• The politics of Indonesia take place in a structure of a presidential representative democratic republic in which the President
of Indonesia serves as both head of state and head of government; he also leads a multi-party system.
• The government exercises executive power, whereas legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People’s
• The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
• The constitution of 1945 permitted a partial separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power.
• The governmental system is depicted as “presidential with parliamentary characteristics”.
• Numerous political reforms, after the Indonesian riots of May 1998 and the subsequent resignation of President Suharto,
were put in place by means of amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia, which brought about changes in all branches of
Government of Indonesia
• Government: Unitary presidential constitutional
• President: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
• Vice President: Boediono
• Legislature: People’s Consultative Assembly
• Upper house: Regional Representative Council
• Lower house: People’s Representative Council
• Main office holders
▫ Office: President
Name: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Party: Democratic Party (DPD)
Since: 20 October 2004
▫ Office: Vice President
Since: 20 October 2009
• The citizens choose the president and the VP for five-year
terms; before 2004, the president and the VP were chosen by
the People’s Consultative Assembly.
• The most recent election took place on 8 July 2009.
• The president heads the United Indonesia Cabinet (Kabinet
• The President of Indonesia is elected directly for a maximum
of two five-year terms, and serves as the head of state,
commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces; he is
also responsible for domestic power, policy-making, and
• He also nominates a cabinet, whose members are not required
to be members of the legislature.
• The People’s Consultative Assembly (Indonesian: Majelis
Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR) is the legislative branch of
the Indonesian political system.
• After the elections of 2004, the MPR became a bicameral
parliament, with the establishment of the DPD as its second
chamber in an attempt to advance regional representation.
• The Regional Representatives Council (Indonesian: Dewan
Perwakilan Daerah, DPD) is the upper house of the People’s
• The People’s Representative Council (Indonesian: Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), occasionally called the House of
Representatives, is the lower house; it has 550 members who
are elected for a five-year term through proportional
representation in multi-member constituencies.
Political parties and elections
• The General Elections Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Pemilihan Umum, KPU) is the body whose responsibility it is to
manage both parliamentary and presidential elections in Indonesia.
• According to article 22E(5) of the Constitution, the KPU is national, permanent, and independent.
• The KPU, before the 2004 General Election, was comprised of members who also were members of political parties.
• Members of the KPU must now be non-partisan.
Results of the Indonesian presidential election, 2009
• Democratic Party (Indonesia), Partai Demokrat (Democrat)
• Party of the Functional Groups, Partai Golongan Karya (Golkar)
• Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle , Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDI-P)
• National Awakening Party, Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB)
• United Development Party, Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP)
• Prosperous Justice Party, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS)
• National Mandate Party, Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN)
• People’s Conscience Party, Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat (Hanura)
• Great Indonesia Movement Party, Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya (Gerindra)
Parties not represented in the legislature
• Crescent Star Party (Partai Bulan Bintang)
• Reform Star Party (Partai Bintang Reformasi)
• Prosperous Peace Treaty (Partai Damai Sejahtera)
• Concern for the Nation Functional Party (Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa)
• Indonesian Justice and Unity Party (Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia)
• Freedom Bull National Party (Partai Nasional Banteng Kemerdekaan)
• United Democratic Nationhood Party (Partai Persatuan Demokrasi Kebangsaan) (Partai Persatuan Demokrasi
• Indonesian National Party Marhaenism (Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme)
• Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia)
• Vanguard Party (Partai Pelopor)
• Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion (Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia)
• Democratic Renewal Party (Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan, PDP)
• Nasdem Party (Partai Nasdem)
• Indonesian Democratic Party (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia, PDI, later became PDI-P)
• Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI)
• Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia, PNI)
• Masyumi Party (Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia, Grand Assembly of Muslims of Indonesia)
• Socialist Party of Indonesia (Partai Sosialis Indonesia, PSI)
• The highest level of the judicial branch is the Indonesian Supreme Court (Indonesian: Mahkamah Agung).
• The president nominates its judges.
• The Constitutional Court (Indonesian: Mahkamah Konstitusi) rules on constitutional and political issues , whereas a
Judicial Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Yudisial) supervises the judges.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
• Born on 9 September 1949 in Pacitan, East Java.
• Retired army general officer and 6th and current
President of Indonesia since 2004.
• Also the current chairman of the Democratic Party of
Indonesia since 23 February 2013.
• Won the 2004 presidential election, having defeated
incumbent President Megawati Sukarnoputri.
• Commonly known by his initials SBY; assumed office on
20 October 2004, along with Jusuf Kalla as VP (from
• Ran for re-election in 2009 with Boediono as his
• Went on to win with an absolute majority of the votes in
the first round of balloting; was sworn in for a second
term on 20 October 2009.
• Born on 25 February 1943 in Blitar, East Java, Dutch East
• 11th and current VP of Indonesia, having won the 2009
presidential election alongside incumbent President Susilo
• Received his early education in primary school in Blitar, East
• Started his university studies at Gadjah Mada University in
Yogyakarta in the early 1960s, before he won a scholarship to
study at the University of Western Australia in Perth.
• Graduated from the University of Western Australia with an
economics degree in 1967, continuing his studies for a
master’s degree in economics at Monash University in
Melbourne, which he finished in 1972; later undertook further
studies for his doctorate degree from the Wharton School of
the University of Pennsylvania, which he finished in 1979.
• Also contributed, in the early 1970s, to the Indonesia Project
at the Australian National University as a research assistant in
• Was, 2007, named one of the Wharton School’s 125
Influential People and Ideas, and was named “Indonesia’s
The End (Akhiri)
• For more on Indonesian politics: