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Interceptive orthodontics


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Published in: Health & Medicine

Interceptive orthodontics

  2. 2. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>Any procedure that eliminates or reduces the severity of malocclusion in the developing dentition.(Popovich and Thompson 1979, Hiles 1985.) </li></ul><ul><li>All simple measures that eliminate the developing mal occlusion. (Ackerman and Proffit 1980) </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><ul><li>The aetiology of malocclusion could be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Skeletal discrepancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Soft tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3- local factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4- Crowding and spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5- Displacements </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : DELAYED ERUPTION OF UPPER </li></ul><ul><li>PERMANENT CENTRAL INCISOR . </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : 1 is considered to be delayed if the contra-lateral tooth was fully erupted or if teeth later in the usual eruption sequence were present. </li></ul><ul><li>Interceptive treatment: removal of supernumerary with or without tooth exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment timing: as soon as the supernumerary tooth is detected. </li></ul>
  5. 11. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: RETAINED DECIDUOUS </li></ul><ul><li>TEETH. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: the deciduous tooth is considered to be over retained if it made enamel contact with its successor. </li></ul><ul><li>Interceptive treatment: extraction. </li></ul>
  6. 12. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: INFRAOCCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: the tooth loses its vertical position relative to the adjacent teeth and assumes a position below the occlusal plane </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent site: lower 2 nd and 1 st primary molars. </li></ul><ul><li>Interceptive treatment: nothing unless the permanent successor was absent or the infraoccluded tooth is likely to disappear . </li></ul>
  7. 15. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : UNILATERAL RETAINED </li></ul><ul><li>DECIDUOUS CANINE . </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: premature loss of one deciduous canine as a result of early root resorption by a crowded lateral incisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Interceptive treatment: extraction of the primary canine on the opposite side of the arch to preserve the midline. </li></ul>
  8. 16. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : DOUBLE TEETH </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>Gemination: the attempt of a single tooth bud to form two distinct morphological entities. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion: the result of joining two adjacent tooth buds. </li></ul>
  9. 18. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : DOUBLE TEETH </li></ul><ul><li>In the deciduous dentition double teeth are usually associated with absent permanent successor, or ectopic or delayed eruption of the permanent successor if it was present. Treatment therefore involve the extraction of the malformed tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>In the permanent dentition treatment options are: Mask, Split and Extract </li></ul>
  10. 19. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: ECTOPIC ERUPTION OF THE PERMANENT FIRST MOLAR . </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: the molar erupts at an angle mesial to its normal path of eruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Types : reversible and irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: extraction of E or distalisation of permanent molar </li></ul>
  11. 22. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : Hypodontia </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Absent teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Common teeth: lower 2 nd premolar & upper lateral incisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: space closure or space maintenance for future prosthesis. </li></ul>
  12. 26. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: DIASTEMA </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: space between the two upper central incisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment if indicated: removal of pathology (supernumerary, odontome, fraenum?….) </li></ul>
  13. 28. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: ECTOPIC UPPER CANINE </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: the canine erupts out of its normal eruption path. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: If the 3 was not palpable in the buccal sulcus after the age of 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Extraction of the deciduous canine. </li></ul>
  14. 32. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors :ECTOPIC UPPPER CANINE </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of eruption of the permanent canine after the extraction of the deciduous canine depends on the amount by which the permanent canine overlap the lateral incisor: </li></ul><ul><li>overlap < 12 of lateral root: success rate 91% </li></ul><ul><li>overlap > 12 of lateral root: success rate 64% </li></ul><ul><li>(Ericson & Kurol 1988) </li></ul>
  15. 33. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors: THUMB SUCKING </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: no malocclusion 14.6% </li></ul><ul><li>anterior open bite 48.1% </li></ul><ul><li>posterior cross bite 07.2% </li></ul><ul><li>ant OB +post X-bite 30.1% </li></ul><ul><li>(Da Silva et al. 1991) </li></ul>
  16. 37. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : THUMB SUCKING </li></ul><ul><li>At what age should treatment be started? </li></ul><ul><li>-Da Silva et al (1991) “from the 5 th year of age” </li></ul><ul><li>-Proffit (1993) “before the eruption of </li></ul><ul><li> permanent incisors” </li></ul><ul><li>-Houston (1993) “ by 7-8 years of age “ </li></ul><ul><li>-Mills (1982) “before permanent dentition” </li></ul><ul><li>-Larsson (1987) “before pubertal growth spurt” </li></ul>
  17. 38. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : THUMB SUCKING </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Adult approach. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Deterrent appliance. </li></ul>
  18. 39. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Local factors : TRANSPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: unusual type of ectopic eruption were two permanent teeth have interchanged their location in the dental arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent sites: upper canine and first premolar </li></ul><ul><li>lower canine and lateral incisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Interceptive treatment: extract transposed tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>align before canine eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment timing: before eruption of canine. </li></ul>
  19. 42. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding: </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>1-Space management . </li></ul><ul><li>2- Molar distalisation . </li></ul><ul><li>3-Serial extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>4-Premolar extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>5-First molar extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>6- lower incisor extraction . </li></ul><ul><li>7- Second molar extraction . </li></ul>
  20. 43. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding : SPACE MANAGEMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : utilization of Lee Way space to relieve anterior crowding. </li></ul><ul><li>Indications :1- Cl I molar relation ship. </li></ul><ul><li> 2- E,s are still present in the. </li></ul><ul><li> crowded side(s). </li></ul><ul><li> 3- Mild crowding. </li></ul>
  21. 44. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding :SPACE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Methods :1-Space maintainer extract E,s </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li> 2- Slice the mesial surface of the </li></ul><ul><li> deciduous canine and molars </li></ul><ul><li> before the eruption of permanent </li></ul><ul><li> canine and premolars. </li></ul>
  22. 45. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding :SERIAL EXTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : ”.. The early recognition or anticipation of a deformity that will occur unless teeth are removed at a strategic interval to relieve in intensity the developing malocclusion.” </li></ul>
  23. 46. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding :SERIAL EXTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>The incisors are substantially crowded. </li></ul><ul><li>Age 8-9 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal arch relation ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced or normal overbite. </li></ul><ul><li>All permanent teeth are present. </li></ul><ul><li>The first molars should have a good prognosis. </li></ul><ul><li>The first premolars should be closer to eruption than canines. </li></ul>
  24. 47. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding :SERIAL EXTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Increasing the overbite. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Lingual tipping of lower incisors </li></ul><ul><li>3-Retarding future development in arches. </li></ul><ul><li>4-Lack of aesthetic fullness of the lips. </li></ul><ul><li>5-Rotated incisors do not align spontaneously. </li></ul>
  25. 48. INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS <ul><li>Crowding :SERIAL EXTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>1-When the lateral are erupting in a crowded position, all deciduous canines are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>2-When the roots of the first deciduous molars are half resorbed. They are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>3-As soon as the first premolars erupt they are removed. </li></ul>
  26. 49. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION As an interceptive orthodontic measure
  27. 55. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION <ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>-At least one permanent first molar have poor prognosis. </li></ul><ul><li>-Crowding in the relevant quadrant. </li></ul><ul><li>-The development of second molar roots did not reach more than half way. </li></ul><ul><li>-No other missing teeth in the same quadrant. </li></ul><ul><li>-Normal arch relation ship. </li></ul><ul><li>-The overbite is not deep. </li></ul><ul><li>-The second premolar is contained within the E roots </li></ul>
  28. 57. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for future prosthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce incisor crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate buccal segment crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chance for third molar impaction . </li></ul></ul>
  29. 58. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The uncertainty of the final contact point between the second molar and second premolar. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 59. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION <ul><li>Contact point: </li></ul><ul><li>Good result could be expected in patients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having buccal segment crowding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having third molars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First molars were extracted early . </li></ul></ul>
  31. 62. FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION <ul><li>Compensatory extraction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction of upper first molar does not necessitate the compensatory extraction of lower first molar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction of lower first molar necessitates the compensatory extraction of upper first molar </li></ul></ul>