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PMP_Project Integration Management

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Project Management Professional (PMBOK® 5th edition) training course

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PMP_Project Integration Management

  1. 1. PPROJECTROJECT IINTEGRATIONNTEGRATION MMANAGEMENTANAGEMENT Hisham Haridy, PMP, PMI-RMP February 2016
  2. 2. PProjectroject ManagementManagement PProcessesrocesses The main role of Project Manager is putting all the pieces of the project together into one cohesive whole that gets the project done faster, cheaper, and with fewer resources, while meeting the project objectives. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016 The reason for the project manager’ existence in an organization and on a project is to manage integration.
  3. 3. PProjectroject ManagementManagement PProcessesrocesses Communications Scope Time Cost Quality Human Resource Communications Risk Procurement Stakeholders IntegrationIntegration PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  4. 4. Processes GroupProcesses Group KnowledgeAreasKnowledgeAreas InitiatingInitiating PlanningPlanning ExecutingExecuting MonitoringMonitoring andand ControllingControlling ClosingClosing PProjectroject MManagementanagement PProcessesrocesses GGroups androups and KKnowledgenowledge AAreasreas KnowledgeAreasKnowledgeAreas PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  5. 5. PProjectroject MManagementanagement PProcessesrocesses GGroups androups and KKnowledgenowledge AAreasreas Processes Knowledge Areas Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing Integration (6) 1.Develop Project Charter 2. Develop Project Management Plan 2. Direct and Manage Project Work 4.Monitor and Control Project Work 5.Perform Integrated Change Control 6.Close Project or Phase Scope (6) 1.Plan Scope Management 2.Collect Requirements 3.Define Scope 4.Create WBS 5.Validate Scope 6.Control Scope Time (7) 1.Plan Project Schedule 2.Define Activities 3.Sequence Activities 4.Estimate Activity Resource 5.Estimate Activity Durations 6.Develop Schedule 7.Control Schedule 6.Develop Schedule Cost (4) 1.Plan Cost Management 2.Estimate Costs 3.Determine Budget 4.Control Costs Quality (3) 1.Plan Quality Management 2.Perform Quality Assurance 3.Control Quality Human Resources (4) 1.Plan Human Resource Management 2.Acquire Project Team 3.Develop Project Team 4.Manage Project Team Communications (3) 1.Plan Communication Management 2.Manage Communication 3.Control Communication Risk (6) 1.Plan Risk Management 2.Identify Risks 3.Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 4.Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 5.Plan Risk Responses 6.Control Risks Procurement (4) 1.Plan Procurement Management 2.Conduct Procurements 3.Control Procurements 4.Close Procurements Stakeholder (4) 1.Identify Stakeholders 2.Plan Stakeholder 3.Manage Stakeholder Engagement 4.Control Stakeholder Engagement PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  6. 6. PProjectroject ManagementManagement DDocumentsocuments PROJECT DOCUMENTS ProjectCharter ProjectScopeStatement 1-Scope Management Plan 2- Schedule Management Plan 3- Cost Management Plan 1- Milestone list 2-Resource Calendar 3-Risk Register Project Management Plan ProjectCharter ProjectScopeStatement 4- Quality Management Plan 5- HR Management Plan 6- Communication Management plan 7- Risk management Plan 8- Procurement Management Plan 9- Stakeholder Management Plan 10-Process Improvement Plan 11-Configuration management plan 12 - Requirements management plan Project Baselines 1- Scope Baseline 2- Schedule Baseline 3- Cost Baseline 3-Risk Register 4- Stakeholder Register 5- Stakeholder Management Strategy 6- Issue Log 9- Change Log 10- OTHERS PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  7. 7. Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Direct and Manage Project Monitor and Control Project Perform Integrated Change Close Project or Phase “The processes and activities that integrate the various elements of project management” Integration Management To coordinate all aspects of the Project Management Plan in order to accomplish the project objectivesTo coordinate all aspects of the Project Management Plan in order to accomplish the project objectives Charter Management Plan Project Execution Project Work Change Control Phase The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans. The process of performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project’s objectives. The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase. The process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations. The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  8. 8. Inputs Tools and Outputs Develop Project Charter “The process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations” Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs 1. Project statement of work 2. Business case 3. Agreements 4. Enterprise environmental factors 5. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Facilitation techniques 1. Project charter PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  9. 9. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project statement of work Business need: An organization’s business need may be based on a market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, or government regulation. Product scope description: This documents the characteristics of the product that the project will be undertaken to create. Strategic plan: The strategic plan documents the organization’s strategic goals. 2. Business case2. Business case The business case is created as a result of one or more of the following: Market demand Organizational need Customer request Technological advance Legal requirement 3. Agreement Agreements are used to define initial intentions for a project. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  10. 10. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Enterprise environmental factors Appears as an input into most planning processes. Can be anything external to your project that affects your project. The things that impact your project that are not part of the project itself, such as: Company's organizational structure Organization's values and work ethic Government standards, laws and regulations where the work is being performedGovernment standards, laws and regulations where the work is being performed or where the product will be used The characteristics of project's stakeholders (their expectations and willingness to accept risk) The overall state of the marketplace for the project Business infrastructure systems Personnel policies PMIS (Project Management Information Systems) PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  11. 11. INPUTSINPUTS 5. Organizational process assets Project managers have also been dealing with existing processes, procedures, and historical information. These help the project benefit from past company experience. The PMBOK" Guide calls these organizational process assets. The trick is to think of organizational process assets as what they really are-processes, procedures, and historical information.information. The following are some examples of organizational process assets. Processes, Procedures, and Policies. Corporate Knowledge Base Historical Information Lessons Learned. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  12. 12. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert judgment Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training, and is available from many sources, including: Other units within the organization, Consultants,Consultants, Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors, Professional and technical associations, Industry groups, Subject matter experts, and Project management office (PMO). 2. Facilitation Techniques Facilitation techniques have broad application within project management processes and guide the development of the project charter Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  13. 13. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Project charter The project charter is such an important document that project CAN NOT be started without one. A project charter may be created by the project manager but is issued by sponsor in the initiating process group. It is abroad enough so it does not NEED to change as the project progresses. It provides the following benefits: The project charter formally recognizes (authorizes) the existence of the project. It gives the project manager authority to spend money and commit corporate resource. The project charter provides the high – level requirements for the project. It links the project to the ongoing work of the organization. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  14. 14. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  15. 15. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS The main information in Project Charter: Project purpose or justification, Measurable project objectives and related success criteria, High-level requirements, High-level project description, High-level risks, Summary milestone schedule, Summary budget, Project approval requirements (what constitutes project success, who decides the project is successful, and who signs off on the project), Assigned project manager, responsibility, and authority level, and Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  16. 16. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Project Charter Project Title and Description (what is the project?) The First Personal Assistant Project Manager Assigned and Authority Level (who is given authority to lead the project, and can he l she determine, manage, and approve changes to budget, schedule, staffing, etc.?) Business Case (Why is the project being done? On what financial or other basis can we justify doing this project?)justify doing this project?) Resources Pre-assigned (How many or which resources will be provided?) Stakeholders (Who will affect or be affected by the project (influence the project), as known to date?) Stakeholder Requirements AS Known (Requirements related to both project and product scope). PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  17. 17. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Project Charter Product Description / Deliverables (What specific product deliverables are wanted and what will be the end result of the project?) Measurable Project Objectives (How does the project tie into the organization’s strategic goals? What project objectives support those goals? The objectives need to be measurable and will depend on the defined priority of the project constraints.) Project Approval Requirements (What items need to be approved for the project, andProject Approval Requirements (What items need to be approved for the project, and who will have sign-off? What designates success?) High-Level Project Risks (Potential threats and opportunities for the project). Project Sponsor Authorizing This Project: ------------------------------------ ----------------------------------- PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  18. 18. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Develop Project Management Plan “The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans” Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 2. Outputs from planning processes 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Facilitation techniques 1. Project management plan PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  19. 19. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project charter 2. Outputs from planning processes Outputs from many of the planning processes are integrated to create the project management plan. Any baselines and subsidiary management plans that are an output from other planning processes are inputs to this process. In addition, updates to these documents can necessitate updates to the project management plan.management plan. 3. Enterprise environmental factors Governmental or industry standards, Project management information systems, Organizational structure and culture, Infrastructure and Personnel administration (e.g., hiring and firing guidelines, employee performance reviews, and training records). PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  20. 20. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Organizational process assets Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria, Project management plan template that may be updated include, Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project, and Project closure guidelines or requirements like the product validation and acceptance criteria,acceptance criteria, Change control procedures including the steps by which official company standards, policies, plans, and procedures, or any project documents will be modified and how any changes will be approved and validated, Project files from past projects Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base. Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official company standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  21. 21. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert judgment Tailor the process to meet the project needs, Develop technical and management details to be included in the project management plan, Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work, Define the level of configuration management to apply on the project, Determine which project documents will be subject to the formal change control process. 2. Facilitation Techniques Facilitation techniques have broad application within project management processes and guide the development of the project charter Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  22. 22. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Project Management Plan A project management plan is an integration function-it integrates all the knowledge area management plans into a cohesive whole. The project manager creates the project management plan with inputs of the project team. This plan includes the baselines for the project (Scope, Schedule, Cost) and also it called performance measurement baselines.called performance measurement baselines. The project management plan includes: The project management processes that will be used on the project. Subsidiary plans for scope, schedule, cost, quality, human resources, communications, risk, procurement, and stakeholders. A requirements management plan. A change management plan. A configuration management plan. Latest version! A process improvement plan. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  23. 23. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs 1.1. Project management planProject management plan 1. Expert judgment 1.1. DeliverablesDeliverables Direct and Manage Project Execution “The process of performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project’s objectives” 1.1. Project management planProject management plan 2. Approved change requests 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2.2. Project managementProject management information system (PMIS)information system (PMIS) 3. Meetings 1.1. DeliverablesDeliverables 2. Work performance data 3. Change requests 4. Project management plan updates 5. Project document updates The key benefit of this process is that it providesprovides overalloverall managementmanagement ofof thethe projectproject workwork.. TheThe projectproject managermanager directsdirects thethe performanceperformance ofof thethe plannedplanned projectproject activitiesactivities.. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  24. 24. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project management plan Scope management plan Requirements management plan Schedule management plan Cost management plan Stakeholder management plan 2. Approved change requests2. Approved change requests As part of the Perform Integrated Change Control process, a change control status update will indicate that some changes are approved and some are not. Scheduled for implementation by the project team. The documented, authorized changes to expand or reduce project scope. Can also modify policies, the project management plan, procedures, costs, or budgets; or revise schedules. May require implementation of preventive or corrective actions. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  25. 25. INPUTSINPUTS 3. Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational, company or customer culture and structure. Infrastructure. Personnel administration Stakeholder risk tolerances. Project management information systems. 4. Organizational process assets Standardized guidelines and work instructions. Communication requirements. Issue and defect management procedures. Process measurement database. Project files from prior projects Issue and defect management database. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  26. 26. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert judgment Such judgment and expertise is applied to all technical and management details during this process. 2. Project management information system (PMIS) The system that helpshelps youyou produceproduce andand keepkeep tracktrack ofof thethe documentsdocuments andand deliverablesdeliverables.. Example: a PMIS might help your organization produce the project charter by having you fill in a few fields on a computer screen. It might then generate the project charter and set up a project billing code with accounting. While the PMIS usually consists primarily of software, it will often interface with manual systems. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  27. 27. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Meetings Purpose: Discuss and address pertinent topics of the project when directing and managing project work. Attendees: 1) Project manager, 2) Project team2) Project team 3) Appropriate stakeholders involved or affected by the topics addressed. Types: 1) Information exchange 2) Brainstorming, option evaluation, or design 3) Decision making. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  28. 28. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Deliverables An approved deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables are produced as outputs from processes performed to accomplish the project work as planned and scheduled in the project management plan. 2. Work Performance Data The work performance data is collected and appropriately actioned and communicated. Deliverable status, Schedule progress, and Costs incurred. and scheduled in the project management plan. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  29. 29. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS The work performance data is collected throughout the execution phase of the project, and then it is sent to various controlling processes to analyze it further; e.g. Validate Scope, Control Scope, Control Schedule, Control Cost, etc. In other words, it is the current (“as of now”) status of various project parameters such as: how much work is completed, how much time has elapsed, the cost incurred so far, etc. The work performance data is the raw observations and measurementsThe work performance data is the raw observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project work; e.g. actual cost, actual duration, and percent of work physically completed, the raw data of the project’s status PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  30. 30. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 3. Change Requests Change request from customer (may be he needs to change the product features!). Corrective action. Preventive action. Defect repair. Updates: Changes to formally controlled documentation, plans, etc., to reflect modified or additional ideas or content. Corrective Action Preventive Action Defect Repair An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. Quality issue!!! An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. To avoid problem in the future!!! An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component. Physical problems!!1 PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  31. 31. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 4. Project Management Plan Updates Requirements management plan, Schedule management plan, Cost management plan, Quality management plan, Human resource plan, Communications management plan, Risk management plan, Procurement management plan, and Project baselines. 5. Project Document Updates Requirements documents, Project logs (issue, assumptions, etc.), Risk register, and Stakeholder register. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  32. 32. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Monitor and Control Project Work “The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan” Techniques 1. Project management plan 2. Schedule forecasts 3. Cost forecasts 4. Validated changes 5. Work performance information 6. Enterprise environmental factors 7. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Analytical techniques 3. Project management information system (PMIS) 4. Meetings 1. Change requests 2. Work performance reports 3. Project management plan updates 4. Project documents updates The key benefit of this process is that it allows stakeholders to understand the current state of the project, the steps taken, and budget, schedule, and scope forecasts. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  33. 33. Monitor and ControlMonitor and Control +/- Variance PlanPlan ActualActual VarianceVariance analysis andanalysis and trend evaluationtrend evaluation 1. Monitors and controls deliverables/ processes to do with initiating, planning, executing and closing by comparing actual performance against project plan. 2. Assesses corrective and preventive actions. 3. Monitors the effectiveness of implementing ProjectProject Manager toManager to follow up thefollow up the ImplementationImplementation Recommend andRecommend and implementimplement CorrectiveCorrective oror preventivepreventive ActionAction 3. Monitors the effectiveness of implementing approved changes. You should know the variance or deviations from baselines are often due to incomplete risk identification and risk management. 1.1. Bring deviation under controlBring deviation under control 2.2. Decided if and when action is requiredDecided if and when action is required 3.3. Make recommendationsMake recommendations 4.4. Issue change requestIssue change request PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  34. 34. Monitor and ControlMonitor and Control 1. Comparing actual project performance against the project management plan. 2. Assessing performance. 3. Analyzing, tracking, and monitoring project risks. 4. Maintaining an accurate, timely information base concerning the project’s product(s). 5. Providing information to support status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting. 6. Providing forecasts to update current cost and current schedule information. 7. Monitoring implementation of approved changes when and as they occur. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  35. 35. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project Management Plan Baselines(Scope, Schedule, and Cost). Subsidiary plans within the project management plan form the basis for controlling the project. 2. Schedule Forecasts The schedule forecasts are derived from progress against the schedule baseline and computed time estimate to complete (ETC).and computed time estimate to complete (ETC). This is typically expressed in terms of schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI). 3. Cost Forecasts The cost forecasts are derived from progress against the cost baseline and computed estimates to complete (ETC). This is typically expressed in terms of cost variance (CV) and cost performance index (CPI). PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  36. 36. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Validated Change Approved changes that result from the Perform Integrated Change Control process require validation to ensure that the change was appropriately implemented. A validated change provides the necessary data to confirm that the change was appropriately executed. 5. Work Performance Information Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Examples of performance information are status of deliverables, implementation status for change requests, and forecasted estimates to complete. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  37. 37. INPUTSINPUTS 6. Enterprise Environmental Factors Governmental or industry standards Company work authorization system Stakeholder risk tolerances Project management information systems 7. Organizational Process Assets7. Organizational Process Assets Organization communication requirements Financial controls procedures Issue and defect management procedures Risk control procedures Process measurement database Lessons learned database. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  38. 38. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert Judgment Expert judgment is used by the project management team to interpret the information provided by the monitor and control processes. The project manager, in collaboration with the team, determines the actions required to ensure project performance matches expectations. 2. Analytical Techniques Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are:Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are: Regression analysis, Grouping methods, Causal analysis, Root cause analysis, Forecasting methods (e.g., time series, scenario building, simulation, etc.), Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), Fault tree analysis (FTA), Reserve analysis, Trend analysis, Earned value management, and Variance analysis. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  39. 39. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Project Management Information System The project management information system is part of enterprise environmental factors. Provides access to automated tools, such as scheduling, cost, and resourcing tools, performance indicators, databases, project records, and financials used during the Monitor and Control Project Work process. 4. Meetings4. Meetings Attendees: 1) Project manager, 2) Project team 3) Appropriate stakeholders involved or affected by the topics addressed. Types: 1) User groups 2) Review Meetings. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  40. 40. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Change Requests Corrective action. Preventive action. Defect repair. 2. Work Performance Reports Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. Communicate project performance and status information. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  41. 41. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Work performance data Work performance information The “as of now” status of the project status, it provides the current status of the project A comparison between the actual performance with the planned performance. Example: The actual cost spent, actual time Example: Cost Variance, Schedule Variance, Work performance DATA, INFORMATION, and REPORTWork performance DATA, INFORMATION, and REPORT Example: The actual cost spent, actual time elapsed, etc. Example: Cost Variance, Schedule Variance, Cost Performance Index, and Schedule Performance Index Work performance Report Give stakeholders the information on how the project is progressing in the form of well- organized and summarized reports, at level of detail that they require Example: Status reports, memos, justifications, information notes, recommendations, and updates. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  42. 42. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 3. Project Management Plan Updates Schedule management plan, Cost management plan, Quality management plan, Scope baseline, Schedule baseline, and Cost performance baseline. 4. Project Document Updates Forecasts, Performance reports, and Issue log. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  43. 43. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  44. 44. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Perform Integrated Change Control “The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan” Inputs Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 2. Work performance reports 3. Change requests 4. Enterprise environmental factors 5. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Meetings 3.3. Change control toolsChange control tools 1. Approved change requests 2.2. Change logChange log 3. Project management plan updates 4. Project document updates The key benefit of this process is that it allows for documented changes within the project to be considered in an integrated fashion while reducing project risk, which often arises from changes made without consideration to the overall project objectives or plans. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  45. 45. Change ControlChange Control Change management Activities 1. Influencing the factors that circumvent integrated change control so that ONLY approved changes are implemented; 2. Reviewing, analyzing, and approving change requests promptly, which is essential, as a slow decision may negatively affect time, cost, or the feasibility of a change; 3. Managing the approved changes; 4. Maintaining the integrity of baselines by releasing only approved changes for4. Maintaining the integrity of baselines by releasing only approved changes for incorporation into the project management plan and project documents; 5. Reviewing, approving, or denying all recommended corrective and preventive actions; 6. Coordinating changes across the entire project (e.g., a proposed schedule change will often affect cost, risk, quality, and staffing); and 7. Documenting the complete impact of change requests. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  46. 46. Configuration management activities Configuration identification Configuration status accounting. Configuration verification and audit. Change ControlChange Control PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  47. 47. Project Management Information System (PMIS) An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include Change ControlChange Control both manual and automated systems. The system that helps you produce and keep track of the documents and deliverables. Example: a PMIS might help your organization produce the project charter by having you fill in a few fields on a computer screen. It might then generate the project charter and set up a project billing code with accounting. While the PMIS usually consists primarily of software, it will often interface with manual systems. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  48. 48. Change ControlChange Control ConfigurationConfiguration ManagementManagement SystemSystem A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  49. 49. Change Control System A collection of formal documented procedures that define how project deliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed, and approved. Change ControlChange Control In most application areas, the change control system is a subset of the configuration management system. Change Control system is part of Enterprise Environmental Factors (internal) on a project. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  50. 50. Change ControlChange Control Change Management System Configuration Management System Comprised of several components that guide the change request through the process. When a change request is made that will affect the project scope. The evaluates the change request and documents the features and functions of the change on the project scope PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016 affect the project scope.
  51. 51. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project management plan Changes are documented and updated within the project management plan as part of the change and configuration management processes. 2. Work performance reports Work performance reports of particular interest to the Perform Integrated Change Control process include resource availability, schedule and cost data, and earned value management (EVM) reports.value management (EVM) reports. 3. Change requests All of the monitoring and control processes and many of the executing processes produce change requests as an output. Change requests can include corrective action, preventive action, and defect repairs. However, corrective and preventive actions do not normally affect the project baselines, only the performance against the baselines. 4. Enterprise environmental factors Project management information system. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  52. 52. INPUTSINPUTS 5. Organizational process assets Change control procedures, including the steps by which official company standards, policies, plans, and other project documents will be modified, and how any changes will be approved, validated, and implemented; Procedures for approving and issuing change authorizations; Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products; Project files. Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official company standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  53. 53. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert judgment In addition to the project management team’s expert judgment, stakeholders may be asked to provide their expertise and may be asked to sit on the change control board. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical and management details during this process and may be provided by various sources. 2. Meetings A change control board is responsible for meeting and reviewing the changeA change control board is responsible for meeting and reviewing the change requests and approving or rejecting those change requests. The roles and responsibilities of these boards are clearly defined and are agreed upon by appropriate stakeholders. All change control board decisions are documented and communicated to the stakeholders for information and follow-up actions. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  54. 54. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Change Control Tools The roles and responsibilities of these boards are clearly defined and are agreed upon by appropriate stakeholders. In order to facilitate configuration and change management, manual or automated tools may be used. Tool selection should be based on the needs of the project stakeholders including organizational and environmental considerations and/or constraints. Tools are used to manage the change requests and the resulting decisions. Additional considerations should be made for communication to assist the CCB members in their duties as well as distribute the decisions to the appropriate stakeholders. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  55. 55. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Approved change request Change requests are processed according to the change control system by the project manager or by an assigned team member. Approved change requests will be implemented by the Direct and Manage Project Execution process. The status of all changes, approved or not, will be updated in the change request log as part of the project document updates. 2. Change log A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  56. 56. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 3. Project management plan updates Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include but are not limited to: Any subsidiary management plans, and Baselines that are subject to the formal change control process. Changes to baselines should only show the changes from the current time forward. Past performance may not be changed. This protects the integrity of the baselines and the historical data of past performance. 4. Project document updates Project documents that may be updated as a result of the Perform Integrated Change Control process include the change request log and any documents that are subject to the formal change control process. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  57. 57. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Close Project or Phase Control “The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase” Inputs Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 2. Accepted deliverables 3. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Analytical techniques 3. Meetings 1. Final product, service, or result transition 2. Organizational process assets updates PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  58. 58. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project management plan The project management plan becomes the agreement between the project manager and project sponsor, defining what constitutes project completion. 2. Accepted deliverables Accepted deliverables may include approved product specifications, delivery receipts, and work performance documents. Partial or interim deliverables may also be included for phased or cancelled projects. 3. Organizational process assets Project or phase closure guidelines or requirements. Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  59. 59. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Expert judgment Expert judgment is applied when performing administrative closure activities. These experts ensure the project or phase closure is performed to the appropriate standards. 2. Analytical Techniques Regression analysis. Trend analysis.Trend analysis. 3. Meetings Meetings may be face-to-face, virtual, formal, or informal. This may include project team members and other stakeholders, involved in or affected by the project. Types of meetings include, lessons learned, closeout, user group, and review meetings. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  60. 60. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  61. 61. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Final product, service, or result transition Formal acceptance and handover of the final product/service. Includes receiving a formal statement that the terms of the contract have been met. 2. Organizational process assets updates Project files. Documentation resulting from the project’s activities, for example, project management plan, scope, cost, schedule and project calendars, risk registers, change management documentation, planned risk response actions, and risk impact. Project or phase closure documents. Formal documentation that indicates completion of the project or phase and the transfer of the completed project or phase deliverables to others, such as an operations group or to the next phase. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  62. 62. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS During project closure the project manager reviews prior phase documentation, customer acceptance documentation from the Verify Scope process and the contract, to ensure that all project requirements are complete prior to finalizing the closure of the project. If the project was terminated prior to completion, the formal documentation indicates why the project was terminated and formalizes the procedures for the transfer of the finished and unfinished deliverables of the cancelled project totransfer of the finished and unfinished deliverables of the cancelled project to others. Historical information Historical information and lessons learned information are transferred to the lessons learned knowledge base for use by future projects or phases. This can include information on issues and risks as well as techniques that worked well that can be applied to future projects. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  63. 63. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Deliverable Turnover—Verification and Acceptance. In this step, deliverables are reviewed and tested against previously determined requirements and are accepted by the customer with a formal sign- off. 2. Post completion Data. In this step, you determine any variances in the schedule, cost (personnel and expenses), and scope (deliverables and requirements). 3. Follow-Up Maintenance and Warranties. If applicable, hand off any hardware, software, or other equipment and review the coverage on warranties and the maintenance requirements. Administrative closure other equipment and review the coverage on warranties and the maintenance requirements. 4. Team Member Performance Reporting. The project manager provides information to functional management on the performance of project team members during the life of the project. 5. Financials. Ensure that all expenses are paid and project budgets are closed. Generate the necessary financial reports. 6. Releasing Staff. Ensure a smooth transition for all staff to new assignments. Notify functional managers with sufficient lead time so that meaningful work assignments can be made. 7. Formal Closing Report. Prepare a summary of the information above, including any open issues, and distribute it to appropriate stakeholders. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  64. 64. 1. Turnover of deliverables and all necessary supporting documentation 2. Verification of work and deliverables 3. Formal acceptance of deliverables per previously defined requirements 4. Audit to document performance OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Contractual Closure 5. Final documentation that the contract is complete 6. Final payment PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  65. 65. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Closing Process Group Project is complete Project Phase is complete Procurement is complete Project or procurement is terminated Conduct Close-Out Meeting Share Lesson Learned Evaluate Success PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  66. 66. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Close-Out Meeting AGENDA 1. Review project statement of work. 2. Review actual deliverables and show how project met its measurable success indicators. 3. Summarize what was done well. 4. Identify areas for improvement. 5. Request recommendations for improvement. 6. Determine if any additional tasks are required to complete the project. 7. List additional tasks, responsible persons, and due date. 8. Document lessons learned for the project notebook. 9. Discuss the project notebook availability to appropriate personnel for future projects. 10. Evaluate subcontractor performance. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  67. 67. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Informal Project Team Close-Out Meeting 1. Brainstorm to identify what went right with the project. 2. Brainstorm to identify what went wrong with the project. 3. List ideas for improvements. 4. List ideas for ensuring that what went right happens again.4. List ideas for ensuring that what went right happens again. 5. Recognize the accomplishments of individuals. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  68. 68. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Project Manager’s Role during the project Close-Out 1. Ensure that all project deliverables have been completed and formally accepted by the customer. 2. Determine if the measurable success indicators were achieved. 3. Conduct project close-out meetings, both internal and external.3. Conduct project close-out meetings, both internal and external. 4. Write the final project report. 5. Document and share lessons learned. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  69. 69. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Sharing LESSON LEARNED 1. Lessons Learned Database Categorized electronic project information database 2. Continuous Improvement Recommendations Project Management ProcessProject Management Process Forms Standards PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  70. 70. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Evaluation Project SCUCCESS 1. Project purpose 2. Deliverables 3. Measurable success indicators Quality ScheduleSchedule Cost PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  71. 71. REMEMBERREMEMBER 1. The meaning of control that is important to project managers is the one that concerns the use of information, comparing actual progress to the plan so that action can be taken to correct for deviations from plan. 2. The only way a project is really in control is if all team members are in control of their own work. 3. The effort used to control a project should be worthwhile. You don’t want to spend $100 to purchase a $3 battery.$100 to purchase a $3 battery. 4. If you take no action in response to a deviation, you have a monitoring system, not a control system. 5. Project working times must be recorded daily. If people wait a week to capture what they have done, they rely on memory and end up writing down estimates of what they did. Such data are no good for future estimating. 6. Project evaluation is done to determine whether a project should continue or be canceled. Process reviews also should help the team learn in order to improve performance. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  72. 72. REMEMBERREMEMBER 1. Change must be controlled and communicated. 2. Understanding and identifying likely sources of change assists you in remaining proactive. 3. Typical sources of change are scope, schedule, and budget adjustments. 4. It is crucial to keep the baseline plan current. 5. The six common steps you will take in a typical change control process are to enter the initial change control information into your change control log 1; determine if the change should be processed 2; submit recommendations to management and/or the customer for review and approval 3; update the project plan; distribute the updated plan 4; and monitor the change 5 and track progress against the revised plan 6. 6. The change control form and log are your primary controlling documents. 7. Thresholds should be established when determining your response to project change. 8. Project spin-off usually occurs when the project change is so dramatic that you and your team determine that an entirely separate project should be initiated. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  73. 73. REMEMBERREMEMBER 9. Work Authorization System A collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized to ensure the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence. A formal procedure for sanctioning project work. When I should start the work I’ve been assigned. 10. Integration is done by project manager. 11. Effective integration requires effective communication. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  74. 74. Refreshments Q1: Effective project integration usually requires an emphasis on: A. The personal careers of the team members. B. Timely updates to the project management plan. C. Effective communications at key interface points. D. Product control. Q2: The need for ------------ is one of the major driving forces for communication in a project. A. Optimization B. Integrity C. Integration D. Differentiation PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  75. 75. Refreshments Q3: All of the following are parts of an effective change management plan EXCEPT: A. Procedures B. Standards for reports C. Meetings D. Lessons learned PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  76. 76. Refreshments Q4: A work authorization system can be used to: A. Manage who does each activity. B. Manage what time and in what sequence work is done. C. Manage when each activity is done. D. Manage who does each activity and when it is done. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  77. 77. Refreshments Q5: The project charter for a project was approved for planning and you have just been assigned as project manager. Realizing that project planning is an ongoing effort throughout the project, which processes are you MOST likely to combine? A. Create WBS and Define Activities B. Estimate Activity Durations and Develop Schedule C. Develop Human Resource Plan and Estimate CostsC. Develop Human Resource Plan and Estimate Costs D. Estimate Costs and Determine Budget PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016
  78. 78. THANK YOU PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT February 2016

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