This PowerPoint is to show my research into the music genre i
have decided to do for my as-level coursework. in this i have
thoroughly explained my genre which is Latin. I have chosen to do
the Latin genre because it stands out to me, it has a different beat
and its very romantic. furthermore by doing research i have realized
its a rare genre people choose to do for a music magazine hence
another reason i want to do this genre.
The element in Moorish, African & Caribbean music that many find
distinctive is its rhymes are derived Moorish and other Africans via the
slave trade. Some slaves were forbidden from playing drums, the
Caribbean slaves were liberally allowed to play their drums, which of
course were not only for recreation and entertainment, but used as
means of communication. these were considered talking
drums, carrying current, as well as timeless messages; message of
history, struggle and unspeakable joy. All this was accomplished through
the replaying of these traditional Moorish and African rhythms, sung on
During the 18th and 19th century these rhythms spread, developed and
canonized throughout the Caribbean, around the same time that
another African art was beginning its conception. The north America art
form was also going to contain a rich cultural mix
Every country and every island in the Caribbean developed its own unique
musical culture, be it folk idioms or a national conservatory styles. Four
countries, namely Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico have had the most
significant influences on music in the United States (Cuba having the most
enduring). These influences included Latin rhythms and/or dances that
infatuated the United States. As these rhythmic structures and their
dances canonized, they began effecting music making everywhere, from
the concert hall, to the New Orleans Street parade, to Broadway and Tin
Latin music is a popular art form developed in various Latin American
countries, mainly Cuba, and is unique for the type of rhythmic structures it builds
upon. It is vocal and instrumental music, originally derived from African religious
ceremonies, however viewed today primarily as dance music. Its strongest
characteristic, however, is its rhythm, which is highly syncopated. It is traditionally
played by native percussion and string instruments, namely the
timbales, congas, bongo, guitar, and the nine-string Cuban guitar. Over time, the
piano replaced the guitar as the choral instrument, while the
bass, woodwinds, trumpets and trombones were added to play melodies and riffs
(repetitions of sound). Most Latin music is based on a rhythmic pattern known as
the clave. Clave is the basic building block of all Cuban music. Latin music
generally uses a three form with (1) a long introductory verse, followed (2) by a
montuno section where the band plays a vamp (a two- or three chord
progression), building intensity with devices like the mambo (where members of the
front line play contrasting riffs) before (3) returning back to the verse and closing out
the selection. Some important characteristics of Latin music are:
Clave: a syncopated rhythmic pattern played with two sticks, around which
everything in the band revolves.
Call And Response Inspiraciones: a musical exchange between two
voices inspirations, improvised phrase by lead vocalist or instrumentalist.
Bajo-Tumbao-bass: repeated rhythmic pattern for the bass or conga
based on the clave.
Many of the subgenres of Latin music are identifiable by the dance
step(s) involved, and therefore from the basic rhythmic pattern(s)
involved. Some of those would be:
Cha Cha Cha
Latin American music is wide and has a number of different characteristics.
This genre includes music from all the countries of Latin America and the
Caribbean. Spanish and music from Portugal have very strong ties to this
music as well. The music that falls under this genre is unified mainly by
language, with various different styles originating from the many countries
and cultures that make up Latin America and the Caribbean.
Language:This is the one characteristic that is shared among nearly all Latin American
musical styles. Spanish and Portuguese are the two main languages found
in the majority of this music, though Spanish-based Creole is also used in
some music coming out of Haiti.
African Rhythm:African music has a distinct rhythmic sound that is a major influence on
many Latin American styles of music. Those included are the DominicanMerengue, Bomba, Cuban Rumba, Puerto Rican Salsa, and the Columbian
Spanish Decima:The Spanish decima is a song form that consists of 10 lines, each with eight
syllables in them. This is a characteristic of more traditional Latin American
music, though it is still seen in some of the modern pop music in the genre
Syncopation is another major characteristic found in Latin American
music. This is a musical style where weak rhythmic beats are accented
instead of strong ones.
Call and Response
The call and response characteristic of African music also has
transferred over to Latin American music. This is where two or more
musical parts go back and forth in response to each other. These can
either be rhythmic beats or song lyrics
The conga is a single-headed hand drum that has its roots in Cuba. Congas
usually come in sets of two, with each drum tuned to a different pitch. This gives
the drums a musical overtone as well as a rhythmic beat. Depending on where
the drum head is struck and what part of the hand is used, a multitude of sounds
can be created. Some of the most famous conga players are Desi Arnaz and
Jack Costanzo, both of whom were in their prime in the mid-20th century.
The pandeiro is one of the most popular percussive instruments in Brazilian
music, particularly samba and capoeira. It is similar to a tambourine in that it is a
hand-held drum-skin with mini cymbals around the side. The pandeiro can be
tuned, however, which unlike the congas, makes it more musical and certainly
more versatile. The pandeiro can be played in a number of ways, from using just
one's finger tips to the entire palm.
The güiro is a hand-held instrument that is played somewhat like a washboard.
The güiro itself is a hollowed out cylindrical piece of wood or metal with several
grooves running horizontally down the side. The player holds the güiro in one
hand and, with a stick, scrapes along the instrument, creating a rattling sound. It
can also be struck with the stick, which creates a sound that is amplified by the
hollow device. Although the güiro originated in Cuba, it can be heard in the
background of music from numerous Latin American countries.
List Of Latin American Percussion
Similar to the conga, the timbale is a single-headed drum, usually played in
pairs, raised on stands. The timbale drum is much more shallow than the
conga, however, and has metal rims. The drum-heads themselves are also tuned
very high, which creates a more resonant, bell-like tone. Timbales are usually
played with sticks, which can be used to strike the head or as a rim-shot on the
metal casing. These are essential percussive instruments in Latin American
genres, such as salsa, mambo and meringue.
The clave is one of the simplest yet most distinct of all Latin American percussion
instruments. It is merely a hand-held wooden block, roughly the size of a large
cigar. Two claves are struck together to create the sound. The instrument even
has a particular rhythm named after it, which is most commonly found in Cuban
While claves may be the most simply built Latin American percussion
instruments, the maracas are among the simplest to play. They always come in
pairs and are made up of a handle topped with a hollowed-out shell filled with
dried seeds. The result, when the maracas are shaken, is the sound of a rattle.
These instruments have their roots in many countries, from Puerto Rico to
Venezuela. Although they are distinctly Latin American, maracas have become
popular around the world as back-up percussion instruments.
Shakira: hips dont lie http://vimeo.com/10364588
Don omar: dale don dale http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x5iht_donomar-dale-don-dale_news
Enrique iglesia: bailamos http://grooveshark.com/#!/search/song?q=E
Shakira ft pitbul: rabiosa http://vimeo.com/26129910