Politics of Kyrgyzstan


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Politics of Kyrgyzstan

  1. 1. B E N E D I C T ( V I K T O R ) G O M B O C ZPolitics of Kyrgyzstan
  2. 2. Geography of Kyrgyzstan Location: Central Asia, between Kazakhstanand Tajikistan Area: Total: 199,951 sq km Country comparison to the world: 87 Land: 191,801 sq km Water: 8,150 sq km Area – comparative: Slightly smaller thanSouth Dakota Land boundaries: Total: 3,051 km Border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  3. 3. Physical Map of Kyrgyzstan
  4. 4. Religion in Kyrgyzstan The Constitution and the law offer freedom of religion in Kyrgyzstan,and the Government, in practice, usually valued this liberty. In contrast, the Government limited the activities of extremist Islamicgroups that they saw as dangers to stability and safety, obstructing orprohibiting the registration of some Christian churches. The Constitution offers separation of church and state, forbiddingbigotry on the basis of religion or religious views. Whereas the Government did not formally endorse any specificreligion, a 6 May 2006 ruling acknowledged Islam and RussianOrthodoxy as traditional religious groups. There was no alteration in the standing of respect for religious libertyin the period addressed by this report; the Government still observedand limited Islamist groups that it saw as dangers to safety. Some Christian groups still endured hindrances in registration. The State Agency for Religious Affairs (SARA), previously known asthe State Commission on Religious Affairs (SCRA), is liable foradvancing religious acceptance, defending freedom of conscience, andsupervising laws on religion. All religious groups, such as schools, need to request approval ofregistration from the SARA. Though most religious groups and factions functioned with littleintervention from the Government or each other, there were someinstances of public mistreatment on the basis of religious views andcustoms. An increase in tensions between Muslims and ex-Muslims whoconverted to other religious faiths was seen; in one such instance, acrowd offended by a Baptist pastor’s conversion of Muslims toChristianity openly beat him and destroyed his bibles and religioustext.
  5. 5. Religion statistics Muslim 75% Russian Orthodox 20% Other 5%
  6. 6. Kyrgyzstans political system: Introduction Kyrgyzstan’s politics function in the structure of a parliamentary representative democraticrepublic; the President serves as head of state, and the PM of Kyrgyzstan serves as head ofgovernment. The government exercises executive power; legislative power is vested in both the governmentand parliament.
  7. 7. Kyrgyzstans political system: Government Capital (and largest city): Bishkek Official languages: Kyrgyz (state),Russian (official) Demonym: Kyrgyz, Kyrgyzstani Government: Unitary parliamentaryrepublic President: Almazbek Atambayev Prime Minister: Zhantoro Satybaldiyev Legislature: Supreme Council
  8. 8. Main office holdersElection of the Presidentand the Prime Minister Office: President Name: Almazbek Atambayev Party: Social Democratic Party ofKyrgyzstan Since: 1 December 2011 Office: Prime Minister Name: Zhantoro Satybaldiyev Party: None Since: 5 September 2012 The president is elected through popularvote to a five-year term; the PM is chosenby the parliament.Kyrgyzstans political system: Executive branch
  9. 9. Kyrgyzstans political system: Legislative branch During the Soviet period, Kyrgyzstan (then the Kirghiz SSR)had a unicameral legislature, replaced in 1995 by the bicameralSupreme Council (Жогорку Кеңеш; Joghorku Keneš). The Supreme Council was made up of the Assembly of People’sRepresentatives (45 seats; its members were elected throughpopular vote from single member constituencies) and theLegislative Assembly (60 seats; 45 members were electedthough popular vote from single-member constituencies, while15 members were from national party lists on a proportionalbasis with a 5% threshold). Every legislative term was five years. In 2005, as part of the 2005 election procedure and in line witha 2003 referendum, the Parliament again became unicameral;the Legislative Assembly (Жогорку Кеңеш; Myizam ChygaruuJyiyny) comprised 75 members, elected to five-year terms fromsingle-seat constituencies. Conversely, due to the political turmoil, a new constitutionalreferendum was held on 21 October 2007 which authorized anew electoral structure, expanding the parliament to 90members and introducing party-list voting, a proportionalrepresentation structure of voting in which nominees arechosen from central party lists, as opposed to being locallyelected. Early parliamentary elections occurred on 16 December 2007.
  10. 10. Kyrgyzstans political system: Political parties representedin the Supreme Council Ata-Zhurt (28) Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (26) Ar-Namys (25) Respublika Party of Kyrgyzstan (23) Ata Meken Socialist Party (18)
  11. 11. Kyrgyzstans political system: Political pressure groups andleaders Council of Free Trade Unions Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights – Ramazan Dyryldayev National Unity Democratic Movement Union of Entrepreneurs Central Asian Free Market Institute
  12. 12. Kyrgyzstans political system: Judicial branch Whereas the constitution offers an independent judiciary,the court structure of Kyrgyzstan is broadly viewed asbeing under the prosecutor’s office’s influence. Low wages make the corruption of judges usual. Most cases start in local courts; they can move by meansof the appeals procedure to municipal or regional courts,with the Supreme Court as the last court of appeals. Property and family law quarrels and low-level criminalcases are heard by traditional elders’ courts, looselymanaged by the prosecutor’s office; financial quarrels andmilitary cases are heard in specialized courts. The 2003 constitutional reforms extended the range ofthe Supreme Court in civil, criminal, and administrativeproceedings. Numerous protections of Western jurisprudence are notseen in Kyrgyzstans structure, with numerous elementsof the Soviet structure still active. The freedom to counsel and the presumption of theaccused are promised by law, even though they arefrequently not practiced; trial by jury is nonexistent. Reform legislation under deliberation in 2006 wouldcreate a jury structure and strengthen the judicialbranch’s independence. Prosecutor General Nurlan Tursunkulov
  13. 13. Kyrgyzstans political system: Administrative divisions Kyrgyzstan is split into seven provinces(plural: oblastlar, singular: oblasty) andone city* (shaar): Batken Oblasty (Batken) Bishkek Shaary* Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek) Jalal-Abad Oblasty (Jalal-Abad) Naryn Oblasty (Naryn) Osh Oblasty (Osh) Talas Oblasty (Talas) Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol) note: administrative center names inparentheses
  14. 14. Almazbek Atambayev Born in Arashan on 17 September 1956. 4th and current President of Kyrgyzstan since 1December 2011. Previously served as PM of Kyrgyzstan from 14November 2011-1 December 2011; also served asPM from 29 March 2007-28 November 2007and from 17 December 2010-23 September 2011. Was also Chairman of the Social DemocraticParty of Kyrgyzstan from 30 July 1999-23September 2011. Earned his degree in economics while he studiedat the Moscow Institute of Management. Has four children from his marriage to his firstwife, Buazhar (two sons, Seyit and Seytek, andtwo daughters, Diana and Dinara. Married his second wife, Raisa, (an ethnic Tatar,born in the Urals in Russia, who moved to Osh asa child, with her parents; she is a doctor byprofession) in 1988; they have two children: ason, Khadyrbek, and a daughter: Aliya.
  15. 15. Zhantoro Satybaldiyev Born in Osh on 6 March 1956. Current PM of Kyrgyzstan since 5September 2012. Was elected as PM by the Parliament ofKyrgyzstan on 5 September 2012 by a 111-2 margin. His election followed the fall of theprevious PM Omurbek Babanov’scoalition in August, after accusations ofcorruption and a sharp reduction in 5%GDP between January and July 2012. Commonly viewed as a technocrat; waselected to restore order and bring backsavings and assurance to Kyrgyzstan.
  16. 16. Bishkek
  17. 17. The End