Government of Hungary Government (Kormány): Parliamentary republic and multi-party democracy President (Köztársasági elnök): János Áder (Fidesz) Prime Minister (Miniszterelnök): Viktor Orbán (Fidesz) Speaker of the National Assembly (Országgyűlés elnök): László Kövér (Fidesz)
Parliament represented parties Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union (Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség, FIDESZ) Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt, MSZP) Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik - Magyarországért Mozgalom, JOBBIK) Christian Democratic People’s Party (Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt, KDNP)* Politics Can Be Different (Lehet Más a Politika, LMP) *In coalition with Fidesz.
Minor parties Hungarian Democratic Forum* (Magyar Demokrata Fórum, MDF) Alliance of Free Democrats* (Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége, SZDSZ) Free People for Hungary (Szabad Emberek Magyarországért, SZEM) Humanist Party (Humanista Párt, HP) Hungarian Communist Workers’ Party (Magyar Kommunista Munkáspárt, MKMP) Hungarian Justice and Life Party* (Magyar Igazság és Élet Pártja, MIÉP) Hungarian Social Democratic Party (Magyarorszagi Szociáldemokrata Párt, MSZDP) Hungarian Social Green Party (Magyar Szociális Zöld Párt, MSZZP) Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party (Független Kisgazda, Földmunkás és Polgári Párt, FKFMPP) National Democratic Party (Nemzeti Demokrata Párt, NDP) Social Democratic Party (Szociáldemokrata Párt, SZDP) Workers’ Party of Hungary 2006 (Magyarországi Munkáspárt 2006, MMP 2006) *Dissolved party
Past parties Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt, NKP) Civic Freedom Party (Polgári Szabadságpárt, PSZP ) (interbellum) Hungarian Communist Party (Magyar Kommunista Párt, MKP) Hungarian Democratic People’s Party (Magyar Demokrata Néppárt, MDNP; merged into Hungarian Democratic Forum in 2005) Hungarian National Socialist Party (Nemzeti Szociálista Magyar Munkás Párt - NSZMMP, literally “National Socialist Hungarian Workers’ Party) Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt, MSzMP) Hungarian Working People’s Party (Magyar Dolgozók Pártja, MDP)
Years of Hungarian parliamentary electionsand the winning party 1990: MDF 1994: MSZP (in coalition with SZDSZ) 1998: Fidesz (in coalition with MDF and MIÉP) 2002: MSZP (in coalition with SZDSZ) 2006: MSZP (in coalition with SZDSZ) 2010: Fidesz (in coalition with KDNP)
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union Founded on 30 March 1988 as FIDESZ (FIatal DEmokraták SZövetsége, Alliance of Young Democrats), as youthful libertarian, anti-communist party. Major centre-right, right-wing conservative political party. Won two-thirds majority of seats in 2010 general election (in coalition with Christian Democratic People’s Party) by acquiring 52% of votes, winning Fidesz 227 seats and KDNP 36. Member of European People’s Party (EPP).
Hungarian Socialist Party Centre-left political party. Describes itself as a “social democratic” party. Founded on 9 October 1989, as descendant of Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party. Partial successor of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt, MSZMP), the party which ruled Hungary from 1956-1989. Decision to declare MSZP as heir to MSZMP was controversial; still carries reverberations both for MSZP and Hungary. Another root of controversy is that some members of ex-communist group retained political effect in MSZP, a fact which remains true.
Jobbik – Movement for a BetterHungary Radical nationalist, far-right political party. Founded on 24 October 2003. Has been designated by scholars, various press outlets and political opponents as fascist, neo-fascist, anti-Semitic, anti-Roma and homophobic, although the party has subsequently denied these allegations as being either politically motivated or simply untrue. Depicts itself as “a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party”, whose “fundamental purpose” was protection of “Hungarian values and interests.” Weighed according to its representation in European Parliament and National Assembly, it is Hungary’s third biggest party.
Christian Democratic People’s Party Christian democratic and conservative political party. Founded in 1944 and re-founded in 1989 with present name. Link between historical party and present one is debated, although key members of original party, such as László Varga, participated in its re-foundation. Part of Parliament from 1990-1998. Has been closely associated with conservative party Fidesz, from 1998; Fidesz and KDNP signed agreement, in 2005, for election cooperation, which ascended seats in National Assembly to KDNP, and subsequently acquired strength in 2006 general election, in which it obtained 42.0% of list votes and 164 out of 386 representatives in National Assembly.
Politics Can Be Different Green liberal political party. Founded on 26 February 2009. Was preceded by non-governmental organization social enterprise founded in 2008, with intention of reforming Hungarian politics. Has common ideologies with other green parties. Among key party issues are environmental protection, sustainable development and the fight against corruption in the current political elite. Emphasizes what they believe to be pointlessness of current partisan partition between left and right-wing forces; their basis is deliberative democracy, which they believe lowers distance between people and political elite.
Viktor Orbán Chairman of Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union and current PM of Hungary since 29 May 2010; is a founding member of Fidesz. Also served as PM from 1998-2002. Born on 31 May 1963 in Székesfehérvár; spent childhood in two villages nearby: Alcsútdoboz and Felcsút. Graduated from secondary school, where he learned English language, in 1981; completed military service in ensuing two years, Majored in law at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest; lived in Szolnok, after graduating from that institute in 1987, traveling to Budapest where he got a job as sociologist at Management Training Institute of Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
Attila Mesterházy Chairman of Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) since 10 July 2010. Was MSZP’s candidate for post of PM of Hungary in 2010 general election. Born on 30 January 1974 in Pécs. Went to secondary school in Veszprém (Lovassy László Gimnázium) between 1988 and 1992. Majored in economics at Corvinus University in Budapest between 1992 and 1997, earning Ph.D. in 1999. Was Fellow at University of Valladolid in Spanish in 1995 and 1996, Diplomatic Academy of Vienna (Vienna School of International Studies) between 1996 and 1998 and University of Groningen in Dutch in 1997. Acquired Ph.D. from University of Semmelweis, in 2005, in Budapest.
Gábor Vona Chairman of nationalist political party Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary. Born Gábor Zázriveczon on 20 August 1978 in Gyöngyös. Studied history and psychology at the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest. Became party chairman in 2006. Repeatedly called for change of government throughout 2009 and for Hungary’s ruling politicians (referring to, among others, Gordon Bajnai and Ferenc Gyurcsány) to be “held accountable”. Believes in strengthening the national police and founded the nationalist Magyar Gárda (Hungarian Guard) in 2007; the Magyar Gárda was subsequently banned in 2009 for openly violating human rights of minorities.
Zsolt Semjén Current minister without portfolio and Deputy PM of Hungary, in second cabinet of PM Viktor Orbán. Born on 8 August 1962 in Budapest. Leader of Christian Democratic People’s Party (KDNP) since 2003, which formed coalition and alliance with Fidesz; was among founders of KDNP during political transition of 1989. Worked in first half of 1980s in industrial companies after completing high school. Trained in theology at Pázmány Péter Catholic University, and graduated with degree in sociology in 1992; subsequently attended Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, professionally tied with Budapest universities. Earned his doctorate in theology in second half of 1990s, taking position as professor of Eötvös Loránd University.
Benedek Jávor Leading member of Politics Can Be Different (LMP). Born on 2 July 1972 in Budapest. Graduated in biology from Eötvös Loránd University in 1997 (M.Sc.); received Ph.D. at same university in 2006. Has served as assistant professor at department of environmental law at Pázmány Péter Catholic University. Was a founding member of environmental NGO Védegylet (Protect the Future!). Was also a founding member and one of the spokespeople of Politics Can Be Different in 2009; subsequently won a seat in National Assembly during 2010 general election. Was nominated to be leader of LMP parliamentary group on 29 January 2012, after resignation of András Schiffer.
Results of first round: 11 April 2010 Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union: 52.73% Hungarian Socialist Party: 19.3% Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary: 16.67% Politics Can Be Different: 7.47% Hungarian Democratic Forum: 2.67% Civil Movement: 0.89% Hungarian Communist Workers’ Party: 0.11% Hungarian Social Democratic Party: 2.67%
Results of second round: 25 April 2010 Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union: 52.73% Hungarian Socialist Party: 19.30% Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary: 16.67% Politics Can Be Different: 7.48%
VÉGE (THE END) Hajra Fidesz! Hajra Magyarország! Hajra Magyarok!