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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOREMEDIATION

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The use of nanoparticles and nanotechnology to enhance the microbial activity to remove pollutants, they also enhance bioremediation.
NanoBioremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites, but it can also reduce clean up time.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOREMEDIATION

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOREMEDIATION Presented by : Himanshu Dixit 16EUCNT600 CENTRE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, RTU KOTA 10-11-2017
  2. 2. CONTENTS Remediation & Bioremediation Nanobioremediation Nanobioremediation Tools Iron nanoparticles & Zero-Valent Iron nanoparticles Applications of Nanobioremediation Sensing of Pollutants Prevention Conclusion 10-11-2017
  3. 3. REMEDIATION The field of study that focuses on investigating the clean up or removal of contaminants from the environment is called “environmental remediation”. Environmental remediation techniques use various methods to remove and/or break-down (degrade) environmental contaminants in polluted soil, surface water, ground water as well as in sediments. ex situ techniques: Removing the contaminated soil, sediment, or water from the polluted sites and then treating the pollution above ground. in situ techniques: Clean up the contamination while it is still in the ground without the need of off-site treatment. 10-11-2017
  4. 4.  Bioremediation is the use of biological systems for the reduction of pollution from air, aquatic or terrestrial systems.  The process involves aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms that results in degraded products.  Bioremediation is used to reduce or remove hazardous waste which has already polluted the environment. Pollution (Air water or soil) Microorganisms Degraded product Eco-friendly (detoxification) Hazardous BIOREMEDIATION Tri or tera- chloro-ethylene Complete Incomplete Vinyl-chloride10-11-2017
  5. 5. BIODEGRADABLE CONTAMINANTS Micro organisms Grow on toxic compounds Convert them to nontoxic products 10-11-2017
  6. 6. NANOBIOREMEDIATION Nano + Bio + Remediation The use of nanoparticles and nanotechnology to enhance the microbial activity to remove pollutants, they also enhance bioremediation. Nanobioremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites, but it can also reduce clean up time. Reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites Reduce Sites clean- up time Eliminate the need for treatment Disposal of contaminated soil Reduce some contaminant concentration near to zero 10-11-2017
  7. 7. Nanoremediation Iron Nanoparticles Nano sorbents Bimetallic Nanoparticles Bioremediation Immobilized Enzymes Micro organisms Nano Bioremediation Zero-Valent Nanoparticles Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles 10-11-2017
  8. 8. NANOREMEDIATION : IRON NANOPARTICLES 10-11-2017
  9. 9. POLLUTANTS REMEDIATED BY IRON NANOPARTICLES 10-11-2017
  10. 10. NANOREMEDIATION : IRON NANOPARTICLES ADVANTAGES Aggregation of these particles is responsible for reducing the surface area to volume ratio. Nanoscale iron is abundant and far less toxic than other heavy metals. The co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts. Easier separation Re-usability Cost-effectiveness. Magnetic Properties 10-11-2017
  11. 11. NANOREMEDIATION : IRON NANOPARTICLES DISADVANTAGES 11 Iron rusts when combines with oxygen to form iron oxide, But polymer coating or other entrapping materials protects the iron surface from rusting in the presence of water. Iron nanoparticles may migrate only a few inches to a few feet from the point of injection. The mobility of nanoparticles in the subsurface environment depends on the particle size, solution pH, ionic strength, soil composition, ground water flow velocity and so on.
  12. 12. IRON NANOPARTICLES APPLICATIONS 10-11-2017 Removal of surface pollution • Petrochemicals Removal of sub-surface pollution • Pesticides • Organic Solutes • Fertilizers • Heavy Metals
  13. 13. BIOREMEDIATION: SINGLE-ENZYME NANOPARTICLES 13 An effective way to increase the stability, longevity, and reusability of the enzymes is to attach them to magnetic iron NPs. If enzymes are attached to the magnetic iron NPs then we can easily separate the enzymes from reactants or products by applying a magnetic field. The first SENs were assembled by Kim and Grate (2005), using chymotrypsin as a model enzyme.
  14. 14. NANO BIOREMEDIATION : ZERO-VALENT IRON NANOPARTICLES NanoZVI can be injected into a site to degrade the contaminant: Creating a wall of Particles Cleans Water as it passes through it Using small mobile particles Travel through the pores in the soil 10-11-2017
  15. 15. NANO BIOREMEDIATION : ZERO-VALENT IRON NANOPARTICLES  NanoZVI may provide faster clean-up compared to conventional techniques due to increased contaminant degradation rates.  NanoZVI can be used on a wide range of environmental contaminants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, heavy metals, and various other chemical pollutants ) These nanoparticles may potentially able to reach hard-to-access areas for in situ use. It has often been cited to be potentially more cost-effectiveness compared to alternative techniques. 10-11-2017
  16. 16. 10-11-2017
  17. 17. NANO BIOREMEDIATION : NANOSTRUCTURE The Iron-Oxide and sulphides Nanoparticles have used in remediation to sorb or immobilize contaminants from groundwater and in wastes. Carbon nanotubes, for example, have been recognized for their ability to adsorb dioxin much more strongly than traditional activated carbon. ( Nano Air Remediation ) Carbon nanotube based sensors are used for sensing various gases like NH3,NO2 or O3. 10-11-2017 TiO2 NPs Metal NPs SWCNTs MWCNTs
  18. 18. Dendrimers are highly branched polymers with controlled composition and nanoscale dimensions. Chelating agents in the form of dendrimers are also studied for the removal of metal contaminants. These can be designed so to able to act as ´cages` and trap metal ions and zero‐valent metals, making them soluble in appropriate media or able to bind to certain surfaces. Utilizing TiO2 porous ceramic filters of which the pores were filled with an alkylated poly dendrimer , poly hyperbranched polymer , β-cyclodextrin thus resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic filter modules of high mechanical strength and high surface area. The vision is to use dendrimers as Nanoscale chelating agents for polymers supported ultrafiltration systems. 10-11-2017 NANOREMEDIATION USING DENDRIMERS
  19. 19. SENSING OF POLLUTANTS Nanotechnology has great potential for making a sensor for monitoring pollution. The ability of the nanoparticles to be coated with wide range of chemical and biological ligands helps in giving the specificity to the sensor. The surface to volume ratio of the nanoparticles can be easily controlled by varying the size and shape of the nanoparticles thus giving control over the interaction quality with the analyte molecule. Detection of organic pollutants Detection of inorganic pollutants Detection of biologic pollutants 10-11-2017
  20. 20. SENSING OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS:  Porous silicon exhibits the phenomena of photoluminescence and this luminescence is quenched in the presence of organic molecule.  By using this technology pesticide concentration as low as 1 ppm could be detected. SENSING OF INORGANIC POLLUTANTS: The detection of various heavy metals, like Pb, Hg, Cd, using nanoparticles is either fluorescence based or calorimetric based. Binding of heavy metal ions to these metal chelators results in aggregation of the nanoparticles yielding a shift in wavelength absorption and ultimately resulting in colour change from red to blue. 10-11-2017
  21. 21. SENSING OF BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS Biological contaminants include living organisms (generally bacteria) or their by-products that can be toxic to human health. The major bacterial pollutant belongs to enterobacteriaceae family. Coated gold nanoparticles with IgG proved successful for sensing S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. Quantum dots (QD) are also used as a fluorescent system for detection of microorganisms like Giardia. 10-11-2017
  22. 22. PREVENTION Pollution prevention is defined as the reduction of pollutants at the source Metal oxide Nano catalysts ( chiefly gold Nano catalyst ) show promising results for preventing or reducing the pollution at the source. Product innovation : Development of new products that have less impact on environment their predecessors for e.g. genetically improved plant varieties that resistant against insects/ diseases, thereby reducing the use of pesticides. ( GENETIC ENGINEERING : Involves the use of microorganisms genetically modified by recombinant DNA technology. GE is a powerful tool in creating environment friendly alternatives for products and processes. ) 10-11-2017
  23. 23. NANOBIO REMEDIATI ON Wide Physiological Diversity Small Size Genetic Manipulability Controlled Cultivability 10-11-2017
  24. 24. APPLICATIONS OF NANOBIOREMEDIATION 1. Waste water and Industrial effluents 2. Drinking and process water 3. Soil and land treatment 4. Solid waste 5. Sensing of pollutants 10-11-2017
  25. 25. CONCLUSION Advances in Nano scale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly uplifted using Nano sorbents , Nano catalysts , bioactive nanoparticles , nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. According to above all application of Nanobioremediation it can be definitely concluded that, Nanoparticles, Nano technological instrument play efficient role in the process of Nanobioremediation. By applying the Nanobioremediation to environment hazards, it can clean them Faster and Safer than other methods and technology. We can say that, NanoBioremediation Maintain all three criteria. 10-11-2017
  26. 26. REFERENCES 1) http://www.biotecharticles.com/Environmental-NanoBiotechnology-Article/Introduction-and-Applications-of- NanoBioremediation-1078.html 2) "Terra Nova's Environmental Remediation Resuources". Terranovabiosystems.com. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 3) Sarikaya M, Tamerler C, Jen AK, Schulten K, Baneyx F: Molecular Biomimetics: Nanotechnology through biology. Nat Mater 2007, 2:577-585 4) Daly MJ Engineering radiation-resistant bacteria for Environmental Nanobiotechnology.Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2007 Jun;11(3):280-5. 5) FU-MIN MENN,JAMES P. EASTER,GARY S. SAYLER,21 Genetically Engineered Microorganisms and Nanobioremediation, Knoxville, TN 37996-1605, USA. 10-11-2017
  27. 27. 6) R.L. Crawford. NanoBiodegradation of nitrated munitions compounds and herbicides by obligately anaerobic bacteria; NanoBiodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds. In J.C. Spain, vol.49. Plenum Press, New York, 1995: 87-98.86 7) Gill, I. S., and A. Ballesteros. 2000. BioEncapsulation within synthetic polymers (part 1): sol-gel encapsulation of biologicals. Trends Biotechnol. 18:282-296. 8) Lee, D., Lee, J., Kim, J., Kim, J., Na, H.B., Kim, B., 2005. Simple fabrication of a highly sensitive and fast glucose biosensor using enzymes immobilized in mesocellular carbon foam. Adv. Mater. 17, 2828–2833. 9) Zhang, Y., Zeng, G.M., Tang, L., Huang, D.L., Jiang, X.Y., Chen, Y.N., 2007. A hydroquinone biosensor using modified core-shell magnetic nanoparticles supported on carbon paste electrode. Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2121– 2126. 10-11-2017
  28. 28. Thank You! 10-11-2017

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