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PMP_Project Communication Management

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Project Management Professional (PMBOK® 5th edition) training course

Published in: Leadership & Management

PMP_Project Communication Management

  1. 1. PPROJECTROJECT CCOMMUNICATIONSOMMUNICATIONS MMANAGEMENTANAGEMENT Hisham Haridy, PMP, PMI-RMP February 2016
  2. 2. The processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information. Communications Management Plan Communications Management Manage Communications Control Communications Determining the information and communication needs for the stakeholders. Who needs, what information, when they will need it, and how it will be given to them. Making the project information in accordance with the communications management plan. Ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  3. 3. Communication involves the exchange of information: The sender is responsible of making the information clear unambiguous and complete, to receiver. The receiver has to ensure that the information received in understood and correctly understood Communication Model COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  4. 4. Communication Barriers Noisy space. Visual distractions. Distance. Tiredness. Culture. Language. Encoding messages badly. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT Encoding messages badly. Sender uses emotionally charged words or statements. Sender speaks too slow or too much. Information overload. Improving Communications Make the Message Relevant for the Receiver Reduce the Message to Its Simplest Terms Organize the Message into a Series of Stages Repeat the Key Points PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  5. 5. Communication Dimensions Internal (within the project) and external (customer, other projects, the media, the public). Formal (reports, memos, briefings) and informal (emails, ad-hoc discussions). Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers). COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers). Official (newsletters, annual report) and unofficial (off the record communications). Written and oral. Verbal and non-verbal (voice inflections, body language). PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  6. 6. Communication Skills Listening actively and effectively, Questioning, probing ideas and situations to ensure better understanding, Educating to increase team’s knowledge so that they can be more effective, Fact-finding to identify or confirm information, COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT Fact-finding to identify or confirm information, Setting and managing expectations, Persuading a person or organization to perform an action, Negotiating to achieve mutually acceptable agreements between parties, Resolving conflict to prevent disruptive impacts, and Summarizing, recapping, and identifying the next steps. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  7. 7. Communication Forms COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT Forms Characteristics Example Written Formal Precise Transmitted through the medium of correspondence Project Charter, Scope Statement, Project Plan, WBS, project status. Complex issues Contract related communication Written Email, Notes, Memos, LettersWritten Informal Email, Notes, Memos, Letters Regular communication with team members Oral Formal High Degree of Flexibility Use the medium of personal contact, group meetings or telephone Presentations, speeches. Negotiations, conflict resolution Oral Informal Conversation with team members Project Meetings Break-room or war-room conversations Non-verbal 55% of total communication Facial expressions, hand movements, tone of voice while speaking etc. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  8. 8. Improving Listening Don’t Interrupt Put the Speaker at Ease Appear Interested Cut Out Distractions COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT Cut Out Distractions Periodically Sum Up What Was Said Attention! 80% of time is spent in communicating. 50% of communicating time is spent listening. Most people recall 50% of what they hear immediately after. After two months 25% is recalled PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  9. 9. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Plan Communications Management “The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements, and available organizational assets” Techniques 1. Project management plan 2. Stakeholder register 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets 1. Communication requirements analysis 2. Communication technology 3. Communication models 4. Communication methods 5. Meetings 1. Communications management plan 2. Project document updates The key benefit of this process is that it identifies and documents the approach to communicate most effectively and efficiently with stakeholders PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  10. 10. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project Management Plan The project management plan provides information on how the project will be executed, monitored, controlled, and closed 2. Stakeholder Register The stakeholder register provides the information needed to plan the communication with project stakeholders. For example, the stakeholder register may contain; Identification information: Name, organizational position, location, role in the project, contact information; Assessment information: Major requirements, main expectations, potential influence in the project, phase in the life cycle with the most interest; and Stakeholder classification: Internal/external, supporter/neutral/resistor, etc. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  11. 11. INPUTSINPUTS 3. Enterprise Environmental Factors The structure of an organization will have a major effect on the project’s communication requirements. All enterprise environmental factors are used as inputs for this process since communication must be adapted to the project environment. 4. Organizational process assets Lessons learned and historical information are of particular importance because they can provide insights on both the decisions taken regarding communications issues and the results of those decisions in previous similar projects. These can be used as guiding information to plan the communication activities for the current project. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  12. 12. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Communication requirements analysis Communications occur internally and externally to the core project & vertically (up and down the levels of the organization], and horizontally (among peers). The goal of this technique is to identify which stakeholders should receive project communications, what communications they should receive, how they should receive these communications, and how often they should receivethey should receive these communications, and how often they should receive them. The analysis of the communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Project resources should be expended only on communicating information that contributes to the success of the project or where a lack of communication can lead to failure. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  13. 13. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Communication Channels The number of communication links can actually be calculated by the formula: Channels = [N X (N - 1)] / 2 N = the number of people on the project For example, if there are Four persons on a project team and it is necessary for them to communicate with each other, how many communications channels are there?channels are there? Channels = [4 X (4 - 1)] / 2 = 12 / 2 = 6 PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  14. 14. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Sources of information typically used to identify and define project communication requirements include, but are not limited to: Organizational charts; Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships; Disciplines, departments, and specialties involved in the project; Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations;locations; Internal information needs (e.g., when communicating within organizations); External information needs (e.g., when communicating with the media, public, or contractors); and Stakeholder information and communication requirements from within the stakeholder register. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  15. 15. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 2. Communication technology Technology is a tool, and the right tool should be selected for a given communications need. The technology should be tailored to the need. Factors that can affect the choice of communication technology include: Urgency of the need for information: immediacy of need for information. Availability of technology: compatible, available, and accessible for allAvailability of technology: compatible, available, and accessible for all stakeholders. Ease for use: Suitable for project participants. Project environment: Team meet and operate, located in one or multiple time zones, use multiple languages for communication, or culture. Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information: The most appropriate way to communicate the information should be considered. Expected project staffing and length of project can affect as well. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  16. 16. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Communication models The key components of the model include: Encode: To translate thoughts or ideas into a language that is understood by others. Message and feedback-message: The output of encoding. Medium: The method used to convey the message. Noise: Anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of the message (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, lack of backgroundthe message (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, lack of background information). Decode: To translate the message back into meaningful thoughts or ideas. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  17. 17. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Effective Communication: The sender should encode a message carefully, determine which communication method to use to send it, and confirm that the message is understood. When encoding the message, the sender needs to be aware of the following communication factors: Nonverbal About 55 % of all communication is nonverbal (i.e., based on physical mannerisms). Therefore, most of what is communicated is nonverbal. Paralingual Pitch and tone of voice also help to convey a message (aboutParalingual Pitch and tone of voice also help to convey a message (about 38% of all communication). Effective Listening The receiver should decode the message carefully and confirm the message is understood. This includes watching the speaker to pick up physical gestures and facial expressions, thinking about what to say before responding, and using active listening, in which the receiver confirms he or she is listening, expresses agreement or disagreement, or asks for clarification. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  18. 18. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Communication methods Interactive communication: Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information. It is the most efficient way to ensure a common understanding by all participants on specified topics, and includes meetings, phone calls, instant messaging, video conferencing, etc. Push communication: Sent to specific recipients who need to know the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not certifyinformation. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not certify that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience. Push communication includes letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, press releases etc. Pull communication: Used for very large volumes of information, or for very large audiences, that requires the recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion. These methods include internet sites, e-learning, and knowledge repositories, lessons learned databases, etc. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  19. 19. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5. Meetings The Plan Communications Management process requires discussion and dialogue with the project team to determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project information, and to respond to requests from various stakeholders for that information. There are several types of project-related meetings where project communications may occur.communications may occur. Typical meetings begin with a defined list of issues to be discussed, which are circulated in advance with minutes and other information documented specifically for the meeting. This information is then disseminated to other appropriate stakeholders on an as-needed basis. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  20. 20. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Communications management plan Document that provides Collection and filing structure that details what methods will be used together and store various types of information. Distribution structure that details to whom information will flow, and what methods will be used to distribute various types of information. Description of the information to be distributed, including format, content, level of detail, and conventions/definitions to be used.and conventions/definitions to be used. Production schedules showing when each production will be produced. Methods of accessing information between scheduled communications. Method of updating and refining the communications management plan as project progresses and develops. Communication management plan is formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed – based on needs of the project. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  21. 21. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 2. Project document updates Project schedule, Stakeholder register. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  22. 22. Manage Communications “The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance to the communications management plan” Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs 1. Communications management plan 2. Work performance reports 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets 1. Communication technology 2. Communication models 3. Communication methods 4. Information management systems 5. Performance reporting 1. Project Communications 2. Project management plan updates 3. Project documents updates 4. Organizational process assets Updates The key benefit of this process is that it enables an efficient and effective communications flow between project stakeholders PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  23. 23. Techniques and considerations for effective communications management include: Sender-receiver models: Incorporating feedback loops to provide opportunities for interaction/ participation and remove barriers to communication. Choice of media: Situation specifics as to when to communicate in writing versus orally, when to prepare an informal memo versus a formal report, and when to communicate face to face versus by e-mail. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMNTCOMMUNICATION MANAGEMNT communicate face to face versus by e-mail. Writing style: Appropriate use of active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice. Meeting management techniques: Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts. Presentation techniques: Awareness of the impact of body language and design of visual aids. Facilitation techniques.: Building consensus and overcoming obstacles. Listening techniques: Listening actively (acknowledging, clarifying, and confirming understanding) and removal of barriers that adversely affect comprehension. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  24. 24. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Communications Management Plan The communications management plan describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. 2. Work Performance Reports Work performance reports are a collection of project performance and status information that may be used to facilitate discussion and to create communications.communications. To optimize this process, it is important that reports be comprehensive, accurate, and available in a timely manner. 3. Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational culture and structure, Government or industry standards and regulations, and Project management information system. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  25. 25. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Organizational Process Assets Policies, procedures, processes, and guidelines regarding communications management; Templates; and Historical information and lessons learned. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  26. 26. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Communication Technology The focus is to ensure that the choice is appropriate for the information that is being communicated. 2. Communication Models The focus is to ensure that the choice of the communication model is appropriate for the project that is undertaken and that any barriers (noise) are identified andfor the project that is undertaken and that any barriers (noise) are identified and managed. 3. Communication Methods The focus is to ensure that the information that has been created and distributed has been received and understood to enable response and feedback. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  27. 27. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Information Management Systems Project information can be distributed using a variety of tools, including: Hard-copy document distribution, manual filing systems, press releases, and shared-access electronic databases; Electronic communication and conferencing tools, such as e-mail, fax, voice mail, telephone, video and web conferencing, websites and web publishing.mail, telephone, video and web conferencing, websites and web publishing. Electronic tools for project management, such as web interfaces to scheduling and project management software, meeting and virtual office support software, portals, and collaborative work management tools. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  28. 28. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5. Performance Reporting Performance reporting is the act of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts. Performance reporting involves the periodic collection and analysis of baseline versus actual data to understand and communicate the project progress and performance as well as to forecast the project results. A simple status report might show performance information, such as percentA simple status report might show performance information, such as percent complete or status dashboards for each area (i.e., scope, schedule, cost, and quality). More elaborate reports may include: Analysis of past performance, Analysis of project forecasts (including time and cost), Current status of risks and issues, Work completed during the period, Work to be completed in the next period, Summary of changes approved in the period, and Other relevant information, which is reviewed and discussed. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  29. 29. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Project Communications The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. 2. Project Management Plan Updates The project management plan provides information on project baselines,The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder management. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). 3. Project Documents Updates Issue log, Project schedule, and Project funding requirements. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  30. 30. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 4. Organizational process assets Updates Stakeholder notifications: Information may be provided to stakeholders about resolved issues, approved changes, and general project status. Project reports: Formal and informal project reports describe project status and include lessons learned, issues logs, project closure reports, and outputs from other Knowledge Areas. Project presentations: The project team provides information formally or informallyProject presentations: The project team provides information formally or informally to any or all of the project stakeholders. The information and presentation method should be relevant to the needs of the audience. Project records: Project records can include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project. This information should, to the extent possible and appropriate, be maintained in an organized manner. Project team members can also maintain records in a project notebook or register, which could be physical or electronic. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  31. 31. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Feedback from stakeholders: Information received from stakeholders concerning project operations can be distributed and used to modify or improve future performance of the project. Lessons learned documentation: Documentation includes the causes of issues, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned about information distribution. Lessons learned are documented and distributed so that they become part of the historical database for both the project and the performing organization. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  32. 32. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Control Communications The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met” 1. Project management plan 2. Project communications 3. Issue log 4. Work performance data 5. Organizational process assets 1. Information management systems 2. Expert judgment 3. Meetings 1. Work performance information 2. Change requests 3. Project management plan updates 4. Project documents updates 5. Organizational process assets updates The key benefit of this process is that it ensures an optimal information flow among all communication participants, at any moment in time PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  33. 33. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project Management Plan Stakeholder communication requirements, Reason for the distribution of the information, Timeframe and frequency for the distribution of required information, Individual or group responsible for communication of the information, and Individual or group receiving the information. 2. Project Communications2. Project Communications Deliverables status, Schedule progress, and Costs incurred. 3. Issue Log An issue log or action item log can be used to document and monitor the resolution of issues. It can be used to facilitate communication and ensure a common understanding of issues. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  34. 34. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Work Performance Data Work performance data organizes and summarizes the information gathered, and presents the results of comparative analysis to the performance measurement baseline. 5. Organizational process assets Report templates; Policies, standards, and procedures that define communications; Specific communication technologies available; Allowed communication media; Record retention policies; and Security requirements. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  35. 35. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Information Management Systems An information management system provides a set of standard tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project’s costs, schedule progress, and performance. Some software packages allow the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders.several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphic capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  36. 36. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 2. Expert Judgment Expert judgment is often relied upon by the project team to assess the impact of the project communications, need for action or intervention, actions that should be taken, responsibility for taking such actions, and the timeframe for taking action. Expert judgment may need to be applied to technical and/or management details and may be provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training.training. 3. Meetings The Control Communications process requires discussion and dialogue with the project team to determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project performance, and to respond to requests from stakeholders for information. These discussions and dialogues are commonly facilitated through meetings. Project meetings also include discussions and dialog with suppliers, vendors, and other project stakeholders. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  37. 37. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Work Performance Information Work performance information organizes and summarizes the performance data gathered. This performance data typically provides status and progress information on the project at the level of detail required by the various stakeholders. This information is then communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. 2. Change requests2. Change requests New or revised cost estimates, activity sequences, schedule dates, resource requirements, and analysis of risk response alternatives; Adjustments to the project management plan and documents; Recommendations of corrective actions that may bring the expected future performance of the project back in line with the project management plan; and Recommendations of preventive actions that may reduce the probability of incurring future negative project performance. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  38. 38. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 3. Project Management Plan Updates Control Communications process may trigger updates to the communications management plan as well as other components of the project management plan (e.g. stakeholders and human resource management plans). 4. Project Documents Updates Forecasts, Performance reports, andPerformance reports, and Issue log. 5. Organizational process assets updates Report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  39. 39. Refreshments Q1: Extensive use of - communication is most likely to aid in solving complex problems. A. Verbal B. Written C. Formal D. Nonverbal Q2: Communications under a contract should tend toward: A. Formal written communication. B. Formal verbal communication. C. Informal written communication. D. Informal verbal communication. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  40. 40. Refreshments Q3: Communication is the key to the success of a project. As the project manager, you have three stakeholders with whom you need to communicate. As such, you have six channels of communication. A new stakeholder has been added that you also need to communicate with. How many communications channels do you have now? A. 7 B. 10B. 10 C. 12 D. 16 PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  41. 41. Refreshments Q4: Stakeholders can be identified in which project management process groups? A. Initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing B. Initiating and planning C. Planning and monitoring and controlling D. Monitoring and controlling and closing PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  42. 42. Refreshments Q5: The project has 13 team members and affects over 15 departments in the organization. Because the project is 20 percent complete to date and the team has had successful performance reports from five of the affected departments, the project manager holds a party to celebrate. The project manager invites key stakeholders from all of the departments to the party, in order to give those providing good reviews an informal opportunity to communicate good things to those departments that have not yet been affected by the project. At the party, the project manager walks around to try to discover any relevant information that would help the project be more successful. He happens to hear a manager of one of the departments talking about setting up more regular meetings on the project.the project. The BEST thing for the project manager to do would be to FIRST: A. Record the effectiveness of the party in the project lessons learned. B. Review the information distribution methods on the project. C. Hold a meeting of all the stakeholders to discuss their concerns. D. Make sure the manager has a copy of the communications management plan so he is reminded that such concerns should be sent to the project manager. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016
  43. 43. THANK YOU PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT February 2016

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