The Partitions of Poland: Anti-Polonism


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The Partitions of Poland: Anti-Polonism

  1. 1. The Partitions and Divisions of Poland:Anti-Polonism<br />Anti-Polonism: an irrational or malicious hostility toward Poles as a nation or as a cultural community<br />
  2. 2. Poland: A Free State<br />966-1386 Kingdom of Poland<br />1386-1795Polish–Lithuanian union &<br /> later the Polish–Lithuanian<br /> Commonwealth<br />1648-1720 Uprisings, invasions<br />1720-1764 Increasing corruption<br />1764 Reforms began<br />
  3. 3. Poland: A Free State<br />
  4. 4. The First Partition1772<br />Reforms led neighboring countries (Russia, Prussia, & Austria) to interfere<br />Interference caused nobles to rebel<br />Rebellion gave Russia, Prussia, & Austria an excuse to partition parts of Poland supposedly to restore order<br />
  5. 5. The First Partition1772<br />
  6. 6. The First Partition1772<br />
  7. 7. The First Partition1772<br />
  8. 8. The Second Partition1793<br />Constitution of May 3, 1791 – brought more reform<br />After adoption of Polish Constitution, Russian army invaded Poland (1792).<br />Prussia then also invaded (1793).<br />Second partition:<br />Without Austrian participation<br />Only central section of Poland left independent, and that under Russian control.<br />
  9. 9. The Second Partition1793<br />
  10. 10. The Second Partition1793<br />
  11. 11. The Second Partition1793<br />
  12. 12. The Third Partition1795<br />After the Second Partition, Poland’s size was so reduced that the economy was ruined.<br />Support for a national uprising grew significantly (1793)<br />Thaddeus Kosciusko led Polish forces but eventually was wounded and captured (1794).<br />The uprising and the conservative rulers' reaction to the French Revolution led to the final partition.<br />All of Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and Austria.<br />
  13. 13. The Third Partition1795<br />
  14. 14. The Third Partition1795<br />
  15. 15. The Third Partition1795<br />
  16. 16. The 1800s<br />Napoleon’s conquest of Europe gave the Polish new hope for a country.<br />1807: Duchy of Warsaw established<br />1809: Duchy expanded<br />1815: Congress of Vienna returned the partitions<br />1830: November Uprising<br />1863-1864: January Uprising<br />
  17. 17. Partition meant Suppression<br />In both the Russian and Prussian (later German) partitions, Poles subject to discrimination and culture suppressed.<br /><br />Russia:<br />Polish culture, religion vs. Russian imperial ambitions<br />Anti-Polish campaign<br />Nobles' property confiscated<br />Catholic religion vs. Orthodox<br />Polish schools and universities closed<br />Executions, mass deportations<br />Prussia (then Germany):<br />Forbidden to build homes<br />Properties targeted for forced buy-outs<br />Polish language banned from public<br />Children tortured at schools for speaking Polish<br />Subjected to forceful eviction<br />
  18. 18. End of World War I brought change<br />Central Powers' surrender to Allies – ends empires of Germany & Austro-Hungary<br />Chaos of Russian Revolution – end of Russian Empire<br />Treaty of Versailles <br />
  19. 19. End of World War I brought change<br />These events led to Poland's full independence after 123 years.<br />1918-1919: Polish Republic founded<br />However…<br />
  20. 20. World War II: More Change<br />August 23, 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact <br />August 28 Secret extra information added to it<br />September 1 Nazi Germany attacked Poland – World War II began<br />September 17 Red Army crossed the eastern Polish border<br />
  21. 21. World War II:Partition & Anti-Polonism<br />1939 Poland divided again<br />1939-1945Germanhostility:<br />Ethnic Poles and Jews die<br />in concentration camps<br />1940-1945 Soviet hostility:<br /> Mass deportations and<br />executions of Poles<br />
  22. 22. Post-World War II<br />1945 WWII Ends: Poland united again<br />1945-1989 Soviet Domination: People’s Republic<br /> of Poland<br />Since 1989 Republic of Poland; free elections<br />