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Consumer Markets and
Consumer Buyer
Behavior
Chapter 6
6 - 1
Definitions
• Consumer Buying Behavior
 Buying behavior of individuals and
households that buy products for
personal consumption.
• Consumer Market
 All individuals/households who buy
products for personal consumption.
6 - 2
• Stimulus Response Model
 Marketing and other stimuli enter the
buyer’s “black box” and produce
certain choice/purchase responses.
 Marketers must figure out what is
inside of the buyer’s “black box” and
how stimuli are changed to responses.
Model of
Consumer Behavior
6 - 3
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
• Cultural
• Social
• Personal
• Psychological
• Culture
• Subcultures in Asia
 Racial
 Religious
 Regional
• Social Class
Key Factors
6 - 4
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
• Cultural
• Social
• Personal
• Psychological
• Groups
 Membership
 Reference
 Aspirational groups
 Opinion leaders
 Buzz marketing
• Family
 Changing roles of H-W
 Children can influence
• Roles and Status
Key Factors
6 - 5
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
• Cultural
• Social
• Personal
• Psychological
• Age and life cycle
• Occupation
• Economic situation
• Urbanization in Asia
• Lifestyle
 Activities, interests, and
opinions
 Lifestyle segmentation
• Personality and self-
concept
 Brand personality
Key Factors
6 - 6
Brand Personality Dimensions
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
• Sincerity
• Ruggedness
• Excitement
• Competence
• Sophistication
6 - 7
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
• Cultural
• Social
• Personal
• Psychological
• Motivation
 Needs provide motives for
consumer behavior
 Motivation research
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• Perception
 Selective attention, selective
distortion, selective retention
• Learning
 Drives, stimuli, cues, responses
and reinforcement
• Beliefs and attitudes
Key Factors
6 - 8
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Characteristics Affecting
Consumer Behavior
Self-actualization
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
6 - 9
Types of Buying-
Decision Behavior
Difference
between brands
Significant
Differences
Complex
buying behavior
Low
Few
Differences
Dissonance-
reducing buying
behavior
Habitual buying
behavior
Variety-seeking
buying behavior
High
Involvement Level
6 - 10
• Five Stages:
 Need recognition
 Information search
 Evaluation of alternatives
 Purchase decision
 Postpurchase behavior
The Buyer Decision
Process
6 - 11
The Buyer Decision
Process
• Need recognition
• Information search
• Evaluation of alternatives
• Purchase decision
• Postpurchase behavior
• Needs can be
triggered by:
 Internal stimuli
 Normal needs become
strong enough to drive
behavior
 External stimuli
 Advertisements
 Friends of friends
Process Stages
6 - 12
The Buyer Decision
Process
• Need recognition
• Information search
• Evaluation of alternatives
• Purchase decision
• Postpurchase behavior
• Consumers exhibit
heightened attention or
actively search for
information.
• Sources of information:
 Personal
 Commercial
 Public
 Experiential
• Word-of-mouth
Process Stages
6 - 13
The Buyer Decision
Process
• Need recognition
• Information search
• Evaluation of alternatives
• Purchase decision
• Postpurchase behavior
• Evaluation procedure
depends on the consumer
and the buying situation.
• Most buyers evaluate
multiple attributes, each of
which is weighted
differently.
• At the end of the evaluation
stage, purchase intentions
are formed.
Process Stages
6 - 14
The Buyer Decision
Process
• Need recognition
• Information search
• Evaluation of alternatives
• Purchase decision
• Postpurchase behavior
• Two factors intercede
between purchase
intentions and the
actual decision:
 Attitudes of others
 Unexpected situational
factors
Process Stages
6 - 15
The Buyer Decision
Process
• Need recognition
• Information search
• Evaluation of alternatives
• Purchase decision
• Postpurchase behavior
• Satisfaction is important:
 Delighted consumers
engage in positive word-of-
mouth.
 Unhappy customers tell on
average 11 other people.
 It costs more to attract a
new customer than it does
to retain an existing
customer.
• Cognitive dissonance is
common
Process Stages
6 - 16
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• New Products
 Good, service or idea that is
perceived by customers as new.
• Stages in the Adoption Process
 Marketers should help consumers
move through these stages.
6 - 17
Stages in the Adoption Process
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• Awareness
• Evaluation
• Interest
• Trial
• Adoption
6 - 18
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• Individual Differences in Innovativeness
 Consumers can be classified into five
adopter categories, each of which behaves
differently toward new products.
• Product Characteristics and Adoption
 Five product characteristics influence the
adoption rate.
6 - 19
Adopter Categories
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• Innovators
• Early Majority
• Early Adopters
• Late Majority
• Laggards
6 - 20
Product Characteristics
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• Relative Advantage
• Compatibility
• Complexity
• Divisibility
• Communicability
6 - 21
Buyer Decision Process
for New Products
• International Consumer Behavior
 Values, attitudes and behaviors differ
greatly in other countries.
 Physical differences exist which require
changes in the marketing mix.
 Customs vary from country to country.
 Marketers must decide the degree to which
they will adapt their marketing efforts.

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Consumer markets and consumer buyer behavior

  • 1. Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Chapter 6
  • 2. 6 - 1 Definitions • Consumer Buying Behavior  Buying behavior of individuals and households that buy products for personal consumption. • Consumer Market  All individuals/households who buy products for personal consumption.
  • 3. 6 - 2 • Stimulus Response Model  Marketing and other stimuli enter the buyer’s “black box” and produce certain choice/purchase responses.  Marketers must figure out what is inside of the buyer’s “black box” and how stimuli are changed to responses. Model of Consumer Behavior
  • 4. 6 - 3 Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural • Social • Personal • Psychological • Culture • Subcultures in Asia  Racial  Religious  Regional • Social Class Key Factors
  • 5. 6 - 4 Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural • Social • Personal • Psychological • Groups  Membership  Reference  Aspirational groups  Opinion leaders  Buzz marketing • Family  Changing roles of H-W  Children can influence • Roles and Status Key Factors
  • 6. 6 - 5 Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural • Social • Personal • Psychological • Age and life cycle • Occupation • Economic situation • Urbanization in Asia • Lifestyle  Activities, interests, and opinions  Lifestyle segmentation • Personality and self- concept  Brand personality Key Factors
  • 7. 6 - 6 Brand Personality Dimensions Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Sincerity • Ruggedness • Excitement • Competence • Sophistication
  • 8. 6 - 7 Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural • Social • Personal • Psychological • Motivation  Needs provide motives for consumer behavior  Motivation research  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Perception  Selective attention, selective distortion, selective retention • Learning  Drives, stimuli, cues, responses and reinforcement • Beliefs and attitudes Key Factors
  • 9. 6 - 8 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Self-actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
  • 10. 6 - 9 Types of Buying- Decision Behavior Difference between brands Significant Differences Complex buying behavior Low Few Differences Dissonance- reducing buying behavior Habitual buying behavior Variety-seeking buying behavior High Involvement Level
  • 11. 6 - 10 • Five Stages:  Need recognition  Information search  Evaluation of alternatives  Purchase decision  Postpurchase behavior The Buyer Decision Process
  • 12. 6 - 11 The Buyer Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior • Needs can be triggered by:  Internal stimuli  Normal needs become strong enough to drive behavior  External stimuli  Advertisements  Friends of friends Process Stages
  • 13. 6 - 12 The Buyer Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior • Consumers exhibit heightened attention or actively search for information. • Sources of information:  Personal  Commercial  Public  Experiential • Word-of-mouth Process Stages
  • 14. 6 - 13 The Buyer Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior • Evaluation procedure depends on the consumer and the buying situation. • Most buyers evaluate multiple attributes, each of which is weighted differently. • At the end of the evaluation stage, purchase intentions are formed. Process Stages
  • 15. 6 - 14 The Buyer Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior • Two factors intercede between purchase intentions and the actual decision:  Attitudes of others  Unexpected situational factors Process Stages
  • 16. 6 - 15 The Buyer Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior • Satisfaction is important:  Delighted consumers engage in positive word-of- mouth.  Unhappy customers tell on average 11 other people.  It costs more to attract a new customer than it does to retain an existing customer. • Cognitive dissonance is common Process Stages
  • 17. 6 - 16 Buyer Decision Process for New Products • New Products  Good, service or idea that is perceived by customers as new. • Stages in the Adoption Process  Marketers should help consumers move through these stages.
  • 18. 6 - 17 Stages in the Adoption Process Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Awareness • Evaluation • Interest • Trial • Adoption
  • 19. 6 - 18 Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Individual Differences in Innovativeness  Consumers can be classified into five adopter categories, each of which behaves differently toward new products. • Product Characteristics and Adoption  Five product characteristics influence the adoption rate.
  • 20. 6 - 19 Adopter Categories Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Innovators • Early Majority • Early Adopters • Late Majority • Laggards
  • 21. 6 - 20 Product Characteristics Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Relative Advantage • Compatibility • Complexity • Divisibility • Communicability
  • 22. 6 - 21 Buyer Decision Process for New Products • International Consumer Behavior  Values, attitudes and behaviors differ greatly in other countries.  Physical differences exist which require changes in the marketing mix.  Customs vary from country to country.  Marketers must decide the degree to which they will adapt their marketing efforts.