Politics of Laos

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Politics of Laos

  1. 1. POLITICS OF LAOS BENEDICT GOMBOCZ
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • THE POLITICS OF LAOS FUNCTIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF A SINGLE-PARTY SOCIALIST REPUBLIC. • THE LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (LPRP) IS THE ONLY LEGAL POLITICAL PARTY. • PRESIDENT CHOUMMALY SAYASONE, ALSO THE GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE LPRP, IS THE HEAD OF STATE. • PM THONGSING THAMMAVONG IS THE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT. • THROUGH THE NINE-MEMBER POLITBURO OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY AND THE 49-MEMBER CENTRAL COMMITTEE, THE PARTY DECIDES ON GOVERNMENT POLICIES. • VITAL GOVERNMENT DECISIONS ARE VETTED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. • THE FISCAL YEAR 2000 CENTRAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET PLAN WANTED A PROFIT OF $180 MILLION AND PAYMENTS OF $289 MILLION, SUCH AS CAPITAL PAYMENTS OF $202 MILLION.
  3. 3. MAJOR LEADERS OF LAOS MAJOR LEADERS OF LAOS • GOVERNMENT SINGLE-PARTY MARXIST-LENINIST SOCIALIST REPUBLIC • PRESIDENT CHOUMMALY SAYASONE • PRIME MINISTER THONGSING THAMMAVONG • PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PANY YATHOTU • PRESIDENT OF CONSTRUCTION SISAVATH KEOBOUNPHANH • LEGISLATURE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF LAOS
  4. 4. POLITICAL MAP OF LAOS
  5. 5. POLITICAL CULTURE • THE FIRST MONARCHICAL CONSTITUTION OF LAOS, WRITTEN IN FRENCH, WAS ADOPTED ON MAY 11, 1947, AND DECLARED LAOS INDEPENDENT WITHIN THE FRENCH UNION. • EVEN THOUGH THE AMENDED CONSTITUTION OF MAY 11, 1957 DID NOT REFER TO THE FRENCH UNION, CLOSE EDUCATIONAL, HEALTH, AND TECHNICAL LINKS TO THE ONCE COLONIAL POWER REMAINED. • THE 1957 CONSTITUTION WAS ABOLISHED ON DECEMBER 3, 1975, WHEN A COMMUNIST PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC WAS DECLARED. • IN 1991, A NEW CONSTITUTION WAS APPROVED AND PRESERVED A “LEADING ROLE” FOR THE LPRP. • IN 1992, ELECTIONS TOOK PLACE FOR A NEW 85-MEMBER NATIONAL ASSEMBLY WITH MEMBERS ELECTED THROUGH SECRET BALLOT TO FIVE-YEAR TERMS. • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, WHICH FUNDAMENTALLY SERVES A RUBBER STAMP FOR THE LPRP, ADOPTS ALL NEW LAWS, BUT THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH HOLDS POWER TO ISSUE BINDING DECREES. • THE MOST RECENT ELECTIONS WERE IN APRIL 2006. • MEMBERSHIP IN THE ASSEMBLY WAS EXPANDED TO NINETY-NINE MEMBERS IN 1997; IN THE 2006 ELECTIONS, THE ASSEMBLY HAD 115 MEMBERS.
  6. 6. INSURGENCY • IN THE EARLY 2000S, THERE WERE BOMB ATTACKS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT, ALONG WITH SMALL EXCHANGES OF FIRE, ACROSS LAOS. • SEVERAL DIFFERENT GROUPS, SUCH AS THE COMMITTEE FOR INDEPENDENCE AND DEMOCRACY IN LAOS AND LAO CITIZENS MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY, HAVE TAKEN ACCOUNTABILITY.
  7. 7. EXECUTIVE BRANCH MAIN OFFICE HOLDERS • OFFICE: PRESIDENT • NAME: CHOUMMALY SAYASONE • PARTY: LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY • SINCE: 8 JUNE 2006 • OFFICE: PRIME MINISTER • NAME: THONGSING THAMMAVONG • PARTY: LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY • SINCE: 23 DECEMBER 2010 POWERS OF THE GOVERNMENT • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ELECTS THE PRESIDENT TO A FIVE-YEAR TERM. • THE PRESIDENT APPOINTS THE PM AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS WITH THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY’S APPROVAL FOR A FIVE-YEAR TERM. • ADDITIONALLY, THERE ARE FOUR DEPUTY PMS; AS OF A JUNE 8, 2006 CABINET REARRANGEMENT, THEY ARE MAJOR GENERAL DOUANGCHAY PHICHIT (ALSO DEFENSE MINISTER), THONGLOUN SISOULITH (ALSO FOREIGN MINISTER), SOMSAVAT LENGSAVAD, AND MAJOR GENERAL ASANG LAOLY. • THE 28-MEMBER CABINET ADDITIONALLY INCLUDES ONECHANH THAMMAVONG AS LABOUR MINISTER, CHALEUAN YAPAOHER AS JUSTICE MINISTER, NAM VIGNAKET AS INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE MINISTER, SITAHENG LATSAPHONE AS AGRICULTURE MINISTER AND SOMMATH PHOLSENA AS TRANSPORT MINISTER.
  8. 8. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (SAPHA HENG XAT) IS MADE UP OF 115 MEMBERS, ELECTED TO A FIVE-YEAR TERM. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF LAOS
  9. 9. POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTIONS • SUMMARY OF NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF LAOS ELECTION RESULTS, 30 APRIL 2011: • LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (PHAK PAXAXÔN PATIVAT LAO) – 128 SEATS • NON-PARTISANS – 4 • TOTAL: 132
  10. 10. JUDICIAL BRANCH • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ELECTS THE PRESIDENT OF THE PEOPLE’S SUPREME COURT ON THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY STANDING COMMITTEE’S SUGGESTION. • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY STANDING COMMITTEE NOMINATES THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE PEOPLE’S SUPREME COURT AND THE JUDGES.
  11. 11. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS • LAOS IS DIVIDED INTO SEVENTEEN PROVINCES (KHOUENG, SINGULAR AND PLURAL) AND ONE MUNICIPALITY, MARKED WITH A * (KHOUENG, SINGULAR AND PLURAL): ATTAPU, BOKEO, BORIKHAMXAY, CHAMPASSACK, HOUAPHAN, KHAMMOUANE, LOUANG NAMTHA, LUANGPHABANG, OUDOMXAY, PHONGSALY, SARAVANE, SAVANNAKHET, SAYSOMBOUNE, SEKONG, VIENTIANE*, VIENTIANE, SAYABOURY, XIENG KHOUANG. MAP
  12. 12. LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY • COMMUNIST PARTY THAT HAS RULED LAOS SINCE 1975. • THE POLITBURO, SECRETARIAT, AND THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE ARE THE POLICY- MAKING BODIES. • A PARTY CONGRESS TAKES PLACE EVERY FIVE YEARS AND ELECTS MEMBERS TO THE POLITBURO AND CENTRAL COMMITTEE. • THE CONGRESS ALSO ONCE ELECTED A SECRETARIAT, BUT THIS BODY WAS DISSOLVED IN 1991. • OF THE 115 MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, 113 BELONGED TO THE LPRP IN 2007. FLAG OF THE LPRP
  13. 13. CHOUMMALY SAYASONE CHOUMMALY SAYASONE • BORN 6 MARCH 1936 IN ATTAPU. • GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (LPRP) AND PRESIDENT OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC. • WAS ELECTED AS PARTY GENERAL SECRETARY ON 21 MARCH 2006 FOLLOWING THE PARTY’S 8TH CONGRESS BY THE 1ST PLENUM OF THE 8TH CENTRAL COMMITTEE; SUCCEEDED KHAMTAI SIPHANDON, AND LATER SUCCEEDED SIPHANDON AS PRESIDENT ON JUNE 8, 2006. • JOINED THE PARTY’S POLITBURO IN 1991, SERVING AS DEFENSE MINISTER FROM 1991-2001; SUBSEQUENTLY SERVED AS VICE PRESIDENT FROM 2001-2006. • WAS RE-ELECTED TO HIS POST AS PARTY GENERAL SECRETARY AT THE 9TH LPRP CONGRESS IN MARCH 2011. • WAS LATER RE-ELECTED AS PRESIDENT OF LAOS DURING THE SEVENTH LAO NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN JUNE 2011. PICTURE
  14. 14. THONGSING THAMMAVONG THONGSING THAMMAVONG • BORN 12 APRIL 1944. • PM OF LAOS SINCE 23 DECEMBER 2010. • MEMBER OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (LPRP) AND MEMBER OF THE LPRP POLITBURO SINCE 1991. • CURRENTLY SERVES IN THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF LAOS AND REPRESENTS LUANG PRABANG PROVINCE (CONSTITUENCY 6). • ALSO SERVED AS THE PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FROM 2006-2010. PICTURE
  15. 15. SISAVATH KEOBOUNPHANH • BORN 1 MAY 1928. • SERVED AS VICE PRESIDENT OF LAOS FROM 1996-1998 AND AS THIRD CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS (PM) OF LAOS FROM 1998-2001; WAS SUCCEEDED BY BOUNGNANG VORACHITH. • WAS ALSO PRESIDENT OF THE LAO FRONT FOR NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION FROM 2001-2011; WAS SUCCEEDED BY PHANGDOUNGCHIT VONGSA. • MEMBER OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY. PICTURESISAVATH KEOBOUNPHANH
  16. 16. THE END (ສຸ ດທ້ າຍໄດ້ )

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