Weakness Of Articles


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  • Weakness Of Articles

    1. 1. “ The consequences of . . . [an] inefficient government are too obvious to be dwelt upon. Thirteen sovereignties pulling against each other, and all tugging at the federal head will soon bring ruin on the whole. . . . Let us have [government] by which our lives, liberty, and property will be secured or let us know the worst at once. ” ~George Washington
    2. 2. Case #1: Settling the National Debt <ul><li>1) Revolutionary War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t owed France > 10 million dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t owed U.S. citizens > 34 million dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggled to raise revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Congress could not tax (states had that power) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress had to rely on borrowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not pass amendment to change the law because they needed 13 out of 13 vote to amend laws – not every state voted yes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Not successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to develop a workable plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad credit rating </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. U.S. NATIONAL DEBT CLOCK The Outstanding Public Debt as of 25 Sep 2007 at 03:16:10 PM GMT is: The estimated population of the United States is 303,081,873 so each citizen's share of this debt is $29,682.97 . The National Debt has continued to increase an average of $1.36 billion per day since September 29, 2006! Concerned? Then tell Congress and the White House ! http://www. brillig .com/debt_clock/
    4. 4. Case #2: The Pirates of North Africa <ul><li>1) Pirates harassing U.S. merchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. no longer had the protection of the British navy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) No mechanism to fight the pirates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British cut the yearly 4 million in trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. forced to pay tribute/bribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. did not have the power to fight the pirates (strong navy), nor the money to continue to pay them off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just caused more economic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribute of 1 million dollars to let the captured Americans go </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Case #3: Soldiers In A Time Of Peace <ul><li>1) Concern over a standing army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of army being used for imposing a tyrannical government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Inability to raise funds to support an army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress could not raise enough revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some states withheld money they promised Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential mutiny for unpaid veterans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to provide for the common defense of the nation </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Case #4: Treaty of Paris <ul><li>1) Enforcement of treaty provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some states opposed the treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict over treatment of loyalists (get their land back?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial debt to British merchants (paper money O.K.?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British presence in the Northwest (Ohio region) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Weak Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not force states to obey the treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not force the British out of the Northwest (Ohio region) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More credit issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to provide for the common defense of the nation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Case #5: Debtors, Creditors, & Paper Money <ul><li>1) Money supply dried up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge war debt for the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States raised taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falling prices for crops hurt farmers > creditors seized farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers reacted with violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Congress could not control the paper money supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States printed their own money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation led to paper money being nearly worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable currency and therefore a weak economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict and violence between creditors and debtors </li></ul></ul>Daniel Shays
    8. 8. Land Claims of the States After The Treaty of Paris 1783
    9. 9. Strengths – Case #6: Western Lands <ul><li>Western Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest accomplishment of the Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a policy for settlement & creating a government in new lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cessation of Western Land Claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All states gave up their claims to territories gained by the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris (1783) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Land Ordinance of 1785 <ul><li>Established a policy for division & settlement of land north of the Ohio River </li></ul><ul><li>Townships of 6 miles square divided into 36 subdivisions of 640 acres each </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of sections used to pay off national debt (at least $1 an acre) </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of 1 section used to support public education </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans were totally disregarded until the Treaty of Greenville (1795) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some negotiating with Indians over land </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Land Ordinance of 1785
    13. 13. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 <ul><li>2-Stage plan for territories becoming states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When an area had a population of more than 5,000 adult males > it could establish a government [governor, legislature, judges] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 60,000 people > write a constitution & apply for statehood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statehood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Congress approved their constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Northwest Territory became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, & Wisconsin </li></ul>