Oncogenisis and Tumor Markers

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Oncogenisis and Tumor Markers

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Oncogenisis and Tumor Markers

  1. 1. Oncogenesis <ul><li>Human cancer development is a result of a genetic disease </li></ul><ul><li>protoncogenes </li></ul><ul><li>Tumour suppressor genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory expression of these genes can be seen in the normal cells and protein products of these genes are fundamental for normal cell function. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Examples: <ul><li>Oncogenes: </li></ul><ul><li>Ras, Myc, EGFR,c-erbB1,2,3. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumour suppressor genes: </li></ul><ul><li>p53, Rb genes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Carcinogenesis <ul><li>Multifactorial etiology. </li></ul><ul><li>The tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes would be altered in the presence of carcinogens: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical carcinogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viral agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Four common types of genetic changes <ul><li>Deletion : Loss of tumour suppressor genes </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation :p53, Ras </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion :Relocate the the oncogenes in </li></ul><ul><li>Translocation to DNA areas which will leads inappropriate transcription. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Subsequent accumulation of such growth promoting genetic defects forms the basis of current multi step process of tumourigenesis. </li></ul><ul><li>This multi step process includes. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumour progression. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Many of the known oncogenes and oncosupressor genes help control mitosis and apoptosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of this control would leads to development of malignancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic disease. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tumour marker <ul><li>Substance or group of substance produced by the tumour </li></ul><ul><li>Which can be used as a indicator to detect the presence of the tumour. </li></ul>
  8. 8. A tumour marker should be indicative of : <ul><li>Tumour susceptibility of the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Severity or virulence of the tumour. </li></ul><ul><li>Prognosis of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumour burden (Including metastasis) . </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment response. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of tumour markers: <ul><li>Histopathological markers. </li></ul><ul><li>Immuno markers. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic markers. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal markers. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein products of tumours </li></ul><ul><li>Carcino-embrionic antigen </li></ul>
  10. 12. Apoptosis related genes <ul><li>Bcl2 family: </li></ul><ul><li>Bcl 2 , Bcl XL , Bax , Bad. </li></ul><ul><li>---ve ++ </li></ul>Apoptosis Bcl2 Bax Bcl xL p53 Bad

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