of the vote during early 2011 Slovenian parliamentary election on 4 December 2011, thereby taking 26 seats in National Assembly. One of Slovenia’s two biggest parties, alongside centre-left opposition party Positive Slovenia. Also second-biggest party in National Assembly, with 26 MPs (28.8% of the total) as of 2011 election. Won 26.7% of the votes in 2009 European Parliament election, giving three out of eight seats from Slovenia. Member of European People’s Party (EPP), with its MEPs sitting in EPP Group in European parliament.