Successfully reported this slideshow.

ABOUT ALFALFA AND AELOVERA

4,641 views

Published on

IT IS A BEST PRESENTATION ABOUT ALFALFA AND AELOVARE. IT IS TOTALLY HTPERLINKED.YOU WILL FIND EVERY THINGING IT SO SEE IT AND YOU CAN ALSO DOWNLOAD IT.

THANKS FOR WACHING AND DOWNLOADING











  • thnx a lot man.......thnx thnx thnx thnx thnx.....it helped me a lot for my english project
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

ABOUT ALFALFA AND AELOVERA

  1. 1. ABOUT ALFALFA AND ALOEVERA
  2. 2. TOPIC FOR ENGLISH PROJECT ARE- ALFALFA ALOE VERA NEXT
  3. 3. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE KINGDOM- PLANTAE PHYLUM- ANGIOSPERMS CLASS- EUDICODS ORDER- FABALES FAMILY- FABACEEA GENUS- MEDICAGO SPECIES- SATIVA SO, BINOMIAL NAME IS Medicago sativa
  4. 4. ABOUT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), also called Lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world. The English name alfalfa is widely used, particularly in North America. But in the UK, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand, the more commonly used name is Lucerne. It superficially resembles clover, with clusters of small purple flowers followed by fruits spiralled in 2 to 3 turns containing 10-20 seeds. Alfalfa is native to a warmer temperate climate such as that of Iran (where it is thought to have originated). It has been cultivated as livestock fodder since at least the era of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
  5. 5. Description • Is a herbaceous perennial legume • Mature alfalfa usually has 5-25 stems • Height 15-25 inches (38-63cm) • Stems slender • Leaves alternating on stem • Leaflets are linear oblong and toothed towards end
  6. 6. HISTORY A book on agriculture by the Roman writer Palladius, dated 4th century AD, includes a section about alfalfa. Palladius says: "One sow-down lasts ten years. The crop may be cut four or six times a year.... An [Roman] acre of it is abundantly sufficient for three horses all the year.... It may be given to cattle, but new provender is at first to be administered very sparingly, because it bloats up the cattle." Palladius called alfalfa "medica", a name that referred to the Medes, a people who lived in ancient Iran. The ancient Greeks and Romans believed, probably correctly, that the alfalfa plant came from the Medes land (in today's Iran). (The ancient Greeks and Romans also used the name medica to mean a citron fruit, once again because it was believed to have come from the Medes land). The ancient Roman name medica is the root of the modern scientific name for the alfalfa genus, Medicago. Despite the report in Palladius and in some other Roman and ancient Greek writers, there is little evidence that alfalfa was in widespread use in the Mediterranean region in those days…..
  7. 7. …….The medieval Arabic agricultural writer Ibn al-Awwam, who lived in Spain in the later 12th century, discussed how to sow and cultivate alfalfa. Ibn al-Awwam's name for alfalfa was "al-fiṣfiṣa". A 13th century general-purpose Arabic dictionary, Lisan al-Arab, says that "al-fiṣfiṣa" is cultivated as an animal feed and consumed in both fresh and dried form. In medieval Spain the Arabic name "al-fisfisa" mutated into the Spanish name "alfalfa". Alfalfa in medieval Spain was cultivated as fodder for horses and had a reputation as the best fodder for them. In the 16th century, Spanish colonizers introduced alfalfa to the Americas as fodder for their horses. The English name "alfalfa" dates from mid-19th century far- west USA, from the Spanish. Alfalfa seeds were imported to California from Chile in the 1850s. That was the beginning of a rapid and extensive introduction of the crop over the western US States……
  8. 8. …..In the North American colonies of the eastern US back in the 18th century it was called "lucerne" and lots of trials at growing it were made, but generally without getting satisfactory results. Relatively very little alfalfa is grown in the eastern US still today. Today in France and Germany, and also in Britain and Australia, alfalfa is usually called "lucerne" ."lucerne", a word that arose in French in the 16th century. Since North and South America now produce a large part of the world's output, the word "alfalfa" has been slowly entering into other languages besides English and Spanish.
  9. 9. Alfalfa is a perennial forage legume which normally lives 4–8 years, but can live more than twenty years, depending on variety and climate. The plant grows to a height of up to 1 meter (3 ft), and has a deep root system, sometimes stretching more than 15 meters (49 ft).This makes it very resilient, especially to droughts. It has a tetraploid genome. Alfalfa is a small seeded crop, and has a slowly growing seedling, but after several months of establishment, forms a tough 'crown' at the top of the root system. This crown contains many shoot buds that enables alfalfa to re-grow many times after being grazed or harvested. This plant exhibits auto toxicity, which means it is difficult for alfalfa seed to grow in existing stands of alfalfa. Therefore, it is recommended that alfalfa fields be rotated with other species (for example, corn or wheat) before reseeding.
  10. 10. Nutritional value Alfalfa is high in protein, calcium, plus other minerals, vitamins in the B group, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K. The sun-dried hay of alfalfa (also known as Lucerne) has been found to be a source of vitamin D, containing 48 ng/g (1920 IU/kg) vitamin D2 and 0.63 ng/g (25 IU/kg) vitamin D3.There is reference to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 being found in the alfalfa shoot; this is awaiting verification. Mushrooms are not allowed in Jain vegetarianism, making alfalfa the only known source Jains can use to make vitamin D2 supplements.
  11. 11. Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of Alfalfa seeds, sprouted, raw Energy 96 kJ (23 kcal) Carbohydrates 2.1 g - Dietary fiber 1.9 g Fat 0.7 g Protein 4 g Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.076 mg (7%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.126 mg (11%) Niacin (vit. B3) 0.481 mg (3%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.563 mg (11%) Vitamin B6 0.034 mg (3%) Folate (vit. B9) 36 μg (9%) Vitamin C 8.2 mg (10%) Vitamin K 30.5 μg (29%) Calcium 32 mg (3%) Iron 0.96 mg (7%) Magnesium 27 mg (8%) Manganese 0.188 mg (9%) Phosphorus 70 mg (10%) Potassium 79 mg (2%) Sodium 6 mg (0%) Zinc 0.92 mg (10%)
  12. 12. Uses Of Alfalfa Alfalfa has been used as an herbal medicine for over 1,500 years. In early Chinese medicines, physicians used young alfalfa leaves to treat disorders related to the digestive tract and the kidneys. In Ayurvedic medicine, physicians used the leaves for treating poor digestion. They made a cooling poultice from the seeds for boils. At the time, alfalfa was also believed to be beneficial to people suffering from arthritis and water retention.
  13. 13. Primary Use • Used mostly for hay crops • Has highest feed value of all hay crops if harvested late bud or early flower stage • Produces greatest amount of protein per acre • Often mixed with corn silage • Alfalfa can be made into silage, pellets, meal or cubes • Can be used as pasture crop
  14. 14. Worldwide production Alfalfa is the most cultivated forage legume in the world. Worldwide production was around 436 million tons in 2006. The US is the largest alfalfa producer in the world, but considerable production is found in Canada, Argentina (primarily grazed), Southern Europe, Australia, South Africa, and the Middle East. Within the United States, the leading alfalfa growing states are California, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The upper Midwestern states account for about 50% of US production, the Northeastern states 10%, the Western states 40%, and the Southeastern states almost none. Alfalfa can be grown in the southern US states, but often leaf and root diseases and poor soils are limitations. Alfalfa has a wide range of adaptation, and can be grown from very cold northern plains to high mountain valleys, from rich temperate agricultural regions to Mediterranean climates and searing hot deserts.
  15. 15. Alfalfa Production U.S. Alfalfa Production and Yield 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Millionacres 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yield(ton/A) Production Yield • In addition, Canada has 11 million acres yielding 1.4 ton/A • U.S. crop value $7 billion per year, 2000-2003
  16. 16. GALLARY
  17. 17. TOPIC CONTENT DISCRIPTION DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FOLK MEDICINES ABOUT DISTRIBUTION USES BIONOMIAL NOMENCLATURE GALLARY
  18. 18. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE KINGDOM- PLANTAE PHYLUM- ANGIOSPERMS CLASS- MONOCODS ORDER- ASPARAGALES FAMILY- XANTHORRHOEACEAE GENUS- ALOE SPECIES- VERA SO, BINOMIAL NAME IS Aloe vera
  19. 19. Aloe vera is a succulent plant species that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. vera extracts for either cosmetic or ABOUT
  20. 20. Description • Aloe vera is a stem less or very short- stemmed succulent plant growing to 60– 100 cm (24–39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey- green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long.
  21. 21. Distribution The natural range of Aloe vera is unclear, as the species has been widely cultivated throughout the world. Naturalised stands of the species occur in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula, through North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt) as well as Sudan and neighboring countries, along with the Canary, Cape Verde, and Madeira Islands. This distribution is somewhat similar to the one of Euphorbia balsamifera, Pistacia atlantica, and a few others, suggesting that a dry sclerophyl forest once covered large areas, but has been dramatically reduced due to desertification in the Sahara, leaving these few patches isolated. Several closely related (or sometimes identical) species can be found on the two extreme sides of the Sahara: Dragon trees (Dracaena) and Aeonium being two of the most representative examples.
  22. 22. Preparations made from the plant Aloe vera are often referred to as "aloe vera". Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory. Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties of aloe vera. Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotions, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts, although at certain doses, it has toxic properties when used either for ingested or topical applications
  23. 23. Folk medicine Early records of Aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BC,in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century AD along with the Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 AD. The species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of many countries. Aloe vera, called kathalai inAyurvedic medicine, is used as a multipurpose skin treatment. This may be partly due to the presence of saponin, a chemical compound that acts as an anti-microbial agent.
  24. 24. ALOE VERA GEL GALLARY
  25. 25. Aloin, a compound found in the exudates of some Aloe species, was the common ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) laxative products in the United States prior to 2003, when the Food and Drug Administration ruled that aloin was a class III ingredient, thereby banning its use. Aloe vera has potential toxicity, with side-effect occurring at some dose levels both when ingested or applied topically. Although toxicity may be less when aloin is removed by processing, aloe vera that contains aloin in excess amounts may induce side-effects. A 2-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on oral consumption of non-decolorized whole leaf extract of Aloe vera found evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats. The NTP says more information is needed to determine the potential risks to humans.
  26. 26. • Aloe vera juice is marketed to support the health of the digestive system, but there is neither scientific evidence nor regulatory approval to support this claim. The extracts and quantities typically used for such purposes appear to be dose-dependent for toxic effects
  27. 27. BY- HSHUKLA

×