Politics of Slovenia


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Politics of Slovenia

  1. 1. Politics of Slovenia Benedict “Viktor” Gombocz
  2. 2. Overview of Slovenia’s political system Politics of Slovenia are exercised in a frame of parliamentary representative democratic republic, by which PM of Slovenia is head of government and also head of multi-party system. Executive power is practiced by Government of Slovenia. Legislative power is significant part of Slovenia’s national assembly, with minor part in National Council. Judiciary of Slovenia is free from executive and legislature. Slovenia has little political instability. According to France Bučar, one of the founding fathers of Slovenian democracy and independence, democracy in Slovenia is not very strong, with power laying in the hands of a few people, as in the time of Socialist Republic of Slovenia prior to 1991; the Parliament is only an official institution.
  3. 3. Constitution of Slovenia Adopted 23 December 1991, following independence; became effective same day.
  4. 4. Executive branch President is elected through popular vote for term of five years. After National Assembly elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is normally nominated for post of PM by president and elected by National Assembly. Council of Ministers is appointed by PM and elected by National Assembly.
  5. 5. Legislative branch Slovenia’s National Assembly (Državni zbor) is composed of 90 members, all of whom are elected to term of four years; 88 members are elected through proportional representation using D’Hondt formula, while two members are elected by ethnic minorities using Borda count. President of National Assembly of Slovenia is elected by deputies, requiring 46 votes for election; this position is currently held by Gregor Virant, who defeated his opponent Maša Kociper with 52 votes against Kociper’s 38. Virant was backed by Slovenian Democratic Party, Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia, New Slovenia – Christian People’s Party, Slovenian People’s Party and his own party, Gregor Virant’s Civic List.
  6. 6. Government of Slovenia Capital (and largest city): Ljubljana Official language(s): Slovene* Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic President: Danilo Türk Prime Minister: Janez Janša Legislature: Parliament Upper house: National Council Lower house: National Assembly *Italian and Hungarian are recognized as official languages in residential areas of Italian or Hungarian ethnic minorities.
  7. 7. Danilo Türk Born 19 February 1952 in Maribor, Yugoslavia (now Slovenia). President of Slovenia since 23 December 2007. Also a lawyer and diplomat. Born in lower-middle-class family; his father died when Türk was young. Attended prestigious II. Gymnasium High School in Maribor. Enrolled in University of Ljubljana in 1971, studying law; earned M.A. with thesis on minority rights from University of Belgrade’s Law School. Became teaching aid at Faculty of Law in Ljubljana in 1978. Received his Ph.D. with thesis on principle of non- intervention in international law in 1982. Became director of Institute for International Law of University of Ljubljana in 1983. Focused on minority rights in subsequent years and worked with Amnesty International, reporting on human rights issues in Yugoslavia. Served as UN Special Rapporteur on Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights between 1986-1992. Returned to Slovenia in 1990 as member of Constitutional Commission of Slovenian National Assembly led by France Bučar and Peter Jambrek. Co-authored chapter of human rights in Slovenia’s constitution.
  8. 8. Janez Janša Born 17 September 1958 (birth name is Ivan Janša). PM of Slovenia since 10 February 2012. Also served as PM from 2004-2008. Leader of Slovenian Democratic Party since 1993. Was also Minister of Defense from 1990- 1994, holding that position during Slovenian War of Independence (June/July 1991). Born to Roman Catholic working-class family of Grosuplje; was named Janez (John) since his childhood. His father was a member of Slovenian Home Guard from Dobrova near Ljubljana and who fled Communist retaliation, due to his young age. Graduated from University of Ljubljana with degree in Defence Studies in 1982; became trainee in Defence Secretariate of Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Was also a member of League of Communists (Communist Party of Slovenia) and one of the leaders of its youth wing. Became president of Committee for Basic People’s Defence and Social Self-Protection of Alliance of Socialist Youth of Slovenia (ZSMS).
  9. 9. Parliament parties Positive Slovenia (Pozitivna Slovenija, PS) Slovenian Democratic Party (Slovenska demokratska stranka, SDS) Social Democrats (Socialni demokrati, SD) Civic List (Državljanska lista, DL) Slovenian People’s Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka, SLS) Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia (Demokratična stranka upokojencev Slovenije, DeSUS) New Slovenia – Christian People’s Party (Nova Slovenija – krščanska ljudska stranka, NSi)
  10. 10. Non-parliament parties (2011 election participants) Slovenian National Party (Slovenska nacionalna stranka, SNS) Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, LDS) Party for Sustainable Development of Slovenia (Stranka za trajnostni razvoj Slovenije, TRS) Youth Party – European Greens (Stranka mladih - Zeleni Evrope, SMS-Zeleni) Democratic Labour Party (Demokratična stranka dela, DSD) Zares Greens of Slovenia (Zeleni Slovenije) Movement for Slovenia (Gibanje za Slovenijo) Slovenian Party of Equal Opportunities (Stranka enakih možnosti Slovenije, SEM-Si) Forward Slovenia (Naprej Slovenija, NPS) Party of the Slovenian Nation (Stranka slovenskega naroda, SSN) Humana Party (Stranka Humana) Akacija
  11. 11. Non-parliament parties (2011 election non-participants) Union for the Will of the People (Zveza za voljo ljudstva, ZZVL) Slovenian Pirate Party (Piratska stranka Slovenije, PSS) Slovenia is Ours (Slovenija je naša, SJN) Christian Democratic Party (Krščansko-demokratska stranka, KDS) Christian Socialist Party (Krščanski socialisti Slovenije, KSS) Linden Tree (Lipa)
  12. 12. Former parties Active Slovenia (Aktivna Slovenija) League of Communists of Slovenia (Zveza komunistov Slovenije), better known as Communist Party of Slovenia (Komunistična partija Slovenije)
  13. 13. Positive Slovenia Centre-left political party, led by Zoran Janković. Founded 22 October 2011 under the name Zoran Jankovićs List – Positive Slovenia. Renamed Positive Slovenia during its second congress, held 21 January 2012. On 11 October 2011, Janković, mayor of Ljubljana at the time, announced that he would take part in the early parliamentary election, after fall of PM Borut Pahor’s government. The charter of the new party was created on 22 October 2011, where Janković unanimously was elected president. Among the party’s supporters were National Assembly members Mata Zanoškar, Cveta Zalokar Oražem, and Renata Brunskole. Milan Kučan (first president of Slovenia) also voiced his endorsement, mentioning Janković’s work as chairman of retailing chain, Mercator, and as mayor of Ljubljana. Among the objectives of the party that Janković stressed were a safe, social and effective state with 4% GDP growth rate and fewer than 3% budget deficit; Janković said that his objective was placing Slovenia among most successful nations in the world. Gained 28.51% of the vote, winning 28 parliamentary seats in early Slovenian parliamentary election of 2011, the largest of all participating political parties. Janković was most favored choice for PM as well as for Positive Slovenia-led coalition negotiations, mostly with Social Democrats (SD), Gregor Virant’s Civic List (LGV), and DeSUS. Original coalition agreement was achieved, but LGV left two days later and supported Slovenian Democratic Party-led centre-right government; Positive Slovenia was accordingly left in opposition.
  14. 14. Slovenian Democratic Party Conservative political party; known until 2003 as Social Democratic Party of Slovenia. Founded 16 February 1989. Led by Janez Janša, PM of Slovenia; currently Slovenia’s biggest coalition party. Acquired 26.19% of the vote during early 2011 Slovenian parliamentary election on 4 December 2011, thereby taking 26 seats in National Assembly. One of Slovenia’s two biggest parties, alongside centre-left opposition party Positive Slovenia. Also second-biggest party in National Assembly, with 26 MPs (28.8% of the total) as of 2011 election. Won 26.7% of the votes in 2009 European Parliament election, giving three out of eight seats from Slovenia. Member of European People’s Party (EPP), with its MEPs sitting in EPP Group in European parliament.
  15. 15. Ljubljana
  16. 16. The End (Konec)