Politics of Indonesia


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Politics of Indonesia

  1. 1. Politics of Indonesia Benedict Gombocz
  2. 2. Overview • The politics of Indonesia take place in a structure of a presidential representative democratic republic in which the President of Indonesia serves as both head of state and head of government; he also leads a multi-party system. • The government exercises executive power, whereas legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People’s Representative Councils. • The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. • The constitution of 1945 permitted a partial separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. • The governmental system is depicted as “presidential with parliamentary characteristics”. • Numerous political reforms, after the Indonesian riots of May 1998 and the subsequent resignation of President Suharto, were put in place by means of amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia, which brought about changes in all branches of government.
  3. 3. Government of Indonesia • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic • President: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono • Vice President: Boediono • Legislature: People’s Consultative Assembly • Upper house: Regional Representative Council • Lower house: People’s Representative Council
  4. 4. Executive branch • Main office holders ▫ Office: President  Name: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono  Party: Democratic Party (DPD)  Since: 20 October 2004 ▫ Office: Vice President  Name: Boediono  Party: None  Since: 20 October 2009 • The citizens choose the president and the VP for five-year terms; before 2004, the president and the VP were chosen by the People’s Consultative Assembly. • The most recent election took place on 8 July 2009. • The president heads the United Indonesia Cabinet (Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu). • The President of Indonesia is elected directly for a maximum of two five-year terms, and serves as the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces; he is also responsible for domestic power, policy-making, and foreign affairs. • He also nominates a cabinet, whose members are not required to be members of the legislature.
  5. 5. Legislative branch • The People’s Consultative Assembly (Indonesian: Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR) is the legislative branch of the Indonesian political system. • After the elections of 2004, the MPR became a bicameral parliament, with the establishment of the DPD as its second chamber in an attempt to advance regional representation. • The Regional Representatives Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD) is the upper house of the People’s Consultative Assembly. • The People’s Representative Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), occasionally called the House of Representatives, is the lower house; it has 550 members who are elected for a five-year term through proportional representation in multi-member constituencies.
  6. 6. Political parties and elections • The General Elections Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Pemilihan Umum, KPU) is the body whose responsibility it is to manage both parliamentary and presidential elections in Indonesia. • According to article 22E(5) of the Constitution, the KPU is national, permanent, and independent. • The KPU, before the 2004 General Election, was comprised of members who also were members of political parties. • Members of the KPU must now be non-partisan.
  7. 7. Results of the Indonesian presidential election, 2009
  8. 8. Parliamentary parties • Democratic Party (Indonesia), Partai Demokrat (Democrat) • Party of the Functional Groups, Partai Golongan Karya (Golkar) • Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle , Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDI-P) • National Awakening Party, Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) • United Development Party, Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) • Prosperous Justice Party, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) • National Mandate Party, Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) • People’s Conscience Party, Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat (Hanura) • Great Indonesia Movement Party, Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya (Gerindra)
  9. 9. Parties not represented in the legislature • Crescent Star Party (Partai Bulan Bintang) • Reform Star Party (Partai Bintang Reformasi) • Prosperous Peace Treaty (Partai Damai Sejahtera) • Concern for the Nation Functional Party (Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa) • Indonesian Justice and Unity Party (Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia) • Freedom Bull National Party (Partai Nasional Banteng Kemerdekaan) • United Democratic Nationhood Party (Partai Persatuan Demokrasi Kebangsaan) (Partai Persatuan Demokrasi Kebangsaan) • Indonesian National Party Marhaenism (Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme) • Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia) • Vanguard Party (Partai Pelopor) • Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion (Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia) • Democratic Renewal Party (Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan, PDP) • Nasdem Party (Partai Nasdem)
  10. 10. Former parties • Indonesian Democratic Party (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia, PDI, later became PDI-P) • Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) • Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia, PNI) • Masyumi Party (Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia, Grand Assembly of Muslims of Indonesia) • Socialist Party of Indonesia (Partai Sosialis Indonesia, PSI)
  11. 11. Pre-independence organizations • Sarekat Islam • Muhammadiyah • Nahdlatul Ulama (NU)
  12. 12. Judicial branch • The highest level of the judicial branch is the Indonesian Supreme Court (Indonesian: Mahkamah Agung). • The president nominates its judges. • The Constitutional Court (Indonesian: Mahkamah Konstitusi) rules on constitutional and political issues , whereas a Judicial Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Yudisial) supervises the judges.
  13. 13. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono • Born on 9 September 1949 in Pacitan, East Java. • Retired army general officer and 6th and current President of Indonesia since 2004. • Also the current chairman of the Democratic Party of Indonesia since 23 February 2013. • Won the 2004 presidential election, having defeated incumbent President Megawati Sukarnoputri. • Commonly known by his initials SBY; assumed office on 20 October 2004, along with Jusuf Kalla as VP (from 2004-2009). • Ran for re-election in 2009 with Boediono as his running mate. • Went on to win with an absolute majority of the votes in the first round of balloting; was sworn in for a second term on 20 October 2009.
  14. 14. Boediono • Born on 25 February 1943 in Blitar, East Java, Dutch East Indies. • 11th and current VP of Indonesia, having won the 2009 presidential election alongside incumbent President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. • Received his early education in primary school in Blitar, East Java. • Started his university studies at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta in the early 1960s, before he won a scholarship to study at the University of Western Australia in Perth. • Graduated from the University of Western Australia with an economics degree in 1967, continuing his studies for a master’s degree in economics at Monash University in Melbourne, which he finished in 1972; later undertook further studies for his doctorate degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, which he finished in 1979. • Also contributed, in the early 1970s, to the Indonesia Project at the Australian National University as a research assistant in economics. • Was, 2007, named one of the Wharton School’s 125 Influential People and Ideas, and was named “Indonesia’s financial rudder”.
  15. 15. The End (Akhiri) • For more on Indonesian politics: ▫ http://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/politics/item65 ▫ http://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/politics/general- political-outline/item385