Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
BY HIMANSHU
SAMARIYA
STD:- 9TH
DIV ;- E
on The Chapter
structure of an
atom
What is an atom ?
• An atom is an smallest partical of an element
that can take part in an chemical reaction
• Atom are ve...
Atom lock like
Structure of an atom

Structure of an atom
J.J.Thomeson
• Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson, OM, FRS1] (18 December 1856 –
30 August 1940) was a British physicist. In ...
Discovery of an electron
•

Several scientists, such as William Prout and Norman Lockyer, had suggested that atoms
were bu...
• In April 1897 Thomson had only early indications that the cathode rays
could be deflected electrically (previous investi...
Thomsons modal of an atom
• The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who discovered
the electron in 1897, was ...
•

•

With this model, Thomson abandoned his earlier "nebular atom" hypothesis in
which the atom was composed of immateria...
•

•
•

Thomson's model was compared (though not by Thomson) to a British dessert called plum
pudding, hence the name. Tho...
Ernest Ruthorford
• Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM FRS[1] (30
August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a ...
•

•

Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of
Manchester (today University of Manchester) in the UK, where ...
Ruthorford Modal of an atom
•

•

the prize. Along with Hans Geigerand Ernest Marsden in 1909, he carried out the Geiger–
...
•

Such a construction had been suspected for many years on the basis of atomic
weights which were whole numbers of that o...
• Rutherford's theory of neutrons was proved in 1932 by his
associate James Chadwick, who recognized neutrons immediately ...
Neils bohr
• Niels Henrik David Bohr ( 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a
Danish physicist who made foundational con...
• Bohr founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of
Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute...
Bohr modal of an atom
•

•

The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom (Z = 1) or a hydrogen-like ion (Z > 1), where
t...
•

•

The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the
spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. Wh...
Bohr modal
9th   e himanshu chemistry project 19
9th   e himanshu chemistry project 19
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

9th e himanshu chemistry project 19

1,052 views

Published on

its to study the chapter of structure of an atom its your understanding please read it carefully and understand if dauth then ask me by comment

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

9th e himanshu chemistry project 19

  1. 1. BY HIMANSHU SAMARIYA STD:- 9TH DIV ;- E
  2. 2. on The Chapter structure of an atom
  3. 3. What is an atom ? • An atom is an smallest partical of an element that can take part in an chemical reaction • Atom are very , very small in size • Hydrogen atom is the smallest atom in all
  4. 4. Atom lock like Structure of an atom Structure of an atom
  5. 5. J.J.Thomeson • Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson, OM, FRS1] (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist. In 1897, Thomson showed thatcathode rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, and thus is credited with the discovery and identification of theelectron. Thomson is also credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable (non-radioactive) element in 1913 as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays (positive ions) and with the invention of the mass spectrometer. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the electron and for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases.
  6. 6. Discovery of an electron • Several scientists, such as William Prout and Norman Lockyer, had suggested that atoms were built up from a more fundamental unit, but they envisioned this unit to be the size particle.[5] He estimated the mass of cathode rays by measuring the heat generated when the rays hit a thermal junction and comparing this with the magnetic deflectiof the smallest atom, hydrogen. Thomson, in 1897, was the first to suggest that the fundamental unit was over 1000 times smaller than an atom, suggesting the subatomic particles now known as electrons. Thomson discovered this through his explorations on the properties of cathode rays. Thomson made his suggestion on 30 April 1897 following his discovery that Lenard rays could travel much further through air than expected for an atom-sized on of the rays. His experiments suggested not only that cathode rays were over 1000 times lighter than the hydrogen atom, but also that their mass was the same whatever type of atom they came from. He concluded that the rays were composed of very light, negatively charged particles which were a universal building block of atoms. He called the particles "corpuscles", but later scientists preferred the name electron which had been suggested by George Johnstone Stoney in 1891, prior to Thomson's actual discovery.[6]
  7. 7. • In April 1897 Thomson had only early indications that the cathode rays could be deflected electrically (previous investigators such as Heinrich Hertz had thought they could not be). A month after Thomson's announcement of the corpuscle he found that he could reliably deflect the rays by an electric field if he evacuated the discharge tube to a very low pressure. By comparing the deflection of a beam of cathode rays by electric and magnetic fields he obtained more robust measurements of the mass to charge ratio that confirmed his previous estimates.[7] This became the classic means of measuring the charge and mass of the electron. • Thomson believed that the corpuscles emerged from the atoms of the trace gas inside his cathode ray tubes. He thus concluded that atoms were divisible, and that the corpuscles were their building blocks. To explain the overall neutral charge of the atom, he proposed that the corpuscles were distributed in a uniform sea of positive charge; this was the "plum pudding" model—the electrons were embedded in the positive charge like plums in a plum pudding (although in Thomson's model they were not stationary, but orbiting rapidly
  8. 8. Thomsons modal of an atom • The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who discovered the electron in 1897, was proposed in 1904 before the discovery of the atomic nucleus in order to add the electron to the atomic model. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons (which Thomson still called "corpuscles", though G. J. Stoney had proposed that atoms of electricity be called electrons in 1894[1]) surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges, like negatively charged "raisins" surrounded by positively charged "pudding". The electrons (as we know them today) were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly rotating rings of electrons (see below). Instead of a soup, the atom was also sometimes said to have had a "cloud" of positive charge.
  9. 9. • • With this model, Thomson abandoned his earlier "nebular atom" hypothesis in which the atom was composed of immaterial vortices. Now, at least part of the atom was to be composed of Thomson's particulate negative corpuscles, although the rest of the positively charged part of the atom remained somewhat nebulous and ill-defined. The 1904 Thomson model was disproved by the 1909 gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. This was interpreted by Ernest Rutherford in 1911 to imply a very small nucleus of the atom containing a very high positive charge (in the case of gold, enough to balance about 100 electrons), thus leading to the Rutherford model of the atom. Although gold has an atomic number of 79, immediately after Rutherford's paper appeared in 1911 Antonius Van den Broek made the intuitive suggestion that atomic number is nuclear charge. The matter required experiment to decide. Henry Moseley's work showed experimentally in 1913 (see Moseley's law) that the effective nuclear charge was very close to the atomic number (Moseley found only one unit difference), and Moseley referenced only the papers of Van den Broek and Rutherford. This work culminated in the solar-system-like (but quantum-limited) Bohr model of the atom i the same year, in which a nucleus containing an atomic number of positive charge is surrounded nby an equal number of electrons in orbital shells. Bohr had also inspired Moseley's work.
  10. 10. • • • Thomson's model was compared (though not by Thomson) to a British dessert called plum pudding, hence the name. Thomson's paper was published in the March 1904 edition of the Philosophical Magazine, the leading British science journal of the day. In Thomson's view: ... the atoms of the elements consist of a number of negatively electrified corpuscles enclosed in a sphere of uniform positive electrification, ...[4] In this model, the electrons were free to rotate within the blob or cloud of positive substance. These orbits were stabilized in the model by the fact that when an electron moved farther from the center of the positive cloud, it felt a larger net positive inward force, because there was more material of opposite charge, inside its orbit (see Gauss's law). In Thomson's model, electrons were free to rotate in rings which were further stabilized by interactions between the electrons, and spectra were to be accounted for by energy differences of different ring orbits. Thomson attempted to make his model account for some of the major spectral lines known for some elements, but was not notably successful at this. Still, Thomson's model (along with a similar Saturnian ring model for atomic electrons, also put forward in 1904 by Nagaoka after James Clerk Maxwell's model of Saturn's rings), were earlier harbingers of the later and more successful solar-system-like Bohr model of the atom.
  11. 11. Ernest Ruthorford • Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM FRS[1] (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealandborn physicist andchemist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. He is considered the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867). • In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation.[3] This work was done at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances".[4]
  12. 12. • • Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester (today University of Manchester) in the UK, where he and Thomas Roydsproved that alpha radiation was helium ions.] Rutherford performed his most famous work after he became a Nobel laureate. In 1911, although he could not prove that it was positive or negative, he theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus, and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering in hisgold foil experiment. He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he also discovered (and named) the proton.[9] Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner, performed by students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. After his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of thee United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical lement rutherfordium(element 104) was named after him in 1997
  13. 13. Ruthorford Modal of an atom • • the prize. Along with Hans Geigerand Ernest Marsden in 1909, he carried out the Geiger– MarsdeRutherford remains the only science Nobel Prize winner to have performed his most famous work after receiving n experiment, which demonstrated the nuclear nature of atoms. Rutherford was inspired to ask Geiger and Marsden in this experiment to look for alpha particles with very high deflection angles, of a type not expected from any theory of matter at that time. Such deflections, though rare, were found, and proved to be a smooth but high-order function of the deflection angle. It was Rutherford's interpretation of this data that led him to formulate the Rutherford model of the atom in 1911 – that a very small charged [7] nucleus, containing much of the atom's mass, was orbited by low-mass electrons. Before leaving Manchester in 1919 to take over the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge, Rutherford became, in 1919, the first person to deliberately transmute one element into another.[4] In this experiment, he had discovered peculiar radiations when alphas were projected into air, and narrowed the effect down to the nitrogen, not the oxygen in the air. Using pure nitrogen, Rutherford used alpha radiation to convert nitrogen into oxygen through the nuclear reaction 14N + α →17O + proton. The proton was not then known. In the products of this reaction Rutherford simply identified hydrogen nuclei, by their similarity to the particle radiation from earlier experiments in which he had bombarded hydrogen gas with alpha particles to knock hydrogen nuclei out of hydrogen atoms. This result showed Rutherford that hydrogen nuclei were a part of nitrogen nuclei (and by inference, probably other nuclei as well).
  14. 14. • Such a construction had been suspected for many years on the basis of atomic weights which were whole numbers of that of hydrogen; see Prout's hypothesis. Hydrogen was known to be the lightest element, and its nuclei presumably the lightest nuclei. Now, because of all these considerations, Rutherford decided that a hydrogen nucleus was possibly a fundamental building block of all nuclei, and also possiblyIn 1921, while working with Niels Bohr (who postulated that electrons moved in specific orbits), Rutherford theorized about the existence of neutrons, (which he had christened in his 1920 Bakerian Lecture), which could somehow compensate for the repelling effect of the positive charges of protons by causing an attractive nuclear force and thus keep the nuclei from flying apart from the repulsion between protons. The only alternative to neutrons was the existence of "nuclear electrons" which would counteract some of the proton charges in the nucleus, since by then it was known that nuclei had about twice the mass that could be accounted for if they were simply assembled from hydrogen nuclei (protons). But how these nuclear electrons could be trapped in the nucleus, was a mystery.
  15. 15. • Rutherford's theory of neutrons was proved in 1932 by his associate James Chadwick, who recognized neutrons immediately when they were produced by other scientists and later himself, in bombarding beryllium with alpha particles. In 1935, Chadwick was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery. • a new fundamental particle as well, since nothing was known from the nucleus that was lighter. Thus, Rutherford postulated hydrogen nuclei to be a new particle in 1920, which he dubbed the proton.
  16. 16. Neils bohr • Niels Henrik David Bohr ( 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr was also a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research. • Bohr developed the Bohr model of the atom, in which he proposed that energy levels of electrons are discrete, and that they revolve in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus, but can jump from one energy level (or orbit) to another. Although the Bohr model has been supplanted by other models, its underlying principles remain valid. He conceived the principle of compiementarity: that items could be separately analysed in terms of contradictory properties, like behaving as a wave or a stream of particles. The notion of complementarity dominated his thinking on both science and philosophy.
  17. 17. • Bohr founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, which opened in 1920. Bohr mentored and collaborated with physicists including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy and Werner Heisenberg. He predicted the existence of a new zirconium-like element, which was named hafnium, after the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was discovered. Later, the element bohrium was named after him. • During the 1930s, Bohr helped refugees from Nazism. After Denmark was occupied by the Germans, he had a meeting with Heisenberg, who had become the head of the German nuclear energy project. In September 1943, word reached Bohr that he was about to be arrested by the Germans, and he fled to Sweden. From there, he was flown to Britain, where he joined the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons project, and was part of the British mission to the Manhattan Project. After the war, Bohr called for international cooperation on nuclear energy. He was involved with the establishment of CERN and the Research Establishment Risø of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission, and became the first chairman of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1957
  18. 18. Bohr modal of an atom • • The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom (Z = 1) or a hydrogen-like ion (Z > 1), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small, positively charged atomic nucleusand where an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . The orbits in which the electron may travel are shown as grey circles; their radius increases as n2, where n is the principal quantum number. The 3 → 2 transition depicted here produces the first line of the Balmer series, and for hydrogen (Z = 1) it results in a photon of wavelength 656 nm (red light). In atomic physics, the Bohr model, introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as small, positively charged nucleussurrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus— similar in structure to the solar system, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity. After the cubic model (1902), the plum-pudding model (1904), the Saturnian model(1904), and the Rutherford model (1911) came the Rutherford– Bohr model or just Bohr model for short (1913). The improvement to the Rutherford model is mostly a quantum physical interpretation of it. The Bohr model has been superseded, but the quantum theory remains sound.
  19. 19. • • The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula, it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants. The Bohr model is a relatively primitive model of the hydrogen atom, compared to the valence shell atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics, before moving on to the more accurate, but more complex, valence shell atom. A related model was originally proposed by Arthur Erich Haas in 1910, but was rejected. The quantum theory of the period between Planck's discovery of the quantum (1900) and the advent of a full-blown quantum mechanics (1925) is often referred to as the old quantum theory.
  20. 20. Bohr modal

×