Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

CCP_SEC3_Planning and Scheduling

869 views

Published on

A CCP is an experienced practitioner with advanced knowledge and technical expertise to apply the broad principles and best practices of Total Cost Management (TCM) in the planning, execution and management of any organizational project or program. CCPs also demonstrate the ability to research and communicate aspects of TCM principles and practices to all levels of project or program stakeholders, both internally and externally.

Published in: Leadership & Management
  • Want to preview some of our plans? You can get 50 Woodworking Plans and a 440-Page "The Art of Woodworking" Book... Absolutely FREE ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/A6hKZsXN
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • There are over 16,000 woodworking plans that comes with step-by-step instructions and detailed photos, Click here to take a look ♣♣♣ http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The #1 Woodworking Resource With Over 16,000 Plans, Download 50 FREE Plans...  http://tinyurl.com/y3hc8gpw
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

CCP_SEC3_Planning and Scheduling

  1. 1. PPLANNING ANDLANNING AND SSCHEDULINGCHEDULING Hisham Haridy, PMP, PMI-RMP, PMI-SPCCP_Section 3
  2. 2. 1. Project Planning 2. Scheduling CContentontent P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  3. 3. Planning Scheduling A Plan is a logical sequence of events to accomplish a goal (what and how) A Schedule incorporates durations and dates into the sequence of events necessary to accomplish the plan (who and when). PLANNING VS. SCHEDULINGPLANNING VS. SCHEDULING P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G ScheduleSchedule TheThe WorkWork Create a schedule for all the work which identifies activities, durations, milestones and interdependencies. A project schedule is the agreed upon set of tasks and due dates used to guide and monitor the project to completion.
  4. 4. Project planning is the activity with the most impact on the ultimate success or failure of the project. When this work is properly executed, the financial return is clear and substantial. PROJECT PLANNINGPROJECT PLANNING Abraham Lincoln once said, “If I had six hours to chop down a tree, I would spend four hours sharpening the ax.” P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G sharpening the ax.” He knew that advance planning and preparation are essential to successfully completing a project.
  5. 5. PROJECT PLANNINGPROJECT PLANNING Identify the stakeholders, contract requirements, and project delivery method. Identify the scope of work and the constraints/variables that may impact the project. Establish an acceptable course of action ("plan") to perform the project (scope of P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Establish an acceptable course of action ("plan") to perform the project (scope of work) in an organized and coordinated manner through the review of project deliverables, requirements, roles and responsibilities. Respond to events during project execution and develop alternate plans to keep the project on schedule.
  6. 6. WHAT THE SCHEDULE WILL OUTLINE?WHAT THE SCHEDULE WILL OUTLINE? The major activities to be accomplished in the project. The detailed tasks associated with those activities. Dependencies and relationships between tasks and activities. The project schedule is a comprehensive calendar depicting: Time (duration) estimates for all tasks and activitiesTime (duration) estimates for all tasks and activities Start and finish dates for the tasks and activities Names of resources assigned responsibility to complete the tasks and activities Current status of each task and activity The project schedule is structured to reflect the WBS and includes successor/predecessor relationships representing the dependencies between tasks and activities. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  7. 7. PROJECT CONSTRAINSPROJECT CONSTRAINS Factors that limit the project team’s options. Budget Constraints Target Date Constraints Resource Availability Constraint Duration ConstraintDuration Constraint Task Predecessor Constraint. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  8. 8. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONSPROJECT ASSUMPTIONS Assumptions are external circumstances or events that MUST occur for the project to be successful, and they involve some risk. Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered true, real or certain. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  9. 9. ACTIVITIESACTIVITIES Activity list: A comprehensive list including all schedule activities planned to be performed on the project. Work is performed and described in terms of a verb, objective and noun- there is action performed A single person is responsible for an activity- accountability It has defined start and finish dates Usually, there is a tangible output or product at completion It fits logically under an existing WBS element It is of a size and duration that is sufficient for control The labor and costs necessary to perform the activity can be estimated Actual progress data can be collected for the activity P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  10. 10. ACTIVITIESACTIVITIES P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  11. 11. Hammock Activities (Level of efforts)Hammock Activities (Level of efforts) An aggregate or summary activity Hammocks can be used to measure the duration between any two points in a plan and can have costs associated with them. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  12. 12. The technique of decomposition, as applied to defining activities, involves subdividing the project work packages into smaller, more manageable components called activities. The final outputs is activities while in Create WBS the final output is deliverables. DECOMPOSITIONDECOMPOSITION deliverables. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  13. 13. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTUREWORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE The most effective tool to use in ensuring that all work scope is planned and modeled in the CPM schedule, is the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The WBS is a valuable management tool for planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling projects. The WBS is a tree structure of successively further breakdowns of work scope P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G into component parts for planning, assigning responsibility, managing, controlling, and reporting project progress. The top of the tree represents the whole. Subsequent levels represent divisions of the whole on a level by level basis until the smallest element desired is defined.
  14. 14. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTUREWORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  15. 15. Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process. PROGRESSIVE ELABORATIONPROGRESSIVE ELABORATION P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  16. 16. Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS. ROLLING WAVE PLANNINGROLLING WAVE PLANNING P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  17. 17. Significant events within the project schedule like; the design is completed, or a deliverable due date from the customer. Contractual / Mandatory Optional/Additional MILESTONEMILESTONE The orient Express 1883-1977 Contractual / Mandatory Optional/Additional Can be imposed by the sponsor in the project charter and preliminary project scope statement. Can be imposed by the project manager during activity sequencing or schedule development, as checkpoints to help control the project. A list of milestones becomes part of the project management plan and is included in the project scope statement and WBS dictionary. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  18. 18. This process is to take the activities and start to sequence them into how the work will be performed. The result is a network diagram (or project schedule network diagram) which can look like the following picture. ACTIVITY LOGIC AND LOGIC DIAGRAMMINGACTIVITY LOGIC AND LOGIC DIAGRAMMING Techniques to represent activities: Activity-on-Node (AON) Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Conditional Diagramming methods: Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) model P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  19. 19. In this method, nodes (or boxes) are used to represent activities, and arrows show activity dependencies as follows: PRECEDENCEPRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMINGDIAGRAMMING METHODMETHOD (PDM)(PDM) –– ACTIVITYACTIVITY--ONON-- NODENODE (AON)(AON) Activity (A) Activity (B) Activity (C) Predecessor Successor START A B C FINISH D P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  20. 20. DEPENDENCIESDEPENDENCIES RELATIONSHIPSRELATIONSHIPS Predecessor Successor Finish to start (FS) Activity (1) must finish before Activity (2) can start. Start to Start (SS) When Activity (1) begins, Activity (2) Activity (1) Activity (2) FS12 Activity (1) ActivitySS12 Most Common When Activity (1) begins, Activity (2) begins. Finish to Finish (FF) When Activity (1) ends, Activity (2) ends. Start to Finish (SF) When Activity (1) starts, Activity (2) may end. (1) Activity (2) SS12 Activity (1) Activity (2) FF12 Activity (1) Activity (2)SF12Rarely Used P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  21. 21. The arrows are used to represent activities. The nodes (in this case circles) represent activity dependencies. ARROW DIAGRAMMING METHOD (ADM) OR ACTIVITYARROW DIAGRAMMING METHOD (ADM) OR ACTIVITY--ONON--ARROWARROW (AOA)(AOA) A B Activity ABActivity A A or Uses only finish-to-start (FS) relationships between activities. May use dummy activities. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  22. 22. GERT “GRAPHICAL EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE”GERT “GRAPHICAL EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE” Dr. Alan B. Pritsker, 1966 A network diagram drawing method that allows loops between activities. Allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic and estimation of activity duration The easiest example is when you have an activity to design a component and then test it. After testing, it may or may not need to be redesigned. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G After testing, it may or may not need to be redesigned. GERT is only rarely on the exam and when it does appear, it is most often just a choice on the multiple choice questions. Activity (A) Activity (B)
  23. 23. Mandatory Discretionary External Internal Those which are inherent in the nature of the work being done. They often involve physical limitations. Preferential logic, or soft logic. Defined by the project management team. Relationship between project and non-project activities. Has a direct impact on the a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project DEPENDENCIES DETERMINATIONDEPENDENCIES DETERMINATION physical limitations. “Hard Logic” team. Should be kept to minimum since they will limit scheduling options. “Preferred / Soft Logic” impact on the project activities Other projects Stakeholders Sub-Contractors the project team’s control. Audits (design, testing, ..etc) Sign-Offs at end of phase. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  24. 24. Leads Lags A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor task. A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor task. Coding might be able to start 5 days before You must wait 3 days after pouring LEADS AND LAGSLEADS AND LAGS the design is finished. concrete before you can construct the frame of the house. 2 should start after 1, but it is not completely essential that 1 be finished 2 cannot start until a given amount of time after 1 is done 2 1 2 1 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  25. 25. COMMON ERRORSCOMMON ERRORS P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Redundant Logic Loops
  26. 26. COMMON ERRORSCOMMON ERRORS P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Open Ends
  27. 27. Project schedule network diagrams are schematic displays of the project’s schedule activities and the logical relationships among them, also referred to as dependencies. Network diagrams can be used to: Show interdependencies of all activities. Show workflow so the team will know what activities need to happen in a specific sequence. PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMSPROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS Aid in effectively planning, organizing and controlling the project. Compress the schedule in planning and throughout the life of the project (defined later). Show project progress if used for schedule control and reporting. Help justify your time estimate for the project. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  28. 28. PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMSPROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  29. 29. PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMSPROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  30. 30. Activity Preceding Activity Duration Start 0 A Start 3 B A 3 EXERCISEEXERCISE Draw the project network B A 3 C A 6 D B 8 E D,C 4 End E 0 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  31. 31. B 3 D 8 EXERCISEEXERCISE A 3 C 6 E 4 Start END P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  32. 32. LINEAR SCHEDULING METHOD (LINELINEAR SCHEDULING METHOD (LINE--OFOF--BALANCE)BALANCE) Linear Construction projects are projects that include a number of activities that can be carried out concurrently. These activities are usually repetitive. Examples of Linear Projects: Highway and bridge High-rise Building Pipeline and transmission line P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Pipeline and transmission line Mass housing developments
  33. 33. Estimating the type and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity. Resource types: ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCEESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCE P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Material Resources Labor/People Resources  Technical  Non-Technical Equipment Resources
  34. 34. Labor (people) Non-labor (equipment) Material DEFINATION OF RESOURCESDEFINATION OF RESOURCES Measured in units of time Generally, reused between activities and projects Recorded in terms of price/unit e.g., $50.00/hour Measured in units of time Generally, reused between activities and projects Recorded in terms of price/unit e.g., 1 training room per day Measured in units other than time Generally, consumed by the activity to which it is assigned Recorded in terms of price/unit .e.g., $4.50/square foot P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  35. 35. The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information. RESOURCE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (RBS)RESOURCE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (RBS) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  36. 36. Information on which resources (such as people, equipment, and material) are potentially available during planned activity periods used for estimating resource utilization. RESOURCE CALENDARSRESOURCE CALENDARS Resources must be planned and coordinated in order to avoid common problems such as lack of resources and resources being taken away from the project. Resource calendarsResource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  37. 37. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATION It is the process of taking information on project scope and resources and then developing durations for input on schedules. Project team members most familiar with the activity should estimate or approve the estimated duration. Duration can be estimated using either a probability distribution or a single- point estimate. Duration = Work Quantity Duration Effort It is the number of working days, not including holidays or other nonworking periods, required to complete an activity . It is the number of labor units required to complete an activity. Activity Duration Vs. Effort Duration = Work Quantity Production Rate P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  38. 38. THE WORK QUANTITYTHE WORK QUANTITY The work quantity is the amount of work that MUST be accomplished which is normally defined by the construction documents. The quantity of work is expressed in some measurable quantity that could be the amount of materials or equipment that need to be installed. The quantity of work includes all work that is necessary to complete the scope ofThe quantity of work includes all work that is necessary to complete the scope of work defined by the activity. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  39. 39. THE PRODUCTION RATETHE PRODUCTION RATE The production rate should be the planned average daily production rate based on the available resources and the environment within which the work will be performed. It also includes the idle and nonproductive time associated with the movement and setup of equipment, break times, expected equipment downtime for maintenance and repair, and other expected downtime. Factors affecting productivity: P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G Factors affecting productivity: Nature Of the Work Labor And Equipment Productivity Management Skill Material And Equipment Availability Seasonal Conditions Work Restrictions Quality Of Work Concurrent Activities
  40. 40. Using the actual duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the duration of a future activity. Example; The last five projects similar to this one each took five months. There is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (in early ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING (TOPANALOGOUS ESTIMATING (TOP –– DOWN ESTIMATING) ORDOWN ESTIMATING) OR ORDER OF MAGNITUDEORDER OF MAGNITUDE project phases). Then review the estimate when more details become available. Analogous estimating is a form of expert judgment. Most reliable when: Activities are really similar. Individuals preparing the estimates have expertise. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  41. 41. Parametric estimating is used if you do not have detailed information on which to base time estimates. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables. There are two ways to create parametric estimates: PARAMETRIC ESTIMATINGPARAMETRIC ESTIMATING 1. Regression analysis (scatter1. Regression analysis (scatter diagram) This diagram tracks two variables to see if they are related and creates a mathematical formula to use in future parametric estimating. 2. Learning curve The 100th room painted will take less time than the first room because of improved efficiency. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  42. 42. A heuristic means a rule of thumb. A rule of thumb: means of estimation made according to a rough and ready practical rule, not based on science or exact measurement. An example of a heuristic is the 80/20 rule, This rule, applied to quality, suggests that 80 percent of quality problems are caused by 20 percent of potential sources of problems. HEURISTICHEURISTIC of problems. A schedule heuristic might be, "Design work is always 15 percent of the total project length“ the results of parametric estimates can become heuristics. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  43. 43. The accuracy of activity duration estimates can be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). A weighted average duration estimate to calculate activity durations. PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration: THREETHREE--POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE)POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE) WEIGHTED AVERAGEWEIGHTED AVERAGE duration: OD = Optimistic time PD = Pessimistic Time MD = Most likely time P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  44. 44. THREETHREE--POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE)POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE) WEIGHTED AVERAGEWEIGHTED AVERAGE P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  45. 45. The final activity duration estimate could be calculated based on an average of the three estimates, or by using a formula. AED = Activity Estimated Duration. AED= OD + 4MD + PD 6 A S.D. = PD – OD 6 AV = ((PD – OD)/6)2 THREETHREE--POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE)POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE) WEIGHTED AVERAGEWEIGHTED AVERAGE A S.D. = Activity Standard Deviation. A V = Activity Variance. Final Duration Estimate (FDE) = ED +/- S.D. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  46. 46. Example Activity Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Estimated Duration Standard Deviation Variance Range of the Estimate A 2 4 6 4 0.67 0.45 3.33 to 4.67 B 2 3 5 3.33 0.5 0.25 2.83 to 3.83 THREETHREE--POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE)POINT ESTIMATES (PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATE) WEIGHTED AVERAGEWEIGHTED AVERAGE C 4 5 6 5 0.33 0.11 4.67 to 5.33 D 4 7 10 7 1 1 6 to 8 If the three activities (activity A, activity B and Activity C) are forming the critical path of one project, then the estimate for the duration of the project is 12.33 Days + / - and the standard deviation is 0.8988 (Square root of sum of variance). P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  47. 47. Activity duration estimates may include some indication of the range of possible results. For example: 2 weeks ± 2 days to indicate that the activity will take at least eight days and no more than twelve (assuming a five-day workweek). 15% probability of exceeding three weeks to indicate a high probability—85% ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATESACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATES 15% probability of exceeding three weeks to indicate a high probability—85% percent—that the activity will take three weeks or less. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  48. 48. THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER IN ESTIMATINGTHE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER IN ESTIMATING Provide the team with enough information to properly estimate each activity. Let those doing the estimating know how refined their estimates must be. Complete a sanity check of the estimates. Prevent padding. Formulate a reserve.Formulate a reserve. Make sure assumptions made during estimating are recorded for later review. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  49. 49. Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENTSCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  50. 50. CONSTRAINSCONSTRAINS Date Constraints used to constrain the scheduling of activities during the forward (early date constraints) and backward (late date constraints) passes based on calendar dates. Date constraints take precedence over schedule when performing schedule calculations. Imposed date restrictions used to reflect project requirements that cannot be built into the logic. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G built into the logic. Schedule more accurately reflects the real world aspects of the project Provides additional control to the project Use to impose a restriction on the entire project or an individual activity
  51. 51. CONSTRAINSCONSTRAINS Start Finish Float Start No Earlier (Start On or After) o Pushes the early start to the constraint date o Affects the early dates of its successors o Used to set the earliest date an activity can begin. Finish No Earlier (Finish On or After) o Shifts the early finish to the constrained date o Affects the early dates of its successors o Used to prevent an activity from finishing too early As Late As Possible (Zero Free Float) o Shifts the early dates as late as possible o Also called a zero free Start No Later (Start On or Before) o Shifts the late start to the constraint date o Affects the late dates of its Finish No Later (Finish On or Before) o Forces the activity to finish no later than the constraint date o Pulls the late finish date to the constraint P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G zero free float constraint o Affects the late dates of its predecessors o Used to place a deadline on the start of an activity o Pulls the late finish date to the constraint date o Affects the late dates of its predecessors Start On o Shifts both early and late start dates o Delays an early start or accelerates a late start o Used to specify dates submitted by contractors or vendors Finish On o Shifts both early and late finish dates. o Delays an early finish or accelerates a late finish o Used to satisfy intermediate project deadlines Mandatory Start o Affects late dates of predecessors and early dates of successors o May violate network logic Mandatory Finish o Affects late dates of predecessors and early dates of successors o May violate network logic
  52. 52. The Critical Path is the series of activities that determines the duration of the project. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float equal to zero. The critical path is the longest path through the project. A critical path is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed. Helps prove how long the project will take. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) Helps prove how long the project will take. Helps the project manager determine where best to focus her project management efforts. Helps determine if an issue needs immediate attention. Provides a vehicle to compress the schedule during project planning and whenever there are changes. Provides a vehicle to determine which activities have float and can therefore be delayed without delaying the project. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  53. 53. Forward Path: Early Start (ES) = Earliest possible point in time an activity can start. Early Finish (EF) = Earliest possible time the activity can finish. = ES + activity Duration -1 Backward Path: Late Finish (LF) = Latest point in time a task may be completed without delaying that Calculating Path and Float CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) Late Finish (LF) = Latest point in time a task may be completed without delaying that activity’s Successor. Late Start (LS) = Latest point in time that an activity may begin without delaying that activity’s Successor =LF – activity Duration +1 Float (Slack): Float = LF – EF =LS - ES P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  54. 54. Forward Path B 3 C 5 ES=1 EF=1 ES=2 EF=4 ES=5 EF=9 ES=10 EF=12 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) A 1 D 2 F 3 E 3 ES=1 EF=1 ES=10 EF=12 ES=2 EF=3 ES=4 EF=6 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  55. 55. Backward Path B 3 C 5 ES=1 EF=1 ES=2 EF=4 ES=5 EF=9 ES=10 EF=12 LS=5 LF=9LS=2 LF=4 TF=0 TF=0 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) A 1 D 2 F 3 E 3 ES=1 EF=1 ES=10 EF=12 ES=4 EF=6 LS=7 LF=9LS=3 LF=4 ES=2 EF=3 LS=10 LF=12LS=1 LF=1 TF=0 TF=0 TF=1 TF=3 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  56. 56. Near-Critical Path This path is close in duration to the critical path. Something could happen so the critical path is shortened, or the near-critical path lengthened so the near- critical path becomes critical. The closer the near-critical and critical paths are, the more risk the project has. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) Total Float Free Float Project Float It is the amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. (Give the project flexibility) It is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities. The amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by the customer, management, or previously committed to by the project manager. Float / Slack P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  57. 57. Can there be more than one critical path? Yes, you can have two, three, or many critical paths. Do you want there to be? No; it increases risk. Can a critical path change? Yes. How much float does the critical path have? CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) Generally the critical path should have zero float. Can there be negative float? Yes; it shows you are behind. Does the network diagram change when the end date changes? No, not automatically, but the project manager should investigate options such as fast tracking and crashing the schedule to meet the new date. Then, with approved changes, the project manager should change the network diagram accordingly. Would you leave the project with a negative float? No; you would compress the schedule. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  58. 58. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  59. 59. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  60. 60. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  61. 61. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  62. 62. Activity Preceding Activity Duration Start 0 A Start 3 B A 3 C A 6 D B 8 E D,C 4 End E 0 EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD)EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) End E 0 What is the duration of the critical path? What is the float of activity C? What is the float of activity B? What is the float of the path with the longest float? The resource working on activity C is replaced with another resource who is less experienced. The activity will now take 10 weeks. How will this affect the project? 5 18 0 5 No effect (13 to 17< 18 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  63. 63. After some arguing between stakeholders, a new activity F is added to the project. It will take 11 weeks to complete and must be completed before activity E and after activity C. Management is concerned that adding the activity will add 11 weeks. Who is the correct? How much longer will the project take? 6 EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD)EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  64. 64. A 3 B 3 E 4 D 8 ES=1 ES=4 ES=7 ES=15TF=0 TF=0EF=3 EF=6 EF=14 EF=18 LS=7 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD)EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) A 3 E 4 C 6 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=5 Start EF=9 LF=3 LS=15 LF=18 LS=9 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 TF=0 End P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  65. 65. A 3 B 3 E 4 D 8 ES=1 ES=4 ES=7 ES=15TF=0 TF=0EF=3 EF=6 EF=14 EF=18 LS=7 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD)EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) A 3 E 4 C 10 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=1 Start EF=13 LF=3 LS=15 LF=18 LS=5 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 TF=0 End P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  66. 66. A 3 B 3 E 4 D 8 ES=1 ES=4 ES=7 ES=21TF=6 TF=6EF=3 EF=6 EF=14 EF=24 LS=13 LF=20 LS=10 LF=12 EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD)EXERCISE (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) A 3 E 4 C 6 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=0 Start EF=9 LF=3 LS=21 LF=24 LS=4 LF=9 LS=10 LF=12 TF=0 End F 11 ES=10 TF=0 EF=20 LS=10 LF=20 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  67. 67. CRITICAL CHAIN METHODCRITICAL CHAIN METHOD In 1997, Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt Critical chain is another schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. CCM is based on: Resource constrained situations. Student Syndrome Resource constrained situations. Optimum use of Buffer (amount of time added to any task to prevent slippage of schedule). Project Buffers (PB): Amount of buffer time at the end of the project. Feeding Buffers (FB): Amount of buffer time at the end of a sequence of tasks. Resource Buffers (RB): It is an alert that is used to indicate that resource is needed to perform a task. This alert can be set few days before a resource is actually needed. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  68. 68. Steps: 1. Remove safety time and reduce tasks durations. 2. Create schedule on Late Finish dates and Remove resource constraints and identify critical chain 3. Add duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty. One buffer, placed at the end of the critical chain. Project buffer that protects the target finish date from slippage along the CRITICAL CHAIN METHODCRITICAL CHAIN METHOD Project buffer that protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain. 4. Add additional buffers, are placed at each point that a chain of dependent tasks not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Feeding buffers thus protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains. The critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  69. 69. GANTT CHARTGANTT CHART CPM is helpful in: • Project Planning and control. • Time-cost trade-offs. • Cost-benefit analysis. • Contingency planning. • Reducing risk. Limitations of CPM: • CPM assumes low uncertainty in schedule dates. • Does not consider resource dependencies. • Less efficient use of buffer time. • Less focus on non critical tasks that can cause risk. • Based on only deterministic task duration. • Critical Path can change during execution. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  70. 70. RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUESRESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES Resource Leveling Technique used in scheduling the project to use resources more effectively. Shifts tasks within slack/float periods to create smoother resource requirement schedule. Resource Smoothing. A technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. In resource smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project’s critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  71. 71. Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A 3X 4X B 2X 2X 3X C 3Y 1Y 2Y D 2X 1X 2X 3X 2X E 3Y 3Y 2Y EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING)EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING) E 3Y 3Y 2Y F 2X 1X Resource “X” 3 6 3 4 6 2 0 2 1 Resource “Y” 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 2 0 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  72. 72. 8 7 6 5 Resource availability EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING)EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING) 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Resource “X” before leveling Resource Histogram P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  73. 73. Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A 3X 4X B 2X 2X 3X C 3Y 1Y 2Y D 2X 1X 2X 3X 2X E 3Y 3Y 2Y EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING)EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING) E 3Y 3Y 2Y F 2X 1X Resource “X” 3 4 2 4 4 2 3 4 1 Resource “Y” 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 2 0 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  74. 74. 8 7 6 5 EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING)EXERCISE (RESOURCE LEVELING) 4 3 2 1 3 4 2 4 4 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Resource “X” after leveling P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  75. 75. MONTE CARLO ANALYSISMONTE CARLO ANALYSIS This method of estimating uses a computer to simulate the outcome of a project making use of the three time estimates (optimistic, pessimistic and most likely) for each activity and the network diagram. The simulation can tell you: The probability of completing the project on any specific day. The probability of completing the project for any specific amount of cost. The probability of any activity actually being on the critical path. The overall project risk. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  76. 76. A special case of mathematical analysis, which identifies ways to shorten the project duration without affecting scope. Crashing Fast tracking Cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least Doing Activities in parallel that would normally be done in sequence. Fast tracking only works if activities can be SCHEDULE COMPRESSIONSCHEDULE COMPRESSION amount of compression for the least incremental cost. Adding more resources to critical path activities. Fast tracking only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the duration (Soft Logic relationship). Doesn't always produce viable alternatives and often results in increased cost. It often results rework and usually increases risk. Requires more attention to communications. Re-estimating: Reduce the buffer. Process Improvement: Increasing productivity. Limited Overtime: Increasing the number of hours per day/week. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  77. 77. SCHEDULE COMPRESSIONSCHEDULE COMPRESSION P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  78. 78. Crashing steps: 1. Critical path analysis. 2. Exclude non crash activities and non critical activities. 3. Rank the critical activities cost of crashing unit time. SCHEDULE COMPRESSIONSCHEDULE COMPRESSION 4. Crash the activity with the least cost slope. 5. Recalculate the critical path and redo the previous steps. 6. Plot the different project durations and the associated costs and determine the optimum crashed project duration. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  79. 79. Activity Preceding Activity Normal Duration Crash Duration Normal Cost ($) Crash cost ($) Start 0 0 0 A Start 3 2 2500 3500 B A 3 2 2500 3000 C A 6 4 6000 7000 D B 8 6 9000 9500 E D,C 4 3 5000 5400 EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) E D,C 4 3 5000 5400 End E 0 0 0 0 Which activities would you crash if your project budget was only $26500? What is the new project duration? What is the cost for a full compression? What is the project duration in this case? 14 27400$ P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  80. 80. A 3 B 3 E 4 D 8 ES=1 ES=4 ES=7 ES=15TF=0 TF=0EF=3 EF=6 EF=14 EF=18 LS=7 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) A 3 E 4 C 6 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=5 Start EF=9 LF=3 LS=15 LF=18 LS=9 LF=14 LS=4 LF=6 TF=0 End Duration= 18 weeks Budget Cost = 25000$ P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  81. 81. Activity Preceding Activity Normal Duration Crash Duration Normal Cost ($) Crash cost ($) Start 0 0 0 A Start 3 2 2500 3500 B A 3 2 2500 3000 C A 6 4 6000 7000 D B 8 6 9000 9500 E D,C 4 3 5000 5400 End E 0 0 0 0 EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) End E 0 0 0 0 Activity Preceding Activity Normal Duration Crash Duration Normal Cost ($) Crash cost ($) Cost Slope Rank Start 0 0 0 A Start 3 2 2500 3500 1000 4 B A 3 2 2500 3000 500 3 D B 8 6 9000 9500 250 1 E D,C 4 3 5000 5400 400 2 End E 0 0 0 0 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  82. 82. A 3 B 3 E 3 D 7 ES=1 ES=4 ES=7 ES=14TF=0 TF=0EF=3 EF=6 EF=13 EF=16 LS=7 LF=13 LS=4 LF=6 Reduce D = 250/week Reduce E = 400/week EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) A 3 E 3 C 6 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=4 Start EF=9 LF=3 LS=14 LF=16 LS=8 LF=13 LS=4 LF=6 TF=0 End Duration= 16 weeks Budget Cost = 25650$ P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  83. 83. Activity Preceding Activity Normal Duration Crash Duration Normal Cost ($) Crash cost ($) Cost Slope Rank Start 0 0 0 A Start 3 2 2500 3500 1000 4 B A 3 2 2500 3000 500 3 D B 8 6 9000 9500 250 1 E D,C 4 3 5000 5400 400 2 End E 0 0 0 0 EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  84. 84. A 3 B 2 E 3 D 6 ES=1 ES=4 ES=6 ES=12TF=0 TF=0EF=3 EF=5 EF=11 EF=14 LS=6 LF=11 LS=4 LF=5 Reduce D = 250/week Reduce B = 500/week EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) A 3 E 3 C 6 ES=4 LS=1 TF=0 TF=2 Start EF=9 LF=3 LS=12 LF=14 LS=6 LF=11 LS=4 LF=5 TF=0 End Duration= 14 weeks Budget Cost = 26400$ P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  85. 85. Activity Preceding Activity Normal Duration Crash Duration Normal Cost ($) Crash cost ($) Cost Slope Rank Start 0 0 0 A Start 3 2 2500 3500 1000 3 B A 3 2 2500 3000 500 2 D B 8 6 9000 9500 250 1 End E 0 0 0 0 EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  86. 86. A 2 B 2 E 3 D 6 ES=1 ES=3 ES=5 ES=11TF=0 TF=0EF=2 EF=4 EF=10 EF=13 LS=5 LF=10 LS=3 LF=4 Reduce A = 1000/week EXERCISE (CRASHING)EXERCISE (CRASHING) A 2 E 3 C 6 ES=2 LS=1 TF=0 TF=3 Start EF=7 LF=2 LS=11 LF=13 LS=5 LF=10 LS=3 LF=4 TF=0 End Duration= 13 weeks Budget Cost = 27400$ P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  87. 87. A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. SCHEDULE BASELINESCHEDULE BASELINE It is accepted and approved by theapproved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  88. 88. The project schedule may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail. The project schedule should include at least the following data: Planned Start Date for each activity. Expected Finish Date for each activity. PROJECT SCHEDULEPROJECT SCHEDULE Although a project schedule can be presented in tabular form, it is more often presented graphically, using one or more of the following formats: Milestone charts; Report to senior management. Bar charts (Gantt Charts); Track Progress + report to the team. Project schedule network diagrams; Show interdependencies between activities. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  89. 89. Milestone charts (Level 1) Milestone charts are good tools for reporting to management and the customer PROJECT SCHEDULEPROJECT SCHEDULE Project Summary (Gantt/bar Charts) (Level2) Display start and end date for each activity. Display a complete project time line. Display expected durations. Easy to read. Allow easy communication of the project reporting and control P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  90. 90. Defines activity start and end date. Shows the critical path that directly impacts on completion time. Indicates overall project completion time. BENEFITS OF SCHEDULINGBENEFITS OF SCHEDULING Identifies activities that have a float. Shows probability of completing a task before a specified date. P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  91. 91. EXERCISEEXERCISE ES=1 ES=7 ES=11EF=6 EF=10 EF=12 Task (2) Task (3) Network Diagram Task (1) 6 ES=1 TF=5 TF=5 TF=0Start EF=4 LS=11 LF=12 LS=6 LF=9 LS=7 LF=10 LS=1 LF=6 TF=0 End ES=5 TF=0 EF=8 LS=10 LF=13 ES=14 EF=21 LS=14 LF=21 TF=0 Task (2) 4 Task (6) 8 Task (3) 2 Task (5) 4 Task (4) 4 Lag = 1 P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  92. 92. It is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the means to recognize deviation from the plan and take corrective and preventive actions and thus minimize risk. CONTROLLING SCHEDULECONTROLLING SCHEDULE P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  93. 93. REASON FOR UPDATINGREASON FOR UPDATING Four major reasons a schedule should be updated regularly are to: Reflect current project status Keep the schedule as an effective management tool Document performance Provide documentation to plan for changes and support delay analysis P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G
  94. 94. 1. Project Management Fundamentals 2. Project Organization Structure 3. Project Communications 4. Project Labor Cost Control 5. Leadership and Management of Project People 6. Quality Management PROJECT MANAGEMENTPROJECT MANAGEMENT P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G 6. Quality Management 7. Value Engineering 8. Contracting for Capital Projects 9. Strategic Asset Management 10. Change Management Practical Guide 11. Overview of Construction Claims and Disputes
  95. 95. THANK YOU P L A N N I N G A N D S C H E D U L I N G

×